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Stroke order for character 筆 shown by shade going from black to red
Stroke order for character shown by shade going from black to red
Stroke order for each component (川 and 頁) of the character 順 shown by shade going from black to red
Stroke order for each component ( and ) of the character shown by shade going from black to red
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Stroke order
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese筆順
Simplified Chinese笔顺
Korean name
Hangul필순
Hanja筆順
Alternative Korean name
Hangul획순
Hanja劃順
Japanese name
Kanji筆順
Alternative Japanese name
Kanji書き順

Stroke order is the order in which the strokes of a Chinese character (or Chinese derivative character) are written. A stroke is a movement of a writing instrument on a writing surface. Chinese characters are used in various forms in Chinese, Japanese, Korean and formerly Vietnamese. They are known as Hanzi in (Mandarin) Chinese (Traditional form: 漢字; Simplified form: 汉字), kanji in Japanese (かんじ), Hanja in Korean (한자) and Chữ Hán in Vietnamese. Stroke order is also attested in other logographic scripts, e.g. cuneiform.[1]

Basic principles

Chinese characters are basically logograms constructed with strokes. Over the millennia a set of generally agreed rules have been developed by custom. Minor variations exist between countries, but the basic principles remain the same, namely that writing characters should be economical, with the fewest hand movements to write the most strokes possible. This promotes writing speed, accuracy, and readability. This idea is particularly important since as learners progress, characters often get more complex. Since stroke order also aids learning and memorization, students are often taught about it from a very early age in schools and encouraged to follow them.

The Eight Principles of Yong (永字八法 Pinyin: yǒngzì bā fǎ; Japanese: eiji happō; Korean: 영자팔법, yeongjapalbeop, yŏngjap'albŏp) uses the single character , meaning "eternity", to teach eight of the most basic strokes in Regular Script.

Stroke order per style

Ancient China

In ancient China, the Jiǎgǔwén characters carved on ox scapula and tortoise plastrons showed no indication of stroke order. The characters show huge variations from piece to piece, sometimes even within one piece. During the divination ceremony, after the cracks were made, the characters were written with a brush on the shell or bone (to be carved in a workshop later). Although the brush-written stroke order is not discernible after carving, there exists some evidence that it was not entirely idiosyncratic: a few of the characters, often marginal administrative notations recording the provenance of the shells or bones, were not later recarved, and the stroke order of these characters tends to resemble traditional and modern stroke order.[2] For those characters (the vast majority) which were later engraved into the hard surface using a knife, perhaps by a separate individual, there is evidence (from incompletely engraved pieces) that in at least some cases all the strokes running one way were carved, then the piece was turned, and strokes running another way were then carved.[2]

Imperial China

In early Imperial China, the common script was the Xiaozhuan style. About 220 BC, the emperor Qin Shi Huang, the first to conquer all of China, imposed Li Si's character uniformisation, a set of 3300 standardized Xiǎozhuàn characters.[3] Its graphs on old steles—some dating from 200 BC—reveal indications of the stroke order of the time. However, stroke order could still not yet be ascertained from the steles, and no paper from that time is extant.

The true starting point of stroke order is the Lìshū style (clerical script) which is more regularized, and in some ways similar to modern text. In theory, by looking at the Lìshū style steles' graphs and the placement of each stroke, one can see hierarchical priority between the strokes, which indicates the stroke order used by the calligrapher or stele sculptors.[citation needed]

Kǎishū style (regular script)—still in use today—is more regularized, allowing one to more easily guess the stroke order used to write on the steles. The stroke order 1000 years ago was similar to that toward the end of Imperial China.[citation needed] For example, the stroke order of 广 is clear in the Kangxi dictionary of 1716; but in a modern book, the official stroke order (the same) will not appear clearly. The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while current stroke order is still the same, according to the old style.[4] However, the stroke orders implied by the Kangxi dictionary are not necessarily similar to nowadays' norm.

Cursive styles and hand-written styles

Cursive styles such as Xíngshū (semi-cursive or running script) and Cǎoshū (cursive or grass script) show stroke order more clearly than Regular Script, as each move made by the writing tool is visible.

Stroke order per polity

The modern governments of mainland China, Hong Kong,[5] Taiwan,[6] and Japan[7] have standardized official stroke orders to be taught in schools. These stroke order standards are prescribed in conjunction to each government's standard character sets. The various official stroke orders agree on the vast majority of characters, but each have their differences. No governmental standard matches traditional stroke orders completely. The differences between the governmental standards and traditional stroke orders arise from accommodation for schoolchildren who may be overwhelmed if the rules about stroke orders are too detailed, or if there are too many exceptions.[citation needed] The differences listed below are not exhaustive.

Different stroke orders of the character .

Traditional

ROC & Hong Kong

Japan

PRC

Alternative stroke orders

Besides general errors and regional differences in stroke order, it is common in the PRC to apply alternative stroke orders which resemble PRC stroke orders to Traditional Chinese characters, although the PRC generally uses Simplified characters.[citation needed] In the below example, the traditional character (simplified: ) is shown with both the traditional stroke order (left, starting with the left vertical stroke), as in imperial China, Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong, and with the Simplified stroke order (right, with the left vertical stroke fourth).

General guidelines

Note: There are exceptions within and among different standards. The following are only guidelines.

1. Write from top to bottom, and left to right.

As a general rule, strokes are written from top to bottom and left to right. For example, among the first characters usually learned is the number one, which is written with a single horizontal line: . This character has one stroke which is written from left to right.

The character for "two" has two strokes: . In this case, both are written from left to right, but the top stroke is written first. The character for "three" has three strokes: . Each stroke is written from left to right, starting with the uppermost stroke.

The Chinese character meaning "person" (, Mandarin Chinese: rén, Cantonese Chinese: yàhn, Korean: in, Japanese: hito, nin; jin).  The character has two strokes, the first shown here in dark, and the second in red.  The black area represents the starting position of the writing instrument.
The Chinese character meaning "person" (人 animation, Mandarin Chinese: rén, Cantonese Chinese: yàhn, Korean: in, Japanese: hito, nin; jin). The character has two strokes, the first shown here in dark, and the second in red. The black area represents the starting position of the writing instrument.

This rule also applies to the order of components. For example, can be divided into two. The entire left side () is written before the right side (). There are some exceptions to this rule, mainly occurring when the right side of a character has a lower enclosure (see below).

When there are upper and lower components, the upper components are written first, then the lower components, as in and .

2. Horizontal before vertical

When horizontal and vertical strokes cross, horizontal strokes are usually written before vertical strokes: the character for "ten", , has two strokes. The horizontal stroke, , is written first, followed by the vertical stroke, to obtain .

In the Japanese standard, a vertical stroke may precede many intersecting horizontal strokes if the vertical stroke does not pass through the lowest horizontal stroke.

3. Character-spanning strokes last

Vertical strokes that pass through many other strokes are written after the strokes through which they pass, as in and .

Horizontal strokes that pass through many other strokes are written last, as in and .

4. Diagonals right-to-left before diagonals left-to-right

Right-to-left diagonals (丿) are written before left-to-right diagonals (), as in .

Note that this is for symmetric diagonals; for asymmetric diagonals, as in , the left-to-right may precede the right-to-left, based on other rules.

5. Center before outside in vertically symmetrical characters

In vertically symmetrical characters, the center components are written before components on the left or right. Components on the left are written before components on the right, as in and .

6. Enclosures before contents

Outside enclosing components are written before inside components; bottom strokes in the enclosure are written last if present, as in and . (A common mnemonic is "Put people inside first, then close the door.") Enclosures may also have no bottom stroke, as in and .

7. Left vertical before enclosing

Left vertical strokes are written before enclosing strokes. In the following two examples, the leftmost vertical stroke (|) is written first, followed by the uppermost and rightmost lines (┐) (which are written as one stroke): and .

8. Bottom enclosures last

Bottom enclosing components are usually written last: , , .

9. Dots and minor strokes last

Minor strokes are usually written last, as the small "dot" in the following: , , .

Representations

There are various ways to describe the stroke order of a character. Children learn the stroke order in courses, as part of writing learning. Various graphical representations are possible, most notably successive images of the character with one more stroke added (or changing color) each time, numbering strokes, color-coding, fanning,[9] and more recently animations. Stroke order is often described in person by writing characters on paper or in the air.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Bramanti, Armando (2015). "Rethinking the Writing Space: Anatomy of Some Early Dynastic Signs". Current Research in Cuneiform Palaeography. Proceedings of the Workshop Organised at the 60th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Warsaw 2014, Pp. 31-47.
  2. ^ a b Keightley 1978
  3. ^ Fazzioli 1987, p. 13"And so the first Chinese dictionary was born, the Sān Chāng, containing 3,300 characters"
  4. ^ Kangxi 1716, p. 41 See by example the radicals , or 广. The 2007 common shape for those characters don't allow clearly to "guess" the stroke order, but old versions, visible on the Kangxi Zidian p.41 clearly allow us to guess the stroke order.
  5. ^ "香港小學學習字詞表". www.edbchinese.hk. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  6. ^ "常用國字標準字體筆順學習網". stroke-order.learningweb.moe.edu.tw. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  7. ^ kakijun. "漢字の正しい書き順(筆順)". 漢字の正しい書き順(筆順). Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  8. ^ Wenlin Institute: How Standard is the Standard Stroke Order?
  9. ^ "Stroke Fanning". Lri.fr. Retrieved January 16, 2017.

References

Traditional stroke order
ROC stroke order
PRC stroke order
Japanese
Hong Kong
Archaic characters
Other issues
PRC
ROC
Hong Kong
Japanese
Korean