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Taiwanese Hangul
Chinese characters "臺語諺文" written in Taiwanese Hangul
Script type
CreatorHsu Tsao-te [zh] (first proposed)
Time period
since 1987
LanguagesTaiwanese Hokkien
Related scripts
Parent systems
Hangul
  • Taiwanese Hangul
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Taiwanese Hangul (Hangul: 대끼깐뿐; Chinese: 臺語諺文; pinyin: Táiyǔ Yànwén; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-gí Gān-bûn) is an orthography system for Taiwanese Hokkien (Taiwanese). Developed and promoted by Taiwanese linguist Hsu Tsao-te [zh] in 1987, it uses a modified Hangul alphabets to represent spoken Taiwanese, and was later supported by Ang Ui-jin.[1][2] Because both Chinese characters and Hangul are both written in the space of square boxes, unlike letters of the Latin alphabet, the use of Chinese-Hangul mixed writing is able to keep the spacing between the two scripts more consistent compared to Chinese-Latin mixed writing.

Letters

Initials

Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Nasal [m]
ㄇ 毛 (mo͘ )
[n]
ㄋ 耐 (nāi)
[ŋ]
ㄫ 雅 (ngá)
Stop Unaspirated [p]
ㄅ 邊 (pian)
[b]
ㆠ 文 (bûn)
[t]
ㄉ 地 (tē)
[k]
ㄍ 求 (kiû)
[ɡ]
ㆣ 語 (gí)
Aspirated [pʰ]
ㄆ 波 (pho)
[tʰ]
ㄊ 他 (thaⁿ)
[kʰ]
ㄎ 去 (khì)
Affricate Unaspirated [ts]
ㄗ 曾
(tsan/chan)
[dz]
ㆡ 熱 (joa̍h)
[tɕ]
ㄐ 尖
(tsiam/chiam)
[dʑ]
ㆢ 入 (ji̍p)
Aspirated [tsʰ]
ㄘ 出
(tshut/chhut)
[tɕʰ]
ㄑ 手
(tshiú/chhiú)
Fricative [s]
ㄙ 衫 (saⁿ)
[ɕ]
ㄒ 寫 (siá)
[h]
ㄏ 喜 (hí)
Lateral [l]
ㄌ 柳 (liú)

Vowels

Monophthongs
Front Central Back
Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal
Close [i]
ㄧ 衣 (i)
[ĩ]
ㆪ 圓 (îⁿ)
[u]
ㄨ 污 (u)
[ũ]
ㆫ 張 (tiuⁿ)
Mid [e]
ㆤ 禮 (lé)
[ẽ]
ㆥ 生 (seⁿ)
[ə]
ㄜ 高 (ko)
[ɔ]
ㆦ 烏 ()
[ɔ̃]
ㆧ 翁 (oⁿ)
Open [a]
ㄚ 查 (cha)
[ã]
ㆩ 衫 (saⁿ)
Diphthongs & Triphthongs
Diphthongs [aɪ]
ㄞ (ai)
[aʊ]
ㄠ (au)
[ɪa]
ㄧㄚ (ia)
[ɪo]
ㄧㄜ (io)
[iu]
ㄧㄨ (iu)
[ua]
ㄨㄚ (oa)
[ue]
ㄨㆤ (oe)
[ui]
ㄨㄧ (ui)
Triphthongs [ɪaʊ]
ㄧㄠ (iau)
[uai]
ㄨㄞ (oai)

Coda endings

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal consonant [m]
ㆬ (-m)
[n]
ㄣ (-n)
[ŋ]
ㆭ (-ng)
Stop consonant [p̚]
ㆴ (-p)
[t̚]
ㆵ (-t)
[k̚]
ㆶ (-k)
[ʔ]
ㆷ (-h)

Tone markings[edit]

No. Hangul Latin diacritics Chinese tone name Examples
Hangul/Latin/Hanzi (Listen 🔊)
meaning
1 absent 陰平 (yinping)
dark level
/kha/ 🔊
foot; leg
2 ◌́ 上聲 (sióng-siaⁿ)/陰上 (yinshang)
rising / dark rising
/tsúi/ 🔊
water
3 ◌̀ 陰去 (yinqu)
dark departing
/kàu/ 🔊
arrive
4 absent 陰入 (yinru)
dark entering
/bah/ 🔊
meat
5 ◌̂ 陽平 (yangping)
light level
/ông/ 🔊
king
(6)
appears only in Lukang dialect;
merged to 7 in the prestige dialect
not devised ◌̆ 陽上 (yangshang)
light rising
[]/huǎn (Lukang)/
violate / commit (a crime)
7 ◌̄ 陽去 (yangqu)
light departing
/huān (prestige)/ 🔊
violate / commit (a crime)
8  ̍
(overstroke/vertical line above)
陽入 (yangru)
light entering
/joa̍h/ 🔊
hot
Continuous tone sandhi absent occurs when a character/syllable is
before another one in a phrase.
Rule of the prestige dialect:
5→7, 7→3, 3→2, 2→1, 1→7;
4→8, 8→4
/Tâi-gí/臺語 🔊
Taiwanese language

Different use of Hangul between Taiwanese and Korean[edit]

Taiwanese Hokkien Korean Note
/b/, a voiced consonant /p͈/, a tense consonant
/g/, a voiced consonant /k͈/, a tense consonant
/ʣ/ or /ʥ/, a voiced consonant /t͡ɕ͈/, a tense consonant
/ŋ/, /t͈/ as the syllable onset such as 따
/ʔ/, a glottal stop /t̚/ as the syllable coda such as 앟
/ⁿ/, vowel nasalization /t̚/ as the syllable coda such as 앗
/ⁿʔ/, a combination of ㅅ and ㅎ /s͈/ or /t̚/ as the syllable coda such as 았
/o/ or /ə/ /ʌ/
/ɔ/ /o/
/ai/ /ɛ/
/au/ /aɭ/
silent /ɯ/
/m̩ʔ/, 읭/ŋ̍ʔ/ /ɰi/, /i/, /ɛ/

Examples[edit]

Matthew 6:1[edit]

Taiwanese Hangul Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Chinese characters 關係行善的教訓

恁著謹慎,毋通為著欲予儂看,故意蹛儂的面前顯示恁的善行;
恁若按呢做,恁就袂當對天父得著報賞。

Chinese-Hangul
mixed writing
關係行善에教訓

린뎧謹慎,음탕為뎧뼇호儂看,故意돠儂에面前顯示린에善行;
린若안네做,린就뻬당뒤天父得뎧報賞。

Chinese-Latin
mixed writing
關係行善ê教訓

Lín tio̍h謹慎,m̄-thang為tio̍h boeh hō͘儂看,故意toà儂ê面前顯示lín ê善行;
Lín若án-ne做,lín就bē-tàng tùi天父得tio̍h報賞。

Hangul 관헤 형센 에 갈훈

린 뎧 긴신,음탕 위뎧 뼇 호 랑 쾃,고이 돠 랑 에 삔졍 헨시 린 에 센형;
린 나 안네 저,린 쥬 뻬당 뒤 텐후 딛뎧 버슛。

Romanization Koan-he Hêng-siān ê Kàu-hùn

Lín tio̍h kín-sīn, m̄-thang ūi-tio̍h boeh hō͘ lâng khoàⁿ, kò-ì toà lâng ê bīn-chêng hián-sī lín ê siān-hêng.
Lín nā án-ne chò, lín chiū bē-tàng tùi Thian-hū tit-tio̍h pò-siúⁿ.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dong Zhongsi (董忠司), 「台灣閩南語槪論」講授資料彙編, Taiwan Languages and Literature Society
  2. ^ 台語文運動訪談暨史料彙編

External links[edit]