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Idu script
A page from the 19th-century yuseopilji.
Korean name
Hangul
이두
Hanja
Revised RomanizationIdu
McCune–ReischauerIdu
Chinese characters Written ChineseKanjiHanjaChữ Hán Scripts and style Precursors Oracle-bone Bronze Seal (Bird-wormLargeSmall) Clerical libian Cursive Semi-cursive Regular Flat brush Typefaces Imitation Song Ming Sans-serif Properties and classification ComponentsStrokes (order)Radicals Collation and standards Character-form standards Jiu zixingXin zixing Kangxi Dictionary forms (1716) General Standard Chinese Characters (mainland China, 2013) Graphemes of Commonly-used Chinese characters (Hong Kong, 2007) Standard Form of National Characters (Taiwan, 1982) Grapheme-usage standards General Standard Characters (PRC, 2013) Jōyō kanji (Japan, 2010) Other standards Standardized Forms of Words with Variant Forms (PRC, 2002) Nan Min Recommended Characters (Taiwan, 2009) Previous standards Commonly-used Characters (PRC, 1988) Tōyō kanji (Japan, 1946) Reforms China Clerical reforms Traditional characters Simplified characters (first roundsecond round) Debate Japan Kyūjitai Shinjitai Ryakuji Korea Yakja Singapore Table of Simplified Characters Homographs and readings Literary and colloquial readings Variants Graphemic variants Zetian characters Derived systems Slavonic transcription Nüshu Kana (HiraganaKatakana) Man'yōgana Jurchen script Khitan large scriptKhitan small script Idu script Bopomofo Sawndip Chữ Nôm Chinese family of scripts (Transliteration of Chinese)vte

Idu (Korean이두; Hanja吏讀 "official's reading") is an archaic writing system that represents the Korean language using Chinese characters ("hanja"). The script, which was developed by Buddhist monks, made it possible to record Korean words through their equivalent meaning or sound in Chinese.[1]

The term idu may refer to various systems of representing Korean phonology through hanja, which were used from the early Three Kingdoms to Joseon periods. In this sense, it includes hyangchal,[2] the local writing system used to write vernacular poetry[2] and gugyeol writing. Its narrow sense only refers to idu proper[3] or the system developed in the Goryeo (918–1392), and first referred to by name in the Jewang ungi.

Background

The idu script was developed to record Korean expressions using Chinese graphs borrowed in their Chinese meaning but it was read as the corresponding Korean sounds or by means of Chinese graphs borrowed in their Chinese sounds.[4] This is also known as Hanja and was used along with special symbols to indicate indigenous Korean morphemes,[5] verb endings and other grammatical markers that were different in Korean from Chinese. This made both the meaning and pronunciation difficult to parse, and was one reason the system was gradually abandoned, to be replaced with hangul, after its invention in the 15th century. In this respect, it faced problems analogous to those that confronted early efforts to represent the Japanese language with kanji, due to grammatical differences between these languages and Chinese. In Japan, the early use of Chinese characters for Japanese grammar was in man'yōgana, which was replaced by kana, the Japanese syllabic script.

Characters were selected for idu based on their Korean sound, their adapted Korean sound, or their meaning, and some were given a completely new sound and meaning. At the same time, 150 new Korean characters were invented, mainly for names of people and places. Idu system was used mainly by members of the Jungin class.

One of the primary purposes of the script was the clarification of Chinese government documents that were written in Chinese so that they can be understood by the Korean readers.[6] Idu was also used to teach Koreans the Chinese language.[6] The Ming legal code was translated in its entirety into Korean using idu in 1395.[7] The same script was also used to translate the Essentials of agriculture and sericulture (Nongsan jiyao) after it was ordered by the King Taejong in 1414.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lowe, Roy & Yasuhara, Yoshihito (2016). The Origins of Higher Learning: Knowledge Networks and the Early Development of Universities. Oxon: Taylor & Francis. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-138-84482-7.
  2. ^ a b Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mark; Walther-Hansen, Mads & Knakkergaard, Martin (2019). The Oxford Handbook of Sound and Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 426. ISBN 978-0-19-046016-7.
  3. ^ Li, Yu (2019-11-04). The Chinese Writing System in Asia: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-00-069906-7.
  4. ^ Sohn, Ho-Min & Lee, Peter H. (2003). "Language, forms, prosody and themes". In Lee, Peter H. (ed.). A History of Korean Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780521828581.
  5. ^ Hannas, William C. (2013-03-26). The Writing on the Wall: How Asian Orthography Curbs Creativity. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0216-8.
  6. ^ a b Allan, Keith (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 222. ISBN 9780199585847.
  7. ^ a b Kornicki, Peter Francis (2018). Languages, scripts, and Chinese texts in East Asia. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 9780198797821.