This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (February 2022) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 5,099 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Ecriture nocturne]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|fr|Ecriture nocturne)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Night Writing
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Braille, New York Point
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Night writing is the name given to a form of writing invented by Charles Barbier as one of a dozen forms of alternative writing presented in a book published in 1815: Essai sur Divers Procédés D'Expéditive Française, Contenant douze écritures différentes, avec une Planche pour chaque procédé (Essay on Various Processes of French Expedition, Containing twelve different writings, with a Plate for each process).[1] The term (in French: écriture nocturne) does not appear in the book, but was later applied to the method shown on Plate VII of that book. This method of writing with raised dots that could be read by touch was adopted at the Institution Royale des Jeune Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris.

Barbier also invented the tools for creating writing with raised dots. A student at the school, Louis Braille, used the tools and Barbier's idea of communicating with raised dots in a form of code, and developed a more compact and flexible system for communications.

See also


  1. ^ Barbier, Charles (1815). "Essai sur Divers Procédés d'Expéditive Française, Contenant douze écritures différentes, avec une Planche pour chaque procédé" – via Google Books.