Romanization
Hangul
Hanja
로마
Revised RomanizationRomaja
McCune–ReischauerRomacha

Romanization of Korean refers to systems for representing the Korean language in the Latin script. Korea's alphabetic script, called Hangul, has historically been used in conjunction with Hanja (Chinese characters), though such practice has become infrequent.

Romaja literally means Roman letters in Korean, and refers to the Latin script. "Romaja" is not to be confused with "romanization". The former can be applied to any use of the Latin script in Korean text—whether for Korean or non-Korean words or names—while the latter refers to writing Korean words using the Latin script: either romanizing individual words in a Korean text, or writing an entire Korean text in the Latin script.

Systems

Many romanization schemes are in common use:

McCune–Reischauer-based transcriptions and the Revised Romanization differ from each other mainly in the choice of how to represent certain hangul letters. Both attempt to match a word's spelling to how it would be written if it were an English word, so that an English speaker would come as close as possible to its Korean pronunciation by pronouncing it naturally. Hence, the same hangul letter may be represented by different Roman letters, depending on its pronunciation in context. The Yale system, on the other hand, represents each Korean letter by always the same Roman letter(s) context-independently, thus not indicating the hangul letters' context-specific pronunciation.

Even in texts that claim to follow one of the above, aberrations are a common occurrence and a major obstacle, e.g. when conducting an automated search on the Internet, as the searcher must check all possible spelling variants, a considerable list even without such aberrations.

In addition to these systems, many people spell names or other words in an ad hoc manner, producing more variations (e.g. 이/리 (李), which is variously romanized as Lee, Yi, I, or Rhee). For more details, see Wikipedia:Naming conventions (Korean).

SKATS is a transliteration system that does not attempt to use letters of a similar function in Western languages. A similar approach is to transliterate by hitting the keys that would produce a Korean word on a keyboard with Dubeolsik layout (e.g. 위키백과 → dnlzlqorrhk). This can often be seen on the internet, for example in usernames.

Comparison of romanization of consonants[6][7]
Hangul IPA Yale MR DPRK RR Dubeolsik
/m/ m m m m a
/p/ p p/b p b/p[a] q
/p͈/ pp pp pp pp Q
/pʰ/ ph p' ph p v
/n/ n n n n s
/t/ t t/d t d/t[a] e
/t͈/ tt tt tt tt E
/tʰ/ th t' th t x
/l/ [l] ~ [ɾ] l r/l r r/l[a] f
/s/ s s s s t
/s͈/ ss ss ss ss T
/t͡ɕ/ ~ /t͡s/ c ch/j ts j w
/t͈͡ɕ/ ~ /t͈͡s/ cc tch tss jj W
/t͡ɕʰ/ ~ /t͡sʰ/ ch ch' tsh ch c
/k/ k k/g k g/k[a] r
/k͈/ kk kk kk kk R
/kʰ/ kh k' kh k z
/h/ h h h h g
silent / /ŋ/[b] -/ng[b] -/ng[b] -/ng[b] -/ng[b] d

Notes:

  1. ^ a b c d The first alternative is used before a vowel; the second is used elsewhere.
  2. ^ a b c d e Nothing in syllable-initial position, ng syllable-finally.
Comparison of romanization of vowels[6][7]
Hangul IPA Yale MR DPRK RR Dubeolsik
/a/ a a a a k
/ʌ/ e ŏ ŏ eo j
/o/ (w)o o o o h
/u/ wu u u u n
/ɯ/ [ɯ] ~ [ɨ] u ŭ ŭ eu m
/i/ i i i i l
/ɛ/ ay ae ae ae o
/e/ ey e e e p
/ja/ ya ya ya ya i
/jʌ/ ye yeo u
/jo/ yo yo yo yo y
/ju/ yu yu yu yu b
/jɛ/ yay yae yae yae O
/je/ yey ye ye ye P
/wa/ wa wa wa wa hk
/ø/ [ø] ~ [we] (w)oy oe oe oe hl
/wɛ/ way wae wae wae ho
/wʌ/ we wo nj
/y/ [y] ~ [ɥi] wi wi we wi nl
/we/ wey we we we np
/ɰi/ [ɰi] ~ [ɨ̯i] ~ [i] uy ŭi ŭi ui ml

Examples

English Hangul IPA RR
(RR transliteration in brackets)
McC-Rsr Yale SKATS Dubeolsik
wall [pjʌk̚] byeok
(byeog)
pyŏk pyek wsl qur
on the wall 벽에 [pjʌ.ɡe̞] byeoge
(byeog-e)
pyŏge pyek ey wsl ktu qurdp
outside
(uninflected)
[pak̚] bak
(bakk)
pak pakk well qkR
outside 밖에 [pa.k͈e̞] bakke
(bakk-e)
pakke pakk ey well ktu qkRdp
kitchen 부엌 [pu.ʌk̚] bueok
(bueok)
puŏk puekh wh ktx qndjz
to/in the kitchen 부엌에 [pu.ʌ.kʰe̞] bueoke
(bueok-e)
puŏk'e puekh ey wh ktx ktu qndjzdp
Wikipedia 위키백과 [yk.çi.be̞k̚.k͈wa̠] wikibaekgwa
(wikibaeggwa)
wikibaekkwa wikhi payk.kwa khu xu weul lae dnlzlqorrhk
Hangul 한글 [han.ɡɯl] hangeul or han-geul
(hangeul)
han'gŭl hānkul jef ldv gksrmf
character, letter 글자 [kɯl.t͈ɕa] geulja
(geulja)
kŭlcha kulqca ldv pe rmfwk
(an) easy (+ noun) 쉬운 [ɕɥi.un] swiun
(swiun)
shwiun swīwun ghu khf tnldns
Korea has four distinct seasons. 한국은 네 계절이 뚜렷하다. [han.ɡu.ɡɯn ne̞ kje̞.dʑʌ.ɾi t͈u.ɾjʌ.tʰa.da] Hangugeun ne gyejeori tturyeotada.
(Hangug-eun ne gyejeol-i ttulyeoshada.)
Hangugŭn ne kyejŏri tturyŏthada. Hānkuk un nēy kyēycel i ttwulyes hata. jef lhl kdf ftu lsu ptv ku bbh vsg je be gksrnrdms sp rPwjfdl Enfutgkek.
Just check the line color and width you want. 원하시는 선 색깔과 굵기에 체크하시면 됩니다. [wʌn.ɦa.ɕi.nɯn sʌn sɛ̝k̚.k͈al.ɡwa kul.k͈i.e̞ tɕʰe̞.k͡xɯ.ɦa.ɕi.mjʌn twe̞m.ɲi.da] Wonhasineun seon saekkkalgwa gulkkie chekeuhasimyeon doemnida.
(Wonhasineun seon saegkkalgwa gulggie chekeuhasimyeon doebnida.)
Wŏnhasinŭn sŏn saekkalgwa kulkie ch'ek'ŭhasimyŏn toemnida. Wēn hasinun sen sayk.kkal kwa kwulk.ki ey cheykhu hasimyen toypnita. khtf je gu fdf gtf geul llev lae lhvl lu ktu ctu xd je gu msf bauw fu be dnjsgktlsms tjs torRkfrhk rnfrrldp cpzmgktlaus ehlqslek.

As a new writing system for Korean

In the 1920s-1930s various languages of the Soviet Union were forcibly switched to the Latin alphabet and it was planned that the language of Koreans of the Far East would be one of them.[8][9] Hanja was deemed too hard to learn, while Hangul was claimed to be inconvenient for typesetting and handwriting. Since removing of Hanja would result in much ambiguity, it was proposed that Chinese words would be replaced by words of Korean origin (compare linguistic purism in Korean). The new alphabet, made by famous Koreanist Aleksandr Kholodovich [ru], who would later make a system of transcribing Korean words into Russian [ru], looked like this:

a ʙ d e æ g h i y k kh l r m n ng o ө ə p ph s t th u z

Lowecase ʙ was commonly used in Soviet Roman-derived alphabets due to some alphabets having a letter similar to b with a different purpose. The usage of only lowercase letters was also not unusual, as it was the Latin alphabet of Adyghe language, for example.

Some words written in the Soviet Latin alphabet: gu lli, nongdhion haggio, nong ʙ, zængsan, gugga diaʙondiyi.

The alphabet saw criticism from Koreans and was never put into use.

See also

References

  1. ^ "2005년까지 연차적으로 도로표지판을 바꾸는 데 5000억~6000억원이 들고". Monthly Chosun ilbo. 2000-09-01. Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  2. ^ "메세지 페이지". www.koreapost.go.kr.
  3. ^ "Road Name Address". www.juso.go.kr.
  4. ^ "ALA-LC Romanization Tables" (PDF). Library of Congress.
  5. ^ "Korean Romanization Reference".
  6. ^ a b Noma, Hideki (2005). "Korean". In Strazny, Philipp (ed.). Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Vol. 1. Taylor & Francis. pp. 579–584. ISBN 978-1-57958-450-4.
  7. ^ a b "Updates to the Report on the Current Status of UN Romanization Systems for Geographic Names" (PDF). United Nations. 2004. pp. 20–22. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  8. ^ Советское языкознание, т.1. Л., 1935
  9. ^ "Ким Герман.Рассказы о родном языке.Рассказ 4.Неудавшаяся революция в корейской письменности".