.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese. (February 2016) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Chinese article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 309 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Chinese Wikipedia article at [[:zh:饒平客家語]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|zh|饒平客家語)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Native toSouthern China, Taiwan
RegionRaoping County (Guangdong), Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Taichung (Taiwan)
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Raoping Hakka (traditional Chinese: 饒平客家話; simplified Chinese: 饶平客家话; Taiwanese Hakka Romanization System: ngiau pin kagˋ gaˇ faˋ), also known as Shangrao Hakka (traditional Chinese: 上饒客家話; simplified Chinese: 上饶客家话),[1] is a dialect of Hakka Chinese spoken in Raoping, Guangdong, as well as Taiwan.


In Raoping County, Hakka is spoken in the north, including the towns of Shangshan, Shangrao, Raoyang, Jiucun, Jianrao, and Xinfeng, as well as some villages in Hanjiang Forest Farm. As of 2005, there are 190,000 Hakka speakers in Raoping County (19% of the county's population).[1]

The distribution of Raoping Hakka in Taiwan is scattered. It is mainly spoken in Taoyuan City (Zhongli, Pingzhen, Xinwu, Guanyin, Bade), Hsinchu County (Zhubei, Qionglin), Miaoli County (Zhuolan), and Taichung City (Dongshi).[2][3] In 2013, only 1.6% of Hakka people in Taiwan were reported to be able to communicate in the Raoping dialect.[3]

Contact with surrounding varieties

Raoping Hakka has some phonological and lexical features that appear to come from contact with Teochew. Some nasalized vowels come from Teochew, such as 'nose' /pʰĩ˧˥/ (Teochew /pʰĩ˩/), 'to like' /hãũ˥˧/ (Teochew /hãũ˨˩˧/).[4] Some characters that were pronounced with a initial (/kʰ/) in Middle Chinese but with /f/ or /h/ in the Meixian dialect are pronounced with /kʰ/, just like in Teochew, such as 'bitter' /kʰu˥˧/ (Meixian /fu˧˩/, Teochew /kʰɔ˥˧/), 'to go' /kʰiəu˥˧/ (Meixian /hi˥˧/, Teochew /kʰɯ˨˩˧/).[5] There is also many shared lexical items with Teochew:[5]

English Chinese characters Teochew Raoping Hakka (Raoping County)
cigarette /huŋ˧/ /fun˩/
peanut 地豆 /ti˩ tau˩/ /tʰi˧˥ tʰeu˧˥/
congee /mue˥/ /moi˥/
comfortable 心適 /sim˧ sek˨˩/ /sim˩ set˨˩/
just; exactly 堵堵 /tu˥˧ tu˥˧/ /tu˥˧ tu˥˧/

In Taiwan, Raoping Hakka is in contact with other varieties of Hakka, notably Sixian and Hailu dialects. There are some phonological and morphological features that appear to originate in these surrounding varieties. For example, in Taoyuan near Sixian-speaking areas, the diminutive suffix is pronounced /e˧˩/ as it is pronounced in Sixian, while in Hailu-dominant Hsinchu, the suffix is pronounced as the Hailu /ə˥/.[6]

See also


  1. ^ a b Raoping County 2011, p. 128.
  2. ^ HAC 2018.
  3. ^ a b HAC 2013, p. 73.
  4. ^ Zhan 1992, pp. 157–158.
  5. ^ a b Zhan 1992, p. 158.
  6. ^ Hsu 2005, p. 77.