Cyrillic Palochka
Phonetic usage:[ʔ], [ʕ]
Derived from:Arabic letter Alif (ا)
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА́А̀А̂А̄ӒБВ
ГҐДЂЃЕЕ́Ѐ
Е̄Е̂ЁЄЄ́ЖЗЗ́
ЅИІІ́ЇЇ́И́
ЍИ̂ӢЙЈКЛЉ
МНЊОО́О̀О̂Ō
ӦПРСС́ТЋЌ
УУ́У̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЫ́ЬѢЭЭ́Ю
Ю́Ю̀ЯЯ́Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ̈ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈ӍН́
ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃Ӧ̄
ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤҦП̈
Р̌ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́Т̈
Т̌Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃ӲУ̊
Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮Х̑
Х̌ҲӼӾҺԦЦ̌Ц̈
ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋҸЧ̇
Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣Ы̆Ы̄
ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄Э̇Ӭ
Ӭ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆Я̄
Я̈Я̈́Ӏ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆԪ
І̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆К̑
К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂Л̀
ԠԈЛ̑Л̇ԔМ̀М̃
Н̀Н̄Н̧Н̃ԊԢН̡
Ѻ
П̓П̀П́П̧П̑ҀԚ̆
Р́Р̀Р̃ԖС̀С̈Ԍ
Ҫ̓Т̓Т̀ԎТ̑Т̧
Ꚍ̆ѸУ̇
У̨Ф̑Ф̓Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇Х̧
Х̓ѠѼѾЦ̀
Ц́Ц̓Ꚏ̆
Ч́Ч̀Ч̑Ч̓Ԭ
Ꚇ̆Ҽ̆Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆
Ы̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂Я̂Я̨Ԙ
ѤѦѪѨѬ
ѮѰѲѴѶ

The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (Russian: палочка, tr. palochka, IPA: [ˈpaɫətɕkə], literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script. The letter usually has only a capital form, which is also used in lowercase text. The capital form of the palochka often looks like the capital form of the Cyrillic letter soft-dotted I (І і), the capital form of the Latin letter I (I i), and the lowercase form of the Latin letter L (L l). The letter was introduced in the late 1930s.

History

The Cyrillic Palochka was derived directly from the Arabic Letter Alif. In the early days of the Soviet Union, many of the non-Russian Cyrillic alphabets contained only letters found in the Russian alphabet to keep them compatible with Russian typewriters. Sounds absent from Russian were marked with digraphs and other letter combinations. The palochka was the only exception because the numerical digit 1 was used instead of the letter. In fact, on many Russian typewriters, the character looked not like the digit 1 but like the Roman numeral I with serifs. That is still common because the palochka is not present in most standard keyboard layouts (and, for some of them, not even the soft-dotted I) or common fonts and so it cannot be easily entered or reliably displayed on many computer systems. For example, as of 14 August 2023, even the official site of the People's Assembly of the Republic of Ingushetia uses the digit 1 instead of the palochka.[1]

Usage

In the alphabets of Abaza, Avar, Chechen, Dargwa, Ingush, Lak, Lezgian, Tabassaran, and Tsakhur, it is a modifier letter which signals the preceding consonant as an ejective or pharyngeal consonant;[2] this letter has no phonetic value on its own.

In Adyghe, the palochka by itself represents a glottal stop /ʔ/.

In Avar

In Chechen, the palochka makes a preceding stop or affricate ejective if voiceless, or pharyngealized if voiced, but also represents the voiced pharyngeal fricative /ʕ/ when it does not follow a stop or affricate. As an exception, in the digraph ⟨хӏ⟩, it produces the voiceless pharyngeal fricative /ħ/. Ingush is similar.

Exceptionally among the Caucasian languages, Abkhaz does not use the palochka, but instead uses a series of special letters to distinguish ejective and non-ejective (aspirated) consonants.

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Ӏ ӏ
Unicode name CYRILLIC LETTER PALOCHKA CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PALOCHKA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1216 U+04C0 1231 U+04CF
UTF-8 211 128 D3 80 211 143 D3 8F
Numeric character reference Ӏ Ӏ ӏ ӏ
The lowercase form of the palochka was added to Unicode 5.0 in July 2006.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Г1алг1ай Республика законаш". Народное Собрание Республики Ингушетия (in Ingush). Retrieved 2023-06-12.
  2. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. 2010. p. 42. Retrieved 2011-05-20.