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Hailufeng, Hai Lok Hong
RegionMainly in Shanwei, eastern Guangdong province.
Native speakers
2.65 million (2021)[1]
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3(hlh is proposed[5])
ISO 639-6hife
Linguasphere79-AAA-jik (Haifeng)
79-AAA-jij (Lufeng)
  Hoklo Min in Shanwei
Hoklo Min
Traditional Chinese海陸豐話
Simplified Chinese海陆丰话

Hoklo, Hailufeng (海陸丰 Hai Lok Hong), or in the language itself Haklau, is a variety of Chinese mostly spoken in the Hailufeng region of Guangdong. The region includes Shanwei (Swabue), which administratively includes Haifeng County (海丰 Hai Hong), and Lufeng City (陸丰 Lok Hong), which itself was a former county and now county-level city. The name 'Hailufeng' / 'Hai Lok Hong' (海陸丰) is a portmanteau of those places. It is a Southern Min (Min Nan) language with similarities to Hokkien, especially Chiangchew Hokkien, though it also has close geographical and cultural ties with neighboring Teo-Swa.[6][7] Ethnically, the Hoklo see themselves as Hailok, separate from the Teochews.

Differences from Teochew dialect proper include the preservation of the final codas -t and -n, which are completely lost in Teochew, as well as the absence of the -oi finals.


  1. ^ Min is believed to have split from Old Chinese, rather than Middle Chinese like other varieties of Chinese.[2][3][4]


  1. ^ "Reclassifying ISO 639-3 [nan]: An Empirical Approach to Mutual Intelligibility and Ethnolinguistic Distinctions" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-09-19.
  2. ^ Mei, Tsu-lin (1970), "Tones and prosody in Middle Chinese and the origin of the rising tone", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 30: 86–110, doi:10.2307/2718766, JSTOR 2718766
  3. ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1984), Middle Chinese: A study in Historical Phonology, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, p. 3, ISBN 978-0-7748-0192-8
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (2023-07-10). "Glottolog 4.8 - Min". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. doi:10.5281/zenodo.7398962. Archived from the original on 2023-10-13. Retrieved 2023-10-13.
  5. ^ "Change Request Documentation: 2021-045". 31 August 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  6. ^ "Cháozhōuhuà pīnyīn fāng'àn / ChaoZhou Dialect Romanisation Scheme". sungwh.freeserve.co.uk (in Chinese and English). Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
  7. ^ Campbell, James. "Haifeng Dialect Phonology". glossika.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2008-11-06.