Sundanese Script
Aksara Sunda Baku
Sundanese: ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ
Aksara Sunda dasar.svg
Script type
Time period
Circa 14th–18th centuries (as Old Sundanese script)
1996-present (as Sundanese script)
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesSundanese
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Balinese
Batak
Baybayin scripts
Javanese
Lontara
Lampung
Makasar
Rencong
Rejang
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Sund, 362 Edit this on Wikidata, ​Sundanese
Unicode
Unicode alias
Sundanese
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
This article contains Sundanese script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Sundanese characters.
main consonants of Sundanese script
main consonants of Sundanese script

Standard Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda Baku, Sundanese: ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮘᮊᮥ) is a writing system which is used by the Sundanese people. It is built based on Old Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda Kuno) which was used by the ancient Sundanese between the 14th and 18th centuries.[1] Currently the standard Sundanese script is also commonly referred to as the Sundanese script.

History

Old Sundanese was developed based on the Pallava script of India,[2] and was used from the 14th until the 18th centuries. The last manuscript written in Old Sundanese script was Carita Waruga Guru.[2] From the 17th to the 19th centuries, Sundanese was mostly spoken and not written.[2] Javanese and Pegon scripts were used to write Sundanese during this period.[2] In 1996, the government of West Java announced a plan to introduce an official Sundanese script, and in October 1997, Old Sundanese script was chosen and renamed to Aksara Sunda.[3]

Typology

The standardized script has 32 basic characters, consists of 7 aksara swara (independent vowels): a, é, i, o, u, e, and eu, and 23 aksara ngalagéna (consonants with vowel a): ka-ga-nga, ca-ja-nya, ta-da-na, pa-ba-ma, ya-ra-la, wa-sa-ha, fa-va-qa-xa-za.

The additional five sounds to the ngalagena characters were added to fulfill the purpose of Sundanese script as tool for recording the development of Sundanese language, especially by absorption of foreign words and sounds. However, the glyphs for the new characters are not new, but reusing several variants in old Sundanese script, for example: the glyphs for fa and va are variants of Old Sundanese pa, the glyphs for qa and xa are variants of Old Sundanese ka, and the glyph for za is a variant of Old Sundanese ja.

There are two non-standard sounds, kha and sha, for writing foreign Arabic consonants ⟨خ⟩ and ⟨ش⟩. These are considered non-standard because their usage is only supported by few Sundanese people.

There are also rarangkén or attachments for removing, modifying, or adding vowel or consonant sound to the base characters. 13 rarangkén based on the position to the base can be categorized into three groups: (1) five rarangkén above the base characters, (2) three rarangkén below the base characters, and (3) five rarangkén inline the base characters. In addition, there are glyphs for number characters, from zero to nine.

Graphically, ngalagena characters including rarangkén have angle 45° – 75°. In general, the dimension ratio (height:width) is 4:4, except for the ngalagena character ra (4:3), ba and nya (4:6), and the swara character i (4:3). Rarangkén have dimension ratio 2:2, except for panyecek (1:1), panglayar (4:2), panyakra (2:4), pamaéh (4:2) and pamingkal (2:4 bottom-side, 3:2 right-side). Numbers have ratio 4:4, except for number 4 and 5 (4:3).

Independent vowels

Graphical representation
Graphical representation
Sundanese: = a /a/ Sundanese: = é /ɛ/ Sundanese: = i /i/ Sundanese: = o /ɔ/
Sundanese: = u /u/ Sundanese: = e /ə/ Sundanese: = eu /ɯ/

Consonants

Graphical representation
Graphical representation

Consonants used for native phonemes

Sundanese: = ka /k/ Sundanese: = ga /g/ Sundanese: = nga /ŋ/
Sundanese: = ca /tʃ/ Sundanese: = ja /dʒ/ Sundanese: = nya /ɲ/
Sundanese: = ta /t/ Sundanese: = da /d/ Sundanese: = na /n/
Sundanese: = pa /p/ Sundanese: = ba /b/ Sundanese: = ma /m/
Sundanese: = ya /j/ Sundanese: = ra /r/ Sundanese: = la /l/
Sundanese: = wa /w/ Sundanese: = sa /s/ Sundanese: = ha /h/

Consonants for writing foreign words

Sundanese: = fa /f/ Sundanese: = qa /q/ Sundanese: = va /v/ Sundanese: = xa // Sundanese: = za /z/ Sundanese: = kha /x/ Sundanese: = sya /ʃ/

Vowel diacritics

Based on their location to the base glyph, 14 rarangkén can be categorized as:

a. Vowel diacritics above the base glyph

Sundanese: Panghulu, modifies the vowel /a/ to /i/.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮤ (ki)

Sundanese: Pamepet, modifies the vowel /a/ to /ə/.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮨ (ke)

Sundanese: Paneuleung, modifies the vowel /a/ to /ɤ/.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮩ (keu)

Sundanese: Panglayar, adds a final /r/ to the base sound.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮁ (kar)

Sundanese: Panyecek, adds a final /ŋ/ to the base sound.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮀ (kang)

b. Vowel diacritics below the base glyph

Sundanese: Panyuku, modifies the vowel /a/ to /u/.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮥ (ku)

Sundanese: Panyakra, inserts the consonant /r/ to the base sound.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮢ (kra)

Sundanese: Panyiku, inserts the consonant /l/ to the base sound.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮣ (kla)

c. Vowel diacritics inline the base glyph

Sundanese: Panéléng, modifies vowel /a/ to /e/.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮦ (ké)

Sundanese: Panolong, modifies the vowel /a/ to /o/.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮧ (ko)

Sundanese: Pamingkal, inserts the consonant /j/ to the base sound.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮡ (kya)

Sundanese: Pangwisad, adds final consonant sound /h/ to the base sound.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊᮂ (kah)

Sundanese: Patén or pamaéh, removes vowel sound of the base sound.

Example: Sundanese: ᮊ᮪ (k)

Numbers

Graphical representation
Graphical representation
Sundanese numerals Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese: Sundanese:
Hindu-Arabic numerals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

In texts, numbers are written surrounded with dual pipe sign | ... |.

Example: Sundanese: |᮲᮰᮲᮰| = 2020

Punctuation marks

For modern use, Latin punctuations are used. Such punctuations are: comma, dot, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, question mark, quotes, parenthesis, bracket etc. Old Sundanese, though, was written using its own set of punctuation symbols. The bindu suryaSundanese: 〉, the representation of the sun, is used in the sequence 〈Sundanese: ᳆᳀᳆〉, which denoted a religious text. Likewise, the bindu panglongSundanese: 〉, the representation of a half moon, is used in the sequence 〈Sundanese: ᳆᳁〉, which had the same meaning. A third punctuation sequence used as a liturgical text marker is 〈Sundanese: ᳇᳇〉. The bindu purnamaSundanese: 〉, on the other hand, representing a full moon, is used in the sequence 〈Sundanese: ᳅᳂᳅〉, which denoted a historical text. Bindu surya is also sometimes used as the full stop; in this case, bindu purnama is also used as comma. When bindu surya isn't used as full stop, bindu cakraSundanese: 〉, the representation of a wheel, was used instead of the bindu purnama as a comma.

The punctuation symbols resembling letters with stripes used in the sequences above, 〈Sundanese: 〉, 〈Sundanese: 〉, and 〈Sundanese: 〉, are respectively named da satanga, ka satanga, and ba satanga, and originated as "decorated" versions of the syllable daSundanese: 〉, one half of the syllable kaSundanese: 〉, and the syllable baSundanese: 〉, respectively. To these can be added the leu satangaSundanese: 〉, of unclear meaning. Likewise, it originated as a "decorated" syllable leuSundanese: 〉, which is archaic.[4]

Consonant clusters

Certain Sundanese words contain consonant clusters. Then, two ways of writing can be used: (1) using pamaéh, or (2) using pasangan (pairs).

The use of pamaéh is one way to write Sundanese script at basic stage. Another way, the pasangan, is normally used in order to avoid the use of pamaéh in the middle of words, as well as to save writing space. Pasangan is constructed by attaching a second consonant letter to the first one, thus eliminating the /a/ vowel of the first consonant letter.

Unicode

Sundanese script was added to the Unicode Standard in April 2008 with the release of version 5.1. In version 6.3, the support of pasangan and some characters from Old Sundanese script were added.

Blocks

Main articles: Sundanese (Unicode block) and Sundanese Supplement (Unicode block)

The Unicode block for Sundanese is U+1B80–U+1BBF. The Unicode block for Sundanese Supplement is U+1CC0–U+1CCF.

Sundanese[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1B8x
U+1B9x
U+1BAx  ᮫ 
U+1BBx ᮿ
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
Sundanese Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1CCx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Rosidi, Ajip (2010). Mengenang hidup orang lain: sejumlah obituari (in Indonesian). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN 9789799102225.
  2. ^ a b c d Ekadjati, Edi S. (September 2003). "Sundanese Manuscripts: Their Existence, Functions, and Contents" (PDF). Journal of the Centre for Documentation & Area-transcultural Studies. 2: 123–134.
  3. ^ "Sundanese". Atlas of Endangered Alphabets: Indigenous and minority writing systems, and the people who are trying to save them. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  4. ^ EVERSON, Michael. Proposal for encoding additional Sundanese characters for Old Sundanese in the UCS. Available at [1]. September 5th, 2009.