Cyrillic Palochka
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АБВГҐДЂ
ЃЕЀЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИЍЙІЇ
ЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОŌПРСС́Т
ЋЌУӮЎФХ
ЦЧЏШЩЪЫ
ЬЭЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
А́А̀ӐА̄А̊А̃Ӓ
Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃ӚВ̌
ҒГ̑Г̣Г̌ҔӺҒ̌
ӶД̣Д̆ӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄
Є̈ӁҖӜҘӞЗ̌
З̱З̣ԐԐ̈ӠӢИ̃
ҊӤИ́ҚӃҠҞ
ҜК̣ԚӅԮԒӍ
ӉҢԨӇҤО́О̀
О̆О̂О̃ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄
Ө́Ө̆ӪҨԤР̌Ҏ
ҪС̣С̱Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃
ӰӰ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣
Х̱Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺ
Һ̈ԦҴҶӴӋҸ
ҼҾЫ̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆
Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈
Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄

The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (Russian: палочка, tr. palochka, IPA: [ˈpaɫətɕkə], literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script. The letter usually has only a capital form, which is also used in lowercase text. The capital form of the palochka often looks like the capital form of the Cyrillic letter soft-dotted I (І і), the capital form of the Latin letter I (I i), and the lowercase form of the Latin letter L (L l). The letter was introduced in the late 1930s.

History

In the early times of the Soviet Union, many of the non-Russian Cyrillic alphabets contained only letters found in the Russian alphabet to keep them compatible with Russian typewriters. Sounds absent from Russian were marked with digraphs and other letter combinations. The palochka was the only exception because the numerical digit 1 was used instead of the letter. In fact, on many Russian typewriters, the character looked not like the digit 1 but like the Roman numeral I with serifs. That is still common because the palochka is not present in most standard keyboard layouts (and, for some of them, not even the soft-dotted I) or common fonts and so it cannot be easily entered or reliably displayed on many computer systems. For example, as of 3 March 2022, even the official site of the People's Assembly of the Republic of Ingushetia uses the digit 1 instead of the palochka.[1]

Usage

In the alphabets of Abaza, Adyghe, Avar, Dargwa, Ingush, Lak, Lezgian, and Tabassaran, it is a modifier letter which signals the preceding consonant as an ejective or aspirated consonant;[2] this letter has no phonetic value on its own. An exception is the Abkhaz language, which does not use the palochka for rendering aspiration, but instead uses the schwa (ә) as a modifier letter for labialization.

In Adyghe, the palochka is also a glottal stop /ʔ/.

In Avar

In Chechen, the palochka makes a preceding voiceless stop or affricate ejective, but also represents the voiced pharyngeal fricative /ʕ/ when it does not follow a voiceless stop or affricate. As an exception, in the digraph ⟨хӏ⟩, it produces the voiceless pharyngeal fricative /ħ/.

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Ӏ ӏ
Unicode name CYRILLIC LETTER PALOCHKA CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PALOCHKA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1216 U+04C0 1231 U+04CF
UTF-8 211 128 D3 80 211 143 D3 8F
Numeric character reference Ӏ Ӏ ӏ ӏ
The lowercase form of palochka was added to Unicode 5.0 in July 2006.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Г1алг1ай Республика законаш". Народное Собрание Республики Ингушетия (in Ingush). Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  2. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. 2010. p. 42. Retrieved 2011-05-20.