Zanabazar's square script
𑨢𑨆𑨏𑨳𑨋𑨆𑨬𑨳
Script type
CreatorZanabazar
Time period
unknown
DirectionLeft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesMongolian, Tibetan, Sanskrit
Related scripts
Parent systems
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Zanb (339), ​Zanabazar Square (Zanabazarin Dörböljin Useg, Xewtee Dörböljin Bicig, Horizontal Square Script)
Unicode
Unicode alias
Zanabazar Square
The theorised Semitic origins of the Brahmi script are not universally agreed upon.

Zanabazar's square script is a horizontal Mongolian square script (Mongolian: Хэвтээ Дөрвөлжин бичиг, Khevtee Dörvöljin bichig or Mongolian: Хэвтээ Дөрвөлжин Үсэг, Khevtee Dörvöljin Üseg),[1] an abugida developed by the monk and scholar Zanabazar based on the Tibetan alphabet to write Mongolian. It can also be used to write Tibetan language and Sanskrit as a geometric typeface.[2][3]

It was re-discovered in 1801 and the script's applications during its using period are not known, read left to right, and employed vowel diacritics above and below the consonant letters.[1]

Letters

Vowels

Vowels of horizontal square script
Type Letter Name XML entity Note
Vowel 𑨀 A 𑨀
Vowel sign 𑨁 I 𑨁
𑨂 UE 𑨂
𑨃 U 𑨃
𑨄 E 𑨄
𑨅 OE 𑨅
𑨆 O 𑨆
𑨇 AI 𑨇 or '-I'
𑨈 AU 𑨈 or '-U'
𑨉 REVERSED I 𑨉 for Sanskrit
Vowel length mark 𑨊 VOWEL LENGTH MARK 𑨊

Consonants

Consonants of horizontal square script
Letter Name XML entity Note
𑨋 KA 𑨋
𑨌 KHA 𑨌
𑨍 GA 𑨍
𑨎 GHA 𑨎
𑨏 NGA 𑨏
𑨐 CA 𑨐
𑨑 CHA 𑨑
𑨒 JA 𑨒
𑨓 NYA 𑨓
𑨔 TTA 𑨔
𑨕 TTHA 𑨕
𑨖 DDA 𑨖
𑨗 DDHA 𑨗
𑨘 NNA 𑨘
𑨙 TA 𑨙
𑨚 THA 𑨚
𑨛 DA 𑨛
𑨜 DHA 𑨜
𑨝 NA 𑨝
𑨞 PA 𑨞
𑨟 PHA 𑨟
𑨠 BA 𑨠 or instead of non-initial 𑨭 VA
𑨡 BHA 𑨡
𑨢 MA 𑨢
𑨣 TSA 𑨣
𑨤 TSHA 𑨤
𑨥 DZA 𑨥
𑨦 DZHA 𑨦
𑨧 ZHA 𑨧
𑨨 ZA 𑨨
𑨩 -A 𑨩 Mongolian AANG, Tibetan A-CHUNG
𑨪 YA 𑨪
𑨫 RA 𑨫
𑨬 LA 𑨬
𑨭 VA 𑨭
𑨮 SHA 𑨮
𑨯 SSA 𑨯
𑨰 SA 𑨰
𑨱 HA 𑨱
𑨲 KSSA 𑨲

Others

Type Letter Name XML entity Note
Final consonant mark 𑨳 FINAL CONSONANT MARK 𑨳
Virama 𑨴 VIRAMA 𑨴 for Sanskrit and Tibetan
Candrabindu 𑨵 CANDRABINDU 𑨵
𑨶 CANDRABINDU WITH ORNAMENT 𑨶 often with 𑨿
𑨷 CANDRA WITH ORNAMENT 𑨷 often with 𑨿
Anusvara 𑨸 ANUSVARA 𑨸 for Sanskrit
Visarga 𑨹 VISARGA 𑨹 for Sanskrit
Cluster Letters 𑨺 CLUSTER-INITIAL LETTER RA 𑨺 for Tibetan, initial form of 𑨫
𑨻 CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER YA 𑨻 for Tibetan, final form of 𑨪
𑨼 CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER RA 𑨼 for Tibetan, final form of 𑨫
𑨽 CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER LA 𑨽 for Tibetan, final form of 𑨬
𑨾 CLUSTER-FINAL LETTER VA 𑨾 for Tibetan, final form of 𑨭
Head Mark 𑨿 INITIAL HEAD MARK 𑨿
𑩀 CLOSING HEAD MARK 𑩀
Punctuation 𑩁 MARK TSHEG 𑩁
𑩂 MARK SHAD 𑩂
𑩃 MARK DOUBLE SHAD 𑩃
𑩄 MARK LONG TSHEG 𑩄
Head Mark 𑩅 INITIAL DOUBLE-LINED HEAD MARK 𑩅
𑩆 DOUBLE-LINED HEAD MARK 𑩆
Subjoiner 𑩇 SUBJOINER 𑩇 for producing consonant conjuncts

Unicode

Main article: Zanabazar Square (Unicode block)

"Zanabazar Square" has been included in the Unicode Standard since the release of Unicode version 10.0 in June 2017. The Zanabazar Square block contains 72 characters.[4]

The Unicode block for Zanabazar Square is U+11A00–U+11A4F:

Zanabazar Square[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+11A0x 𑨀 𑨁 𑨂 𑨃 𑨄 𑨅 𑨆 𑨇 𑨈 𑨉 𑨊 𑨋 𑨌 𑨍 𑨎 𑨏
U+11A1x 𑨐 𑨑 𑨒 𑨓 𑨔 𑨕 𑨖 𑨗 𑨘 𑨙 𑨚 𑨛 𑨜 𑨝 𑨞 𑨟
U+11A2x 𑨠 𑨡 𑨢 𑨣 𑨤 𑨥 𑨦 𑨧 𑨨 𑨩 𑨪 𑨫 𑨬 𑨭 𑨮 𑨯
U+11A3x 𑨰 𑨱 𑨲 𑨳 𑨴 𑨵 𑨶 𑨷 𑨸 𑨹  𑨺‎  𑨻 𑨼 𑨽 𑨾 𑨿
U+11A4x 𑩀 𑩁 𑩂 𑩃 𑩄 𑩅 𑩆  𑩇‎ 
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Pandey, Anshuman (2015-12-03). "L2/15-337: Proposal to Encode the Zanabazar Square Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
  2. ^ Shagdarsürüng, Tseveliin (2001). ""Study of Mongolian Scripts (Graphic Study or Grammatology). Enl."". Bibliotheca Mongolica: Monograph 1.
  3. ^ Bareja-Starzyńska, Agata; Byambaa Ragchaa (2012). ""Notes on the Pre-existences of the First Khalkha Jetsundampa Zanabazar according to His Biography Written in the Horizontal Square Script."". Rocznik Orientalistyczny 1.
  4. ^ "Unicode 10.0.0". Unicode Consortium. June 20, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017.