Duployan shorthand
Script type
light-line geometric stenographic alphabet
CreatorÉmile Duployé
Published
1868 (Pernin: 1877; Sloan: 1883; Ellis: 1888; LeJeune: 1891)
Statushistoric and hobbyist usage
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesFrench, English, German, Spanish, Romanian, Chinook Jargon, Lillooet, Thompson, Okanagan
Related scripts
Child systems
Malone's Script Phonography
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Dupl, 755 Edit this on Wikidata, ​Duployan shorthand, Duployan stenography
Unicode
Unicode alias
Duployan
U+1BC00–U+1BC9F Duployan
U+1BCA0–U+1BCAF Shorthand Format Controls[1]
Adaptations: Pernin (+ reporters'), Perrault, Sloan-Duployan (+ reporters'), Romanian stenography, Duployan metagraphie, and Chinook writing

The Duployan shorthand, or Duployan stenography (French: Sténographie Duployé), was created by Father Émile Duployé in 1860 for writing French. Since then, it has been expanded and adapted for writing English, German, Spanish, Romanian, Latin, Danish, and Chinook Jargon.[2] The Duployan stenography is classified as a geometric, alphabetic stenography and is written left-to-right in connected stenographic style. The Duployan shorthands, including Chinook writing, Pernin's Universal Phonography, Perrault's English Shorthand, the Sloan-Duployan Modern Shorthand, and Romanian stenography, were included as a single script in version 7.0 of the Unicode Standard / ISO 10646[2][3][4]

Typology and structure

Duployan is classified as a geometric stenography, in that the prototype for letterforms are based on lines and circles, instead of ellipses. It is alphabetic, with both consonant and vowel signs in equal prominence. Writing is in a left-to-right direction, proceeding down the page, as in common European writing. Most Duployan letters will attach to adjacent letters, allowing a word (or words) to be written in a single stroke, without lifting the pen.[2]

Consonants

Consonant characters come in two basic styles: line consonants and arc consonants. All consonants have a shape, size, and stroke direction that do not change based on the surrounding characters. Both types of consonants are contrasted by orientation, length, and the presence of ancillary dots and dashes on or near the letter.

The line consonants come in five orientations: vertical, horizontal, left-to-right falling, left-to-right rising, and right-to-left falling; and in three lengths: short, long, and extended. Variations of some line consonants will have dots adjacent to the center of the line.

Arc consonants come in two arc lengths: half circle, and quarter circle. The half circle arcs have four orientations: left, right, top, and bottom half; and two lengths: regular and extended. Variations of the half circle arc consonants have dots inside and outside of the bowl, and dashes across the middle. The quarter arc consonants also have four orientations corresponding to the four quadrants of a circle, with both upwards and downwards strokes, and come in regular and extended lengths. The only variant quarter arc consonant is the addition of a dot (Duployan letter H) to the Duployan letter W to make the Duployan letter Wh.[2]

Émile Duployé
Émile Duployé

Vowels

Vowels characters also come in two basic styles: circle vowels, and orienting vowels. Vowels have only a general shape and size, but their orientation and exact appearance are usually dictated by the adjacent characters.

Circle vowels are written by creating a loop that starts from the preceding character acting as a tangent, continuing around the circle until reaching the tangent point of the following character, at which point the following letterform is written, with the two adjacent characters crossing to complete the "circle". Variants of the circle vowels have dots in the middle of the circle, or a protuberance in from the circle. Circle vowels may also take standard diacritic marks when used to write some languages.

Some circle vowels

Orienting vowels are written by rotating the vowel to match the incoming angle of the preceding character, then mirrored along the axis of that character to avoid the following character crossing. They come in two varieties, defined by whether they will tend toward the right or left if the adjacent characters will allow either. Nasal vowels are considered a special case of an orienting vowel, and will act as orienting vowels, except in the Chinook script, where nasals can appear as diacritics.[2]

Affixes and word signs

Many Duployan shorthands use small unattached marks, as well as various crossing and touching strokes, as markers for common prefixes and suffixes. Individual letters and letterlike symbols are also used in many Duployan shorthands to stand for common words and phrases. Overlapping two or more letters and signs can be used in some shorthands as word signs and abbreviations.[2]

Ligatures

Most Duployan scripts do not make use of true ligatures that are not just one of its constituent letters with a distinguishing mark. The Romanian stenography is fairly unusual in having a number of vowel ligatures, especially with the Romanian U.[2]

Connecting letters

Most Duployan letters cursively connect to any adjacent letters. Circle vowels will sometimes reduce to as small as a semi-circle in order to accommodate the incoming and outgoing strokes of adjacent letters, and orienting vowels will rotate to meet the preceding letter at a straight angle, while mirroring to present themselves to the following letter.

+
+
=
P + A + T = pat
+
+
=
* E would normally sit on the left side of P, except that it must sit on the right to join with the T.
P + E + T = pet
+
+
+
=
J + A + I + N = shine
+
+
+
+
+
=
P + E + Lh + T + E + N = pelten (Chinook)

Alphabetical order

Duployan does not have a widely agreed alphabetical order. A precursory order for the alphabet has been invented for the Unicode script proposal, however; and this order can basically be found in the order of the Unicode allocation (see Table of characters). This order places consonants before vowels, with similar type and size letters grouped roughly together.

Table of characters

This table lists the characters used in all of the Duployan shorthands along with their Unicode code points.[5][6] A basic alphabetization can be derived from the order of the letters. Letters with a name otherwise identical to a more universal letter will have a parenthetical denoting its shorthand of use: (Per) for Pernin's Universal Phonography, (Rom) for Romanian stenography, and (Sl) for Sloan-Duployan shorthand.

Spacing and line consonants

spacing consonants short line consonants
Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter
Name Name Name Name Name Name Name
1BC00
1BC01
1BC02
1BC03
1BC04
1BC05
1BC06
H X P T F K L
long line consonants extended line consonants
1BC07
1BC08
1BC09
1BC0A
1BC0B
1BC0C
1BC0D
1BC0E
1BC0F
1BC10
B D V G R PN DS FN KM RS
variant line consonants
1BC11
1BC12
1BC13
1BC14
1BC15
1BC16
1BC17
1BC18
Th Dh (Sl) Dh Kk J (Sl) hL Lh Rh

Arc consonants

half arc consonants half arc consonants (cross variants)
Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter
Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name
1BC19
1BC1A
1BC1B
1BC1C
1BC1D
1BC1E
1BC1F
1BC20
M N J S MN NM JM SJ
half arc consonants (dotted variants) large variant half arc consonants
1BC21
1BC22
1BC23
1BC24
1BC25
1BC26
1BC2F
1BC30
1BC31
M + dot N + dot J + dot J + dots S + dot S + dot below JS + dot JN JNS
large half arc consonants large half arc consonants (cross variants)
1BC27
1BC28
1BC29
1BC2A
1BC2B
1BC2C
1BC2D
1BC2E
MS NS JS SS MNS NMS JMS SJS
downslope quarter arc consonants large downslope quarter arc consonants
1BC32
1BC33
1BC34
1BC35
1BC36
1BC37
1BC38
1BC39
1BC3A
ST STR SP SPR TS TRS W Wh WR
upslope quarter arc consonants large upslope quarter arc consonants
1BC3B
1BC3C
1BC3D
1BC3E
1BC3F
1BC40
SN SM KRS GRS SK SKR

Vowels

circle vowels I / E
Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter Code Letter
Name Name Name Name Name Name Name
1BC41
1BC42
1BC43
1BC44
1BC45
1BC46
1BC47
A Ow (Sl) OA O Aou I E
non-orienting I/E variants I/E variants
1BC48
1BC49
1BC4A
1BC4B
1BC4C
1BC4D
1BC4E
1BC4F
1BC50
Ie short I Ui Ee Eh (Sl) I (Rom) Ee (Sl) Long I Ye
quarter circle vowels Other 'U' vowels
1BC51
1BC52
1BC53
1BC54
1BC55
1BC56
1BC57
1BC58
1BC59
U Eu Xw / Uh UN Long U U (Rom) Uh U (Sl) Ooh
dotted circle vowels compound W-vowels
1BC5A
1BC5B
1BC5C
1BC5D
1BC5E
1BC5F
1BC60
Ow Ou Wa Wo Wi Wei Wow
basic nasal vowels variant nasal vowels
1BC61
1BC62
1BC63
1BC64
1BC65
1BC66
1BC67
1BC68
1BC69
1BC6A
Un On In An An (Per) Am (Per) En (Sl) An (Sl) On (Sl) uM

Affixes, marks, punctuation, and others

invariant attached affixes
Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix Code Affix
1BC70
1BC71
1BC72
1BC73
1BC74
1BC75
orienting attached affixes
1BC76
1BC77
1BC78
1BC79
1BC7A
1BC7B
1BC7C
high affixes
1BC80
1BC81
1BC82
1BC83
1BC84
1BC85
1BC86
1BC87
1BC88
low affixes
1BC90
1BC91
1BC92
1BC93
1BC94
1BC95
1BC96
1BC97
1BC98
1BC99
Other marks and symbols
Code Symbol Code Symbol Code Symbol
Name Name Name
1BC9C
1BC9E
1BC9F
Chinook Likalisti (eucharist) sign Double Mark Chinook punctuation mark
Invisible Unicode format characters
Code Name Code Name Code Name Code Name Code Name
1BC9D Duployan Thick
Letter Selector
1BCA0 Shorthand Format
Letter Overlap
1BCA1 Shorthand Format
Continuing Overlap
1BCA2 Shorthand Format
Down Step
1BCA3 Shorthand Format
Up Step

French Duployan

The use of French Duployan shorthand has historically been heavier in areas of southern France and Switzerland, with the Prévost-Delaunay and Aimé-Paris shorthands more common in northern France and the Paris area.

French Duployan makes use of an extensive list of letter words, combined consonants, and affix marks, but does not cross letters to make abbreviations. Like most European shorthands, French Duployan omits vowels that can be guessed by a fluent speaker.[7][8]

Chinook writing

Introduction to the Wawa shorthand
Introduction to the Wawa shorthand

The Chinook writing, or Wawa shorthand, or Chinuk pipa, was developed by Father Jean-Marie-Raphaël Le Jeune in the early 1890s for writing in Chinook Jargon, Lillooet, Thompson, Okanagan, Latin, and English, with the intended purpose of bringing literacy and church teaching to the first nations in the Catholic Diocese of Kamloops. The result was three decades' publication of the Chinook Jargon language Kamloops Wawa.[9]

The Chinook writing is notable by the absence of affixes and word signs, the phonological rigor – vowels were not omitted, even when predictable – and its use of W-vowels. Chinook writing is also notable in splitting a word into nominally syllabic units as well as using the only non-joining consonant characters in Duployan.[10][11]

Romanian stenography

The Romanian stenography was developed by Margaretta Sfințescu in the 1980s. Like French Duployan, Romanian stenography uses a large number of affix marks and word signs.[12]

English shorthands

Several adaptations of Duployan were developed for writing English, including those by Helen Pernin, J. Matthew Sloan, Denis Perrault, Carl Brandt, and George Galloway. The Pernin, Perrault, and Sloan shorthands are distinguished from other Duployan shorthands by the presence of the quarter-arc compound consonants. They also make use of affix marks, and omit redundant vowels.[clarification needed][13][14][15] Galloway and Brandt shorthands are not included in the Duployan Unicode proposal.[2]

Unlike other Duployan shorthands, Sloan-Duployan uses a thick, or heavy, stroke to indicate the addition of an "R" sound to a letter. Although not found in the other Duployan shorthands, contrastive thick and thin strokes are common in other shorthands, such as Pitman shorthand, where a heavy stroke would indicate a voiced consonant, and thin the unvoiced version of the same consonant.[13]

Unicode

See also: Duployan (Unicode block) and Shorthand Format Controls (Unicode block)

Duployan shorthand was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

Duployan[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1BC0x 𛰀 𛰁 𛰂 𛰃 𛰄 𛰅 𛰆 𛰇 𛰈 𛰉 𛰊 𛰋 𛰌 𛰍 𛰎 𛰏
U+1BC1x 𛰐 𛰑 𛰒 𛰓 𛰔 𛰕 𛰖 𛰗 𛰘 𛰙 𛰚 𛰛 𛰜 𛰝 𛰞 𛰟
U+1BC2x 𛰠 𛰡 𛰢 𛰣 𛰤 𛰥 𛰦 𛰧 𛰨 𛰩 𛰪 𛰫 𛰬 𛰭 𛰮 𛰯
U+1BC3x 𛰰 𛰱 𛰲 𛰳 𛰴 𛰵 𛰶 𛰷 𛰸 𛰹 𛰺 𛰻 𛰼 𛰽 𛰾 𛰿
U+1BC4x 𛱀 𛱁 𛱂 𛱃 𛱄 𛱅 𛱆 𛱇 𛱈 𛱉 𛱊 𛱋 𛱌 𛱍 𛱎 𛱏
U+1BC5x 𛱐 𛱑 𛱒 𛱓 𛱔 𛱕 𛱖 𛱗 𛱘 𛱙 𛱚 𛱛 𛱜 𛱝 𛱞 𛱟
U+1BC6x 𛱠 𛱡 𛱢 𛱣 𛱤 𛱥 𛱦 𛱧 𛱨 𛱩 𛱪
U+1BC7x 𛱰 𛱱 𛱲 𛱳 𛱴 𛱵 𛱶 𛱷 𛱸 𛱹 𛱺 𛱻 𛱼
U+1BC8x 𛲀 𛲁 𛲂 𛲃 𛲄 𛲅 𛲆 𛲇 𛲈
U+1BC9x 𛲐 𛲑 𛲒 𛲓 𛲔 𛲕 𛲖 𛲗 𛲘 𛲙 𛲜 D T
 L S 
𛲞 𛲟
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Shorthand Format Controls[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1BCAx  𛲠‎   𛲡‎   𛲢‎   𛲣‎ 
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. ^ Final Accepted Script Proposal
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Anderson, Van (2010-09-24). "N3895: Proposal to include Duployan script and Shorthand Format Controls in UCS" (PDF).
  3. ^ Anderson, Van; Michael Everson (2011-05-30). "Resolving chart and collation order for the Duployan script" (PDF).
  4. ^ "Resolutions of WG 2 meeting 58" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-10.
  5. ^ "Duployan, Range: 1BC00–1BC9F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. 2016.
  6. ^ "Shorthand Format Controls, Range: 1BCA0–1BCAF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. 2016.
  7. ^ Hautefeuille and Ramaude. Cours de Sténographie Duployé Fondamentale.
  8. ^ "Stenographie Integrale" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-19.
  9. ^ LeJeune, Jean Marie. "How the Shorthand was Introduced among the Indians".
  10. ^ LeJeune, Jean Marie Raphael. "Chinook Rudiments". Archived from the original on 2008-05-09.
  11. ^ LeJeune, Jean Marie Raphael (April 1895). "Origin of the Chinook Jargon". Kamloops Wawa. Vol. 4, no. 4. p. 50.
  12. ^ Sfinţescu, Margaretta (1984). Curs De Stenografie.
  13. ^ a b Sloan, J.M. (1882). Modern Shorthand. the Sloan-Duployan Phonographic Instructor. Ramsgate, England; St. John's, NL; Brisbane, QLD.
  14. ^ Perrault, Denis R. (1918). Perrault-Duployan Complete Elementary Course of Stenography in Six Lessons. Montreal. ISBN 9780659907516.
  15. ^ Pernin, Helen M. (1902). Pernin's Universal Phonography. Detroit, MI.