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Kajkavian
kajkavščina / kajkavština / kajkavica
Native toCroatia
EthnicityCroats
Standard forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3kjv
Glottologkajk1237
Kajkavian in Croatia
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Kajkavian /kˈkɑːviən, -ˈkæv-/ (Kajkavian noun: kajkavščina; Shtokavian adjective: kajkavski [kǎjkaʋskiː],[1] noun: kajkavica or kajkavština [kajkǎːʋʃtina])[2] is a South Slavic supradialect or language spoken primarily by Croats in much of Central Croatia and Gorski Kotar.[3][4]

Kajkavian is part of the South Slavic dialect continuum, being a transition between the supradialects of Chakavian, Shtokavian and the Slovene language.[5] There are differing opinions over whether Kajkavian is best considered a dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language or a fully-fledged language of its own, as it is only partially mutually intelligible with either Chakavian or Shtokavian and bears more similarities to Slovene; it is transitional and fully mutually intelligible with Prekmurje Slovene and the dialects in Slovenian Lower Styria's region of Prlekija in terms of phonology and vocabulary.[6]

The term "Kajkavian" and the definition of the dialect are modern-age inventions. The name stems from the interrogative pronoun kaj ("what"). The other supradialects of Serbo-Croatian also derive their names from their reflex of the interrogative pronoun.[7][8] However, the pronouns are only general pointers and do not serve as actual identifiers of the respective dialects. Certain Kajkavian dialects use the interrogative pronoun ča, the one that is usually used in Chakavian. Conversely, some Chakavian dialects (most notably Buzet dialect in Istria) use the pronoun kaj. The pronouns these dialects are named after are merely the most common one in that dialect.

Outside Croatia's northernmost regions, Kajkavian is also spoken in Austrian Burgenland and a number of enclaves in Hungary along the Austrian and Croatian border and in Romania.[9]

Classification

Historically, the classification of Kajkavian has been a subject of much debate regarding both the question of whether it ought to be considered a dialect or a language, as well as the question of what its relation is to neighboring vernaculars.

Autonyms used throughout history by various Kajkavian writers have been manifold, ranging from Slavic (slavonski, slovenski, slovinski) to Croatian (horvatski) or Illyrian (illirski).[10][11] The naming went through several phases, with the Slavic-based name initially being dominant. Over time, the name Croatian started gaining ground mainly during the 17th century, and by the beginning of the 18th century, it had supplanted the older name Slavic. The name also followed the same evolution in neighboring Slovene Prekmurje and some other border areas in what is now Slovenia, although there the name Slovene-Croatian (slovensko-horvatski) existed as well.[12] The actual term Kajkavian (kajkavski), including as an adjective, was invented in the 19th century and is credited to Serbian philologist Đuro Daničić, while it was generally used and promoted in the 20th century works by Croatian writer Miroslav Krleža.[13] The term is today accepted by its speakers in Croatia.

The problem with classifying Kajkavian within South Slavic stems in part from its both structural differences and closesness with neighboring Chakavian and Shtokavian speeches as well as its historical closeness to Slovene speeches. Some Slavists maintain that when the separation of Western South Slavic speeches happened, they separated into five divergent groups — Slovene, Kajkavian, Chakavian, Western Shtokavian and Eastern Shtokavian, as a result of this, throughout history Kajkavian has often been categorized differently, either a node categorized together with Serbo-Croatian or Slovene.[14][15] Furthermore, there do exist few old isoglosses that separate almost all Slovene speeches from all other Western South Slavic dialects, and do exist innovations exist common to Kajkavian, Chakavian, and Western Shtokavian that would separate them from Slovene.[16][17][18] Croatian linguist Stjepan Ivšić has used Kajkavian vocabulary and accentuation, which significantly differs from that of Shtokavian, as evidence to be a language in its own right.[19] Josip Silić, one of the main initiators behind the standardisation of Croatian, also regards Kajkavian as a distinct language by dint of its having significantly different morphology, syntax and phonology from the official Shtokavian-based standard.[20] However, Silić's theorization about three languages and systems of Croatian, based on Ferdinand de Saussure and Eugenio Coșeriu concepts, is criticized for being exaggerated, incomprehensible and logically non-existent.[21] According to Ranko Matasović, Kajkavian is equally Croatian as Chakavian and Shtokavian dialects.[22] Mate Kapović notes that the dialects are practical and provisory linguistic inventions which should not be misunderstood and extrapolated outside the context of the dialect continuum.[23]

According to Mijo Lončarić (1988), the formation of the Proto-Kajkavian linguistic and territorial unit would be around the 10th century (when it separated from Southwestern Slavic), until the 12th century it is a separate node of Croatian-Serbian language family (excluding Slovene), between the 13th and 15th century when formed as a dialect with main features known today, until the end of the 17th century when lost a part of spoken territory (to the South, Southeast and especially to East in Slavonia), and from the 17th-18th century till present time when regained part of lost territory by forming new transitional dialects.[16]

Characteristics

Distribution of Chakavian, Kajkavian and Western Shtokavian before 16th century migrations. Kajkavian in yellow.
Location map of Serbo-Croatian dialects in Croatia and areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatian majority. Kajkavian in purple.

The Kajkavian speech area borders in the northwest on the Slovene language and in the northeast on the Hungarian language. In the east and southeast it is bordered by Shtokavian dialects roughly along a line that used to serve as the border between Civil Croatia and the Habsburg Military Frontier. Finally, in the southwest, it borders Chakavian along the Kupa and Dobra rivers.[24] It is thought by M. Lončarić that historically these borders extended further to the south and east, for example, the eastern border is thought to have extended at least well into modern-day Slavonia to the area around the town of Pakrac and Slatina, while East of it transitional Kajkavian-Shtokavian dialects.[25] The transitional dialects during Ottoman invasion and migrations almost completely vanished.[15]

The Croatian capital, Zagreb, has historically been a Kajkavian-speaking area, and Kajkavian is still in use by its older and (to a lesser extent) by its younger population. Modern Zagreb speech has come under considerable influence from Shtokavian.[26] The vast intermingling of Kajkavian and standard Shtokavian in Zagreb and its surroundings has led to problems in defining the underlying structure of those speech-groups. As a result, many of the urban speeches (but not rural ones) have been labelled either Kajkavian koine or Kajkavian–Shtokavian rather than Kajkavian or Shtokavian.[27] Additionally, the forms of speech in use exhibit significant sociolinguistic variation. Research suggests that younger Zagreb-born speakers of the Kajkavian koine tend to consciously use more Kajkavian features when speaking to older people, showing that such features are still in their linguistic inventory even if not used at all times.[28] However, the Kajkavian koine is distinct from Kajkavian as spoken in non-urban areas, and the mixing of Shtokavian and Kajkavian outside of urban settings is much rarer and less developed. The Kajkavian koine has also been named Zagreb Shtokavian by some[which?].[27]

As a result of the previously mentioned mixing of dialects, various Kajkavian features and characteristics have found their way into the standard Shtokavian (standard Croatian) spoken in those areas. For example, some of the prominent features are the fixed stress-based accentual system without distinctive lengths, the merger of /č/ and /ć/ and of /dž/ and /đ/, vocabulary differences as well as a different place of stress in words.[29] The Zagreb variety of Shtokavian is considered by some to enjoy parallel prestige with the prescribed Shtokavian variety. Because of that, speakers whose native speech is closer to the standard variety often end up adopting the Zagreb speech for various reasons.[30]

Kajkavian is closely related to Slovene – and to Prekmurje Slovene in particular.[31] Higher amounts of correspondences between the two exist in inflection and vocabulary. The speakers of the Prekmurje dialect are Slovenes and Hungarian Slovenes who belonged to the Archdiocese of Zagreb during the Habsburg era (until 1918). They used Kajkavian as their liturgical language, and by the 18th century, Kajkavian had become the standard language of Prekmurje.[32] Moreover, literary Kajkavian was also used in neighboring Slovene Styria during the 17th and 18th centuries, and in parts of it, education was conducted in Kajkavian.[33]

As a result of various factors, Kajkavian has numerous differences compared to Shtokavian:

In addition to the above list of characteristics that set Kajkavian apart from Shtokavian, research suggests possible a closer relation with Kajkavian and the Slovak language, especially with the Central Slovak dialects upon which standard Slovak is based. As modern-day Hungary used to be populated by Slavic-speaking peoples prior to the arrival of Hungarians, there have been hypotheses on possible common innovations of future West and South Slavic speakers of that area. Kajkavian is the most prominent of the South Slavic speeches in sharing the most features that could potentially be common Pannonian innovations.[52]

Some Kajkavian words bear a closer resemblance to other Slavic languages such as Russian than they do to Shtokavian or Chakavian. For instance gda (also seen as shorter "da") seems to be at first glance unrelated to kada, however when compared to Russian когда, Slovene kdaj, or Prekmurje Slovene gda, kda, the relationship becomes apparent. Kajkavian kak (how) and tak (so) are exactly like their Russian cognates and Prekmurje Slovene compared to Shtokavian, Chakavian, and standard Slovene kako and tako. (This vowel loss occurred in most other Slavic languages; Shtokavian is a notable exception, whereas the same feature in Macedonian is probably not due to Serbo-Croatian influence because the word is preserved in the same form in Bulgarian, to which Macedonian is much more closely related than to Serbo-Croatian).[53]

History of research

Linguistic investigation began during the 19th century, although the research itself often ended in non-linguistic or outdated conclusions. Since that was the age of national revivals across Europe as well as the South Slavic lands, the research was steered by national narratives. Within that framework, Slovene philologists such as Franz Miklosich and Jernej Kopitar attempted to reinforce the idea of Slovene and Kajkavian unity and asserted that Kajkavian speakers are Slovenes.[54] On the other hand, Josef Dobrovský also claimed linguistic and national unity between the two groups but under the Croatian ethnonym.[54][55]

The first modern dialectal investigations of Kajkavian started at the end of the 19th century. The Ukrainian philologist A. M. Lukjanenko wrote the first comprehensive monograph on Kajkavian (titled Кайкавское нарѣчiе (Kajkavskoe narečie) meaning The Kajkavian dialect) in Russian in 1905.[56] Kajkavian dialects have been classified along various criteria: for instance Serbian philologist Aleksandar Belić divided (1927) the Kajkavian dialect according to the reflexes of Proto-Slavic phonemes /tj/ and /dj/ into three subdialects: eastern, northwestern and southwestern.[57]

However, later investigations did not corroborate Belić's division. Contemporary Kajkavian dialectology begins with Croatian philologist Stjepan Ivšić's work "Jezik Hrvata kajkavaca" (The Language of Kajkavian Croats, 1936), which highlighted accentual characteristics. Due to the great diversity within Kajkavian primarily in phonetics, phonology, and morphology, the Kajkavian dialect atlas features a large number of subdialects: from four identified by Ivšić to six proposed by Croatian linguist Brozović (formerly the accepted division) all the way up to fifteen according to a monograph by Croatian linguist Mijo Lončarić (1995). The traditional division in six sub-dialects includes: zagorsko-međimurski, križevačko-podravski, turopoljsko-posavski, prigorski (transitional to Central Chakavian), donjosutlanski (migratory transitional Chakavina-ikavian which became Kajkavian), and goranski (also transitional which is more Kajkavian in lesser Eastern part, while more Slovene in main Western part).[15] Kajkavian categorization of transitional dialects, like for example of prigorski, is provisory.[58]

Area of use

Bilingual Kajkavian/German street sign in Zagreb:
Kamenita Vulicza / Stein Gasse

Kajkavian is mainly spoken in northern and northwestern Croatia. The mixed half-Kajkavian towns along the eastern and southern edge of the Kajkavian-speaking area are Pitomača, Čazma, Kutina, Popovača, Sunja, Petrinja, Martinska Ves, Ozalj, Ogulin, Fužine, and Čabar, including newer Štokavian enclaves of Bjelovar, Sisak, Glina, Donja Dubrava and Novi Zagreb. The southernmost Kajkavian villages are Krapje at Jasenovac; and Pavušek, Dvorišče and Hrvatsko selo in Zrinska Gora (R. Fureš & A. Jembrih: Kajkavski u povijesnom i sadašnjem obzorju p. 548, Zabok 2006).

The major cities in northern Croatia are located in what was historically a Kajkavian-speaking area, mainly Zagreb, Koprivnica, Krapina, Križevci, Varaždin, Čakovec. The typical archaic Kajkavian is today spoken mainly in Hrvatsko Zagorje hills and Međimurje plain, and in adjacent areas of northwestern Croatia where immigrants and the Štokavian standard had much less influence. The most peculiar Kajkavian dialect (Bednjounski) is spoken in Bednja in northernmost Croatia. Many of northern Croatian urban areas today are partly Štokavianized due to the influence of the standard language and immigration of Štokavian speakers.

Other southeastern people who immigrate to Zagreb from Štokavian territories often pick up rare elements of Kajkavian in order to assimilate, notably the pronoun "kaj" instead of "što" and the extended use of future anterior (futur drugi), but they never adapt well because of alien eastern accents and ignoring Kajkavian-Čakavian archaisms and syntax.

Literary Kajkavian

A picture of the 1850 edition of the Kajkavian periodical Danica zagrebečka

Writings that are judged by some as being distinctly Kajkavian can be dated to around the 12th century.[59] The first comprehensive works in Kajkavian started to appear during the 16th century at a time when Central Croatia gained prominence due to the geopolitical environment since it was free from Ottoman occupation. The most notable work of that era was Ivanuš Pergošić's Decretum, released in 1574. Decretum was a translation of István Werbőczy's Tripartitum.

At the same time, many Protestant writers of the Slovene lands also released their works in Kajkavian in order to reach a wider audience, while also using some Kajkavian features in their native writings. During that time, the autonym used by the writers was usually slovinski (Slavic), horvatski (Croatian) or ilirski (Illyrian).[60]

After that, numerous works appeared in the Kajkavian literary language: chronicles by Vramec, liturgical works by Ratkaj, Habdelić, Mulih; poetry by Ana Katarina Zrinska and Fran Krsto Frankopan, and a dramatic opus by Tituš Brezovački. Kajkavian-based are important lexicographic works like Jambrešić's "Dictionar", 1670, and the monumental (2,000 pages and 50,000 words) Latin-Kajkavian-Latin dictionary "Gazophylacium" (including also some Chakavian and Shtokavian words marked as such) by Ivan Belostenec (posthumously, 1740). Miroslav Krleža's poetic work "Balade Petrice Kerempuha" drew heavily on Belostenec's dictionary. Kajkavian grammars include Kornig's, 1795, Matijević's, 1810 and Đurkovečki's, 1837.

During that time, the Kajkavian literary language was the dominant written form in its spoken area along with Latin and German.[61] Until Ljudevit Gaj's attempts to modernize the spelling, Kajkavian was written using Hungarian spelling conventions.[62] Kajkavian began to lose its status during the Croatian National Revival in mid-19th Century when the leaders of the Illyrian movement opted to use the Shtokavian dialect as the basis for the future South Slavic standard language, the reason being that it had the highest number of speakers. Initially, the choice of Shtokavian was accepted even among Slovene intellectuals, but later it fell out of favor.[63] The Zagreb linguistic school was opposed to the course that the standardization process took. Namely, it had almost completely ignored Kajkavian (and Chakavian) dialects which was contrary to the original vision of Zagreb school. With the notable exception of vocabulary influence of Kajkavian on the standard Croatian register (but not the Serbian one), there was very little to no input from other non-Shtokavian dialects.[64] Instead, the opposite was done, with some modern-day linguists calling the process of 19th-century standardization an event of "neo-Shtokavian purism" and a "purge of non-Shtokavian elements".[30]

Early 20th century witnessed a drastic increase in released Kajkavian literature, although by then it had become part of what was considered Croatian dialectal poetry with no pretense of serving as a standard written form. The most notable writers of this period were among others, Antun Gustav Matoš, Miroslav Krleža, Ivan Goran Kovačić, Dragutin Domjanić and Nikola Pavić.

Kajkavian lexical treasure is being published by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskoga književnoga jezika ("Dictionary of the Croatian Kajkavian Literary Language", 8 volumes, 1999).

Later, Dario Vid Balog, actor, linguist and writer translated the New Testament in Kajkavian.[65]

In 2018 is published the Kajkavian translation of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince (Le Petit Prince) by Kajkavsko spravišče aka Mali kralevič.[66]

Below are examples of the Lord's Prayer in the Croatian variant of Shtokavian, literary Kajkavian and a Međimurje variant of the Kajkavian dialect.

Standard Croatian Literary Kajkavian Međimurje-Kajkavian Standard Slovene


Oče naš, koji jesi na nebesima,
sveti se ime tvoje,
dođi kraljevstvo tvoje,
budi volja tvoja,
kako na nebu tako i na zemlji.
Kruh naš svagdanji daj
nam danas
i otpusti nam duge naše,
kako i mi otpuštamo dužnicima našim,
i ne uvedi nas u napast,
nego izbavi nas od zla.
Amen.


Otec naš, koj si na nebesi,
sveti se ime tvoje,
dojdi kralestvo tvoje,
budi vola tvoja,
kak na nebu tak i na zemli.
Kruh naš vsagdašni dej
nam denes.
I otpusti nam duge naše,
kak i mi otpuščamo dužnikom našim,
i ne vpelaj nas vu skušavanje,
nego oslobodi nas od zla.
Amen.[67]


Japek naš ki si v nebesaj,
nek se sveti ime Tvoje,
nek prihaja cesarstvo Tvoje,
nek bo volja Tvoja,
kakti na nebi tak pa na zemlji.
Kruhek naš vsakdaneši daj
nam denes
ter odpuščaj nam duge naše,
kakti i mi odpuščamo dužnikom našim,
ter naj nas vpelati v skušnje,
nek zbavi nas od vsakih hudobah.
Amen.


Oče naš, ki si v nebesih,
posvečeno bodi tvoje ime,
pridi k nam tvoje kraljestvo,
zgodi se tvoja volja
kakor v nebesih tako na zemlji.
Daj nam danes naš vsakdanji kruh
in odpusti nam naše dolge,
kakor tudi mi odpuščamo svojim dolžnikom,
in ne vpelji nas v skušnjavo,
temveč reši nas hudega.
Amen.

Vocabulary comparison

What follows is a comparison of some words in Kajkavian, Shtokavian and Slovene along with their English translations. Kajkavian is lexically closer to Slovene than to the Croatian Shtokavian dialects, which is considered by some another argument that Kajkavian is a separate language. The Kajkavian words are given in their most common orthographic form. Shtokavian words are given in their standard Croatian form. In cases where the place of accent or stress differs, the syllable with the stress or accent is indicated in bold. Words that are the same in all three are not listed. Loanwords are also not listed.

Kajkavian Slovene Shtokavian English
kaj kaj što what
k/teri kateri koji which
reč beseda riječ word
več več više more
povedati povedati kazati to say, to tell
gda kdaj/ko kada when, ever
nigdar nikoli/ nikdar nikada never
vse vse sve all
iti iti ići to go
tu tukaj tu here
gde kje gdje where
negde nekje negdje somewhere
vleči vleči vući to tug, to drag
obleči obleči odjenuti to dress
oditi oditi otići to leave, to go
dete otrok dijete child
deska deska ploča board
leto leto godina year
imeti imeti imati to have
vekši večji veći bigger, larger
bolši boljši bolji better
razmeti razumeti razumjeti to understand
zdignuti dvigniti dignuti to lift, to raise
črlen rd crven red
črn črn crni black
bel bel bijeli white
gorši slabši gori worse
pes pes pas dog
narediti narediti uraditi to do
pisec pisec pisac writer
iskati iskati tražiti to search
boleti boleti boljeti to hurt
broj število broj number
igrati igrati igrati to play
vrnuti vrniti vratiti to return
hiža hiša kuća house
včera včeraj jučer yesterday
zaprti zapreti zatvoriti to close, to shut
delati delati raditi to work
vre že već already
komaj komaj jedva barely
veha veja grana branch
pozoj zmaj zmaj dragon
jajce jajce jaje egg
človek človek čovjek hu/man
megla megla magla fog
dešč dež kiša rain
žganica žganje rakija brandy

Kajkavian media

During Yugoslavia in the 20th century, Kajkavian was mostly restricted to private communication, poetry and folklore. With the recent regional democratizing and cultural revival beginning in the 1990s, Kajkavian partly regained its former half-public position chiefly in Zagorje and Varaždin Counties and local towns, where there is now some public media e.g.:

Examples

See also

References

  1. ^ "Hrvatski jezični portal (1)". Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  2. ^ "Hrvatski jezični portal (2)". Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  3. ^ Klaus J. Mattheier (1991). Sociolinguistica. M. Niemeyer. ISBN 978-3-484-60368-4.
  4. ^ Eliasson, Stig; Jahr, Ernst Håkon, eds. (1997). Language and Its Ecology: Essays in Memory of Einar Haugen. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-3-11-014688-2.
  5. ^ Greenberg, Marc L. (2008). A Short Reference Grammar of Slovene. Lincom Europa. ISBN 978-3-89586-965-5.
  6. ^ Alexander, Ronelle (2006). Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary. The University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-299-21193-6.
  7. ^ Comrie, Bernard, ed. (2009). The World's Major Languages (2nd ed.). Routledge. pp. 331–. ISBN 978-1-134-26156-7.
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  9. ^ Gilbers, Dicky; Nerbonne, John A.; Schaeken, J., eds. (2000). Languages in Contact. Rodopi. pp. 160–. ISBN 90-420-1322-2.
  10. ^ Zelić-Bučan, Benedikta (2000). "The National Name of the Croatian Language Throughout History". Journal of Croatian Studies. 41: 56–112. doi:10.5840/jcroatstud2000414.
  11. ^ Svet med Muro in Dravo: Ob stoletnici 1. slovenskega tabora v Ljutomeru 1868–1968. Skupščina občine. 1968.
  12. ^ Golec, Boris. Hrvaški etnonim in lingvonim na Slovenskem v 17. in 18. stoletju s posebnim ozirom na Prekmurje [The Croatian ethnonym and linguonym in Slovene lands during 17th and 18th century with special focus on Prekmurje] (PDF) (in Slovenian). p. 259. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Hrvatski – Zaseban jezik". jezik.hr. Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics. Retrieved 8 April 2023. Pridjev kajkavski po podatcima iz Akademijina rječnika prvi je upotrijebio Đuro Daničić, a u Habdelićevu i Belostenčevu rječniku nije naveden. U Rječniku hrvatskoga kajkavskog književnog jezika potvrde za pridjev kajkavski nalazimo tek u Krležinim djelima. Kajkavska gramatika Ignaca Kristijanovića naziva se Grammatik der Kroatischen Mundart (1837.), iz čega je razvidno kako je i taj autor materinsko narječje nazivao hrvatskim imenom.
  14. ^ Matasović 2008, p. 66:Moguš (1971: 23 i dalje) slijedi Junkovića (disertacija iz 1967., objavljena 1972) u pobijanju Ramovševih (1936) izoglosa kojima se kajkavski genetskolingvistički pripisuje slovenskomu jeziku. Premda nije posve eksplicitan, i on, čini se, vjeruje u genetsko jedinstvo čakavskoga, kajkavskoga i štokavskoga. M. Lončarić (2005: 46) dopušta mogučnost da se iz zapadnojužnoslavenskoga izdvojilo pet primarnih odvjetaka: slovenski, kajkavski, čakavski, šćakavski (zapadnoštokavski) i (istočno-)štokavski, što je u osnovi i naša teza.
  15. ^ a b c Kapović 2015, p. 44–45
  16. ^ a b Lončarić, Mijo (1988). "Rani razvitak kajkavštine" [Early development of Kajkavian]. Rasprave (in Croatian). 14 (1): 92–99. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  17. ^ Matasović 2008, p. 65
  18. ^ Henrik Birnbaum; Jaan Puhvel (1966). Ancient Indo-European Dialects: Proceedings of the Conference on Indo-European Linguistics Held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25-27, 1963. University of California Press. pp. 188–. GGKEY:JUG4225Y4H2.
  19. ^ Ivšić, Stjepan (1996). Lisac, Josip (ed.). Jezik Hrvata kajkavaca [The Language of the Kajkavian Croats] (in Croatian) (New ed.). Zaprešić: Matica hrvatska.
  20. ^ Silić, Josip (1998), Hrvatski standardni jezik i hrvatska narječja, Kolo. 8, 4, p. 425-430.
  21. ^ Ivašković, Igor (2020). "Razlikovanje jezika u hrvatskom jezikoslovlju u svjetlu de Saussureove strukturalističke teorije" [Language Differentiation in Croatian Linguistics in the Light of de Saussure's Structuralist Theory]. Jezik (in Croatian). 67 (2–3): 62–67, 69.
  22. ^ Matasović 2008, p. 67
  23. ^ Kapović 2015, pp. 9–10, 63–66
  24. ^ Predrag Stepanović (1986). A Taxonomic Description of the Dialects of Serbs and Croats in Hungary: The Štokavian Dialect. Akad. K. ISBN 978-3-412-07484-5.
  25. ^ Matasović 2008, p. 35
  26. ^ Kapović, Mate (2006). "Najnovije jezične promjene u zagrebačkom govoru". Kolo (in Croatian). 4.
  27. ^ a b Martin Pütz; René Dirven (1 January 1996). The Construal of Space in Language and Thought. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-3-11-015243-2.
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References

Bibliography

Further reading