Putian
Pó-chéng-uā / 莆田話
Native toSouthern China
RegionPutian, Fujian
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologputi1238
Linguasphere79-AAA-idb
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Putian dialect
Traditional Chinese莆田話
Simplified Chinese莆田话

The Putian dialect (Pu-Xian Min: Pó-chéng-uā / 莆田話; IPA: [pʰɔu˩˩ lɛŋ˩˧ ua˩˩]) is a dialect of Pu-Xian Min Chinese spoken in urban area of Putian[further explanation needed], which is a prefecture-level city in the southeast coast of Fujian province.

Phonology

The Putian dialect has 15 initials, 40 rimes and 7 tones.

Initials

Bilabial Alveolar Lateral Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
Plosive/
Affricate
Unaspirated /p/ /t/ /ts/ /k/ /ʔ/
Aspirated // // /tsʰ/ //
Fricative /β/* /ɬ/ /ɣ/* /h/
Approximant /l/

Rimes

Open syllable Nasal Coda /-ŋ/ Glottal Coda /-ʔ/
open mouth a au
ɒ ɒŋ ɒʔ
o ɔu ɔŋ ɔʔ
e ai ɛŋ ɛʔ
ø œŋ œʔ
ŋ
even teeth i iu
ia iau iaŋ iaʔ
closed mouth u ui
ua uai uaŋ uaʔ
round mouth y
yɒŋ yɒʔ

Tones

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Tones dark level
陰平
light level
陽平
rising
上聲
dark departing
陰去
light departing
陽去
dark entering
陰入
light entering
陽入
Tone contour ˥˧˧ (533) ˩˧ (13) ˦˥˧ (453) ˦˨ (42) ˩ (11) ʔ˨˩ (21ʔ) ʔ˦ (4ʔ)
Example Hanzi 詩巴 時爬 始把 試霸 寺罷 濕北 實拔

Assimilation

Coda of
the Former Syllable
Initial of
the Latter Syllable
Assimilation Coda of the
Former Syllable
Initial of
the Latter Syllable
Group A Open syllable /p/, // remain unchanged /β/, /ɣ/
/t/, //, /ts/, /tsʰ/, /ɬ/ /l/
/k/, //, /h/ /ɣ/
/m/, /n/, /l/, /ŋ/, null initial remain unchanged
Group B /-ŋ/ (nasal coda) /p/, // /-m/ /m/
/t/, //, /ts/, /tsʰ/, /l/, /ɬ/ /-n/ /n/, remain unchanged
/k/, //, /h/, null initial remain unchanged /ŋ/
/m/, /n/, /ŋ/ /-m/, /-n/, /-ŋ/ remain unchanged
Group C /-ʔ/ (glottal Coda) /p/, //, /m/ /-p̚/ remain unchanged
/t/, //, /ts/, /tsʰ/, /ɬ/, /l/, /n/ /-t̚/
/k/, //, /ŋ/, /h/ /-k̚/
null initial /-ʔ/

Tone sandhi

Putian dialect has extremely extensive tone sandhi rules: in an utterance, only the last syllable pronounced is not affected by the rules.

The two-syllable tonal sandhi rules are shown in the table below (the rows give the first syllable's original citation tone, while the columns give the citation tone of the second syllable):

Tone sandhi of first syllable
dark level
533
light level
13
rising
453
dark departing
42
light departing
11
dark entering
ʔ21
light entering
ʔ4
dark level
533
11 13 11
light level
13
11 55 42 11
rising
453
13 11 13 11
dark departing
42
55 42 55 42 55
light departing
11
11 55 42 55
dark entering
ʔ21
ʔ4
light entering
ʔ4
ʔ21

Notes

  1. ^ Min is believed to have split from Old Chinese, rather than Middle Chinese like other varieties of Chinese.[1][2][3]

References

  1. ^ Mei, Tsu-lin (1970), "Tones and prosody in Middle Chinese and the origin of the rising tone", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 30: 86–110, doi:10.2307/2718766, JSTOR 2718766
  2. ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1984), Middle Chinese: A study in Historical Phonology, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, p. 3, ISBN 978-0-7748-0192-8
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (2023-07-10). "Glottolog 4.8 - Min". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. doi:10.5281/zenodo.7398962. Archived from the original on 2023-10-13. Retrieved 2023-10-13.