Sundanese Script
Aksara Sunda Baku
ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ
Script type
Time period
c. 14th–18th centuries (as Old Sundanese script)
1996-present (as Sundanese script)
DirectionLeft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesSundanese
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Sund (362), ​Sundanese
Unicode
Unicode alias
Sundanese
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Standard Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda Baku, ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮘᮊᮥ) is a writing system which is used by the Sundanese people. It is built based on Old Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda Kuno) which was used from the 14th to the 18th centuries.[1]

History

Old Sundanese was developed based on the Pallava script of India,[2] and was used from the 14th until the 18th centuries. The last manuscript written in Old Sundanese script was Carita Waruga Guru.[2] From the 17th to the 19th centuries, Sundanese was mostly spoken and not written.[2] Javanese and Pegon scripts were used to write Sundanese during this period.[2] In 1996, the government of West Java announced a plan to introduce an official Sundanese script, and in October 1997, the Old Sundanese script was chosen and renamed to Aksara Sunda.[3]

Typology

The standardized script has 32 basic characters-- seven vowels, 23 consonants, and thirteen phonetic diacriticals (Sundanese: rarangkén). There are also numerals from zero to nine.

Consonants

Each consonant (Sundanese: aksara ngalagéna) carries an inherent vowel 'a', so the each consonant letter is pronounced as a syllable. The original eighteen consonants are ka-ga-nga, ca-ja-nya, ta-da-na, pa-ba-ma, ya-ra-la, wa-sa-ha.

An additional five consonants,fa-va-qa-xa-za have been added in order to improve the script as a tool for recording the development of the Sundanese language, especially regarding the adoption of foreign words and sounds. The new glyphs have been developed through re-use of letter found in the old Sundanese script. For example, the letters fa and va are variants of Old Sundanese pa; qa and xa are variants of Old Sundanese ka, and za is a variant of Old Sundanese ja.

There are two non-standard consonants, kha and sha, used for transcribing the Arabic consonants خ and ش.

Consonants
ka
IPA: /ka/
ga
IPA: /ga/
nga
IPA: /ŋa/
ca
IPA: /t͜ɕa/
ja
IPA: /d͜ʑa/
nya
IPA: /ɲa/
ta
IPA: /ta/
da
IPA: /da/
na
IPA: /na/
pa
IPA: /pa/
ba
IPA: /ba/
ma
IPA: /ma/
ya
IPA: /ja/
ra
IPA: /ra/
la
IPA: /la/
wa
IPA: /wa/
sa
IPA: /sa/
ha
IPA: /ha/
Additional consonants for writing foreign words
fa
IPA: /fa/
qa
IPA: /ka~qa/
va
IPA: /fa~va/
xa
IPA: /sa/, /ksa/
za
IPA: /za/
kha
IPA: /ha/, /xa/
sya
IPA: /ɕa/, /ʃa/

Vowels

There are seven independent vowels, a, é, i, o, u, e, and eu, each of which has an independent form and a rarangkén or diacritic. A basic consonant-vowel syllable is formed by adding a vowel diacritic to a consonant. The vowel diacritic replaces the consonant's inherent 'a' or, in the case of the "killer stroke" (pamaéh) removes the vowel entirely, creating an isolated consonant.

vowels with their diacritic forms and examples with ᮊ
a
IPA: /a/
é
IPA: /ɛ/
i
IPA: /i/
o
IPA: /ɔ/
u
IPA: /u/
e
IPA: /ə/
eu
IPA: /ɤ/
◌ᮦ
◌ᮤ
◌ᮧ
◌ ᮥ
◌ ᮨ
◌ ᮩ
-◌᮪
ka
IPA: /ka/
ᮊᮦ
IPA: /kɛ/
ᮊᮤ
ki
IPA: /ki/
ᮊᮧ
ko
IPA: /kɔ/
ᮊᮥ
ku
IPA: /ku/
ᮊᮨ
ke
IPA: /kə/
ᮊᮩ
keu
IPA: /kɤ/
-ᮊ᮪
k
IPA: /k/

Consonant diacritics

Additional diacritics are used to alter the consonants of a syllable.

◌ ᮁ
adds a final /r/
◌ ᮀ
adds a final /ŋ/
inserts an /r/
◌ ᮣ
inserts an /l/
◌ ᮡ
inserts a /j/
◌ᮂ
adds a final /h/
ᮊᮁ
kar
ᮊᮀ
kang
ᮊᮢ
kra
ᮊᮣ
kla
ᮊᮡ
kya
ᮊᮂ
kah

Numerals

In texts, numbers are written surrounded by dual pipes | ... |, for example, the year 2020 is written |᮲᮰᮲᮰|.

Sundanese numerals
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Punctuation

In modern usage, Latin punctuation is used. Old Sundanese, though, was written using its own set of punctuation symbols. Sequences such as ᳇᳇, ᳆᳀᳆, which contains a , bindu surya, 'sun sign', and ᳆᳁, which contains a , bindu panglong, 'half-moon sign', are used to mark liturgical texts. ᳅᳂᳅, which contains a , bindu purnama, 'full moon sign', denoted a historical text. is also sometimes used as a full stop, with acting as a comma. , bindu chakra, 'wheel sign' was also used as a comma.

The punctuation symbols resembling letters with stripes (, da satanga, 'decorated da', , ba satanga, 'decorated ba', and , ka satanga, 'decorated ka') originated as versions of the letters , da, , ba, and one half of the letter , ka. Another symbol of unclear meaning is the , leu satanga, 'decorated leu', based on the archaic syllable , seu.[4]

Sample text

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

ᮞᮊᮥᮙ᮪ᮔ ᮏᮜ᮪ᮙ ᮌᮥᮘᮢᮌ᮪ ᮊ ᮃᮜᮙ᮪ ᮓᮥᮑ ᮒᮦᮂ ᮞᮤᮕᮒ᮪ᮔ ᮙᮨᮁᮓᮤᮊ ᮏᮩᮀ ᮘᮧᮌ ᮙᮁᮒᮘᮒ᮪ ᮊᮒᮥᮒ᮪ ᮠᮊ᮪-ᮠᮊ᮪ ᮃᮔᮥ ᮞᮛᮥᮃ. ᮙᮛᮔᮦᮂᮔ ᮓᮤᮘᮦᮛᮦ ᮃᮊᮜ᮪ ᮏᮩᮀ ᮠᮒᮦ ᮔᮥᮛᮔᮤ, ᮎᮙ᮪ᮕᮥᮁ-ᮌᮅᮜ᮪ ᮏᮩᮀ ᮞᮞᮙᮔ ᮃᮚ ᮓᮤᮔ ᮞᮥᮙᮍᮨᮒ᮪ ᮓᮥᮓᮥᮜᮥᮛᮔ᮪.

Sakumna jalma gubrag ka alam dunya téh sipatna merdika jeung boga martabat katut hak-hak anu sarua. Maranéhna dibéré akal jeung haté nurani, campur-gaul jeung sasamana aya dina sumanget duduluran.

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

Unicode

Sundanese script was added to the Unicode Standard in April 2008 with the release of version 5.1. In version 6.3, the support of pasangan and some characters from Old Sundanese script were added.

Blocks

Main articles: Sundanese (Unicode block) and Sundanese Supplement (Unicode block)

The Unicode block for Sundanese is U+1B80–U+1BBF. The Unicode block for Sundanese Supplement is U+1CC0–U+1CCF.

Sundanese[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1B8x
U+1B9x
U+1BAx  ᮫ 
U+1BBx ᮿ
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1
Sundanese Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1CCx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Rosidi, Ajip (2010). Mengenang hidup orang lain: sejumlah obituari (in Indonesian). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN 9789799102225.
  2. ^ a b c d Ekadjati, Edi S. (September 2003). "Sundanese Manuscripts: Their Existence, Functions, and Contents" (PDF). Journal of the Centre for Documentation & Area-transcultural Studies. 2: 123–134.
  3. ^ "Sundanese". Atlas of Endangered Alphabets: Indigenous and minority writing systems, and the people who are trying to save them. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  4. ^ EVERSON, Michael. Proposal for encoding additional Sundanese characters for Old Sundanese in the UCS. Available at [1]. September 5th, 2009.