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Cyrillic letter Fita
Cyrillic letter Fita.svg
Phonetic usage:[f], [t], [θ]
Numeric value:9
Derived from:Greek letter Theta (Θ θ)
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА́А̀БВГҐ
ДЂЃЕЀЁЄ
ЖЗЗ́ЅИІЇ
И́ЍЙЈКЛЉ
МНЊОŌПР
СС́ТЋЌУӮ
ЎФХЦЧЏШ
ЩЪЫЬЭЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̄А̊А̃ӒӒ̄Ӕ
ӘӘ́Ә̃ӚВ̌ҒГ̑
Г̣Г̌ҔӺҒ̌ӶД̣
Д̆ԀӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄Є̈
ӁҖӜҘӞЗ̌З̱
З̣ԐԐ̈ӠӢИ̃Ҋ
ӤҚӃҠҞҜК̣
ԚӅԮԒӍӉҢ
ԨӇҤО́О̀О̆О̂
О̃ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆
ӪҨԤР̌ҎҪС̣
С̱Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃ӰӰ́
ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣Х̱Х̮
Х̑ҲӼӾҺҺ̈Ԧ
ҴҶӴӋҸҼҾ
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄Э̇
ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄
Я̆Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄

Fita (Ѳ ѳ; italics: Ѳ ѳ) is a letter of the Early Cyrillic alphabet. The shape and the name of the letter are derived from the Greek letter theta (Θ θ). In the ISO 9 system, Ѳ is romanized using F grave accent (F̀ f̀).[1]

In the Cyrillic numeral system, Fita has a value of 9.

Shape

In traditional (Church Slavonic) typefaces, the central line is typically about twice the width of the letter's body and has serifs similar to those on the letter Т:

Early-Cyrillic-letter-Fita.svg
. Sometimes the line is drawn as low as the baseline, which makes the letter difficult to distinguish from Д.

Usage

Old Russian and Church Slavonic

The traditional Russian name of the letter is фита́ fitá (or, in pre-1918 spelling, ѳита́). Fita was mainly used to write proper names and loanwords derived from or via Greek. Russians pronounced these names with the sound /f/ instead of /θ/ (like the pronunciation of ⟨th⟩ in "thin"), for example "Theodore" was pronounced as "Feodor" (now "Fyodor").

Early texts in Russian (and in the Russian recension of Church Slavonic) demonstrate an increasing interchangeability of Ѳ and Ф. Some scribes preferred one of the two letters and ignored the other. There existed an orthographical system to write Ѳ in an initial position and Ф elsewhere. Since the middle of the 17th century, selection between Ѳ and Ф was re-adjusted to exactly follow the Greek origin, the system still in use in Church Slavonic orthography.

Russian

In the first variant of the Petrine Russian alphabet (1707–1708), the letter Ф was eliminated and Fita became the only way to represent /f/. Later (1710) the letter Ф (with the same etymological rule of spelling Ѳ and Ф) was restored and both letters co-existed until the 1918 spelling reform, when Fita was eliminated and replaced by the letter Ef (Ф ф).

Note that many Greek words with Theta were adopted in Russian with Te (Т т) instead of Fita (mostly through Latin or other Western European languages): театръ (theatre), теорема (theorem), атлетъ (athlete), пантера (panther), фталевый (phthalic), etc. Sometimes dual spelling/pronunciation existed: аѳеизмъ/атеизмъ (atheism), алгориѳмъ/алгоритмъ (algorithm), каѳолическій/католическій (Catholic), etc.; the variants with Fita (in modern spelling with Ф) are typically more archaic or special.

Other languages

In other languages which use the Cyrillic alphabet, Fita was pronounced /t/ and was replaced with Te (Т т). For example, the Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian version of Theodore is Тодор Todor or Теодор Teodor.[citation needed]

Romanian

Called thita, ⟨Ѳ⟩ is part of the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, which was used until about 1860.

Aleut

Fita is used in the Cyrillic version of the Aleut alphabet, typically in loanwords.

Related letters and other similar characters

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Ѳ ѳ
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER FITA CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER FITA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1138 U+0472 1139 U+0473
UTF-8 209 178 D1 B2 209 179 D1 B3
Numeric character reference Ѳ Ѳ ѳ ѳ

See also

References

  1. ^ "ISO 9:1995: Information and documentation — Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters — Slavic and non-Slavic languages". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 15 June 2019.