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Cyrillic letter Dze
Phonetic usage:[d͡z], [z]
Name (Early Cyrillic alphabet):ѕѣло
Numeric value:6
Derived from:Greek letter Stigma (Ϛ ϛ) [citation needed]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀Я
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈г̊ҔҒӺҒ̌
ғ̊ӶД́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆
ӖЕ̃Ё̄Є̈ԐԐ̈ҖӜ
ӁЖ̣ҘӞЗ̌З̣З̆Ӡ
И̃ӤҊҚӃҠҞҜ
К̣к̊қ̊ԚЛ́ӅԮ
ԒЛ̈ӍН́ӉҢԨ
ӇҤО̆О̃Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́
Ө̆ӪԤП̈ҎР̌С̌Ҫ
С̣С̱Т́Т̈Т̌Т̇Т̣Ҭ
У̃ӲУ̊Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́
Х̣Х̱Х̮Х̑Х̌ҲӼх̊
Ӿӿ̊ҺҺ̈ԦЦ̌Ц̈Ҵ
ҶҶ̣ӴӋҸЧ̇Ч̣
ҼҾШ̣Ы̆Ы̄Ӹ
ҌҨЭ̆Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄
Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈Ӏʼ
ˮ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧
Н̃ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀
П́ҦП̧П̑ҀԚ̆Р́
Р̀Р̃ԖС̀С̈ԌҪ̓
Т̓Т̀ԎТ̑Т̧
Ꚍ̆ОУУ̇
У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇
Х̧Х̾Х̓һ̱ѠѼ
ѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓Ꚏ̆
Ч́Ч̀Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓
ԬꚆ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀
Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆Ъ̄Ъ̈
Ъ̈̄Ы̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂
Я̈Я̂Я̨ԘѤѦѪ
ѨѬѮѰѲѴ
Ѷ

Dze (Ѕ ѕ; italics: Ѕ ѕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used in the Macedonian alphabet to represent the voiced alveolar affricate /d͡z/, similar to the pronunciation of ⟨ds⟩ in "needs" or "kids" in English. It is derived from the letter dzelo or zelo of the Early Cyrillic alphabet, and it was used historically in all Slavic languages that use Cyrillic.

Although fully obsolete everywhere in the Cyrillic world by the 19th century, the letter zelo was revived in 1944 by the designers of the alphabet of the then-codified Macedonian language. The phoneme is also present in Greek (ΤΖ τζ) and Albanian (X x), both non-Slavic neighbours to the Macedonian language; all are a part of the Balkan linguistic area.[1] In the early 21st century, the same letter also appeared in Vojislav Nikčević's proposal for the new alphabet for the modern Montenegrin language.

The most common early letterform (Ѕ ѕ) resembles the Latin letter S (S s), but it is also seen reversed (Ꙅ ꙅ) like the Latin letter Reversed S (Ƨ ƨ), or Z with a tail and a tick (Ꙃ ꙃ).

Abkhaz has Abkhazian Dze (Ӡ ӡ), with an identical function and name but a different shape.

Church Slavonic

The seven root words commencing with the letter dze (aka, dzelo).

The letter is descended from ѕѣло (pronounced dzělo; Dzělo) in the Early Cyrillic alphabet, where it had the numerical value 6. The letter Dzělo was itself based on the letter Dzelo in the Glagolitic alphabet. In the Glagolitic alphabet, it was written ⟨Ⰷ⟩, and had the numerical value of 8. In Old Church Slavonic it was called ѕѣло (pronounced dzeló), and in Church Slavonic it is called ѕѣлѡ (pronounced zeló).

The origin of Glagolitic letter Dzelo is unclear, but the Cyrillic Ѕ may have been influenced by the Greek stigma ⟨Ϛ⟩, the medieval form of the archaic letter digamma, which had the same form and numerical value (6). Thus the visual similarity of the Cyrillic ⟨Ѕ⟩ and Latin S is largely coincidental.

The initial sound of ⟨Ѕ⟩ in Old Church Slavonic was a soft /d͡z/ or /z/, which usually came from a historically palatalised *g (ноѕѣ, ѕвѣзда, etc.). In almost all Slavic dialects this sound was pronounced as a simple /z/; however, as the Old Church Slavonic language was based on the Bulgaro-Macedonian dialects, the sound remained distinct.

In the Old Slavic period the difference between ⟨Ѕ⟩ and З had already begun to be blurred, and in the written Church Slavonic language from the middle of the 17th century ⟨Ѕ⟩ was used only formally. The letter's distinguishing features from З are:[2]

East Slavic Languages

See also Reforms of Russian orthography.

In Russian it was known as зѣло or zelo [zʲɪˈɫo] and had the phonetic value of /z/ or /zʲ/. In the initial version of Russian civil script of Tsar Peter I (1708), the ⟨Ѕ⟩ was assigned the sound /z/, and the letter З was removed. However, in the second version of the civil script (1710), З was restored, and ⟨Ѕ⟩ was abolished. Both versions of the alphabet were used until 1735, which is considered the date of the final elimination of ⟨Ѕ⟩ in Russian.

In Ukrainian, the sound /d͡z/ is integrated as part of the language's phonology, but it mainly occurs in loanwords rather than in words of native Ukrainian origin. As such, the digraph ⟨дз⟩ is used to represent both the phoneme /d͡z/ and the separately occurring consonant cluster /d.z/ which Ukrainian phonotactics assimilate as /d͡z.z/.

Belarusian commonly features ⟨дз⟩, but it usually comes from *d from a similar development to Polish. As such, ⟨ѕ⟩ had never been used for it.

South Slavic Languages

Reflexes of Old Church Slavonic ѕ across Eastern South Slavic.

⟨ѕ⟩ is now only used in the Macedonian alphabet. A commission formed to standardise the Macedonian language and orthography decided to adopt the letter on December 4, 1944, after a vote of 10-1. Despite the letter originally being found between ⟨ж⟩ and ⟨з⟩, in the new alphabet it was placed after ⟨з⟩ instead. The letter represents /dz/ (examples including: ѕид/dzid, 'wall' and ѕвезда/dzvezda, 'star'). The corresponding sound is used in all dialects of Macedonian.

⟨ѕ⟩ was also used to the middle of the 19th century in the Serbian civil script, whose orthography was closer to Church Slavonic (compared to Russian). Vuk Karadžić's Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (1868) did not include ⟨ѕ⟩, instead favouring a simple digraph ⟨дз⟩ to represent the sound, as it was non-native. ⟨Ѕ⟩ is also included in Microsoft's Serbian Cyrillic keyboard layout, although it is not used in the Serbian Cyrillic Alphabet. The Serbian keyboard in Ubuntu replaces Ѕ with a second Ж.

Modern Bulgarian, apart from when explicitly written with the Church Slavonic alphabet, has never used ⟨ѕ⟩. Although most dialects feature it, it is found in neither the Tărnovo dialect, the prestige dialect of the time of codification, nor in the Church Slavonic language (despite being written independently there). A few eastern dialects, including the Tărnovo dialect, have, however, independently developed both /dz/ and /dʒ/ phonemes not found in the standard language due to affrication. Marin Drinov, one of the most important players in the establishment of Standard Bulgarian, floated the idea of using ⟨ѕ⟩ as it was found in most dialects, however chose not to as he considered the letter all but forgotten.[3]

The Banat Bulgarian dialect, being based on the Paulician dialect, retains ⟨ѕ⟩. However, as it is written with the Latin script, the sound is instead notated as ⟨dz⟩.

Romanian

⟨ѕ⟩ was used in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet (where it represented /d͡z/) until the alphabet was abolished in favour of a Latin-based alphabet in 1860-62.

Related letters and other similar characters

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Ѕ ѕ
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DZE CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DZE CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER REVERSED DZE CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER REVERSED DZE CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DZELO CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DZELO
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 1029 U+0405 1109 U+0455 42564 U+A644 42565 U+A645 42562 U+A642 42563 U+A643
UTF-8 208 133 D0 85 209 149 D1 95 234 153 132 EA 99 84 234 153 133 EA 99 85 234 153 130 EA 99 82 234 153 131 EA 99 83
Numeric character reference Ѕ Ѕ ѕ ѕ Ꙅ Ꙅ ꙅ ꙅ Ꙃ Ꙃ ꙃ ꙃ
Named character reference Ѕ ѕ
Code page 855 137 89 136 88
Windows-1251 189 BD 190 BE
ISO-8859-5 165 A5 245 F5
Macintosh Cyrillic 193 C1 207 CF

See also

References

  1. ^ Dontchev Daskalov, Roumen; Marinov, Tchavdar (2013), Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies, Balkan Studies Library, BRILL, p. 454, ISBN 978-9004250765
  2. ^ Gamanovich, Alypy (1964), Грамматика Церковно-Славянскаго Языка (Grammar of the Church Slavonic Language), Jordanville, New York: Printing shop of St. Job of Pochaev, Holy Trinity Monastery (published 1984), ISBN 978-0-88465-064-5
  3. ^ Drinov, Marin (1870). "За новобългарското азбуке". Периодично списание (2): 21–23 – via NALIS Repository.