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Upper Sorbian
hornjoserbšćina, hornjoserbsce
Pronunciation[ˈhɔʁnʲɔˌsɛʁpʃtʃina]
Native toGermany
RegionSaxony
EthnicitySorbs
Native speakers
13,000 (2007)[1]
Latin (Sorbian alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in Saxony
Language codes
ISO 639-2hsb
ISO 639-3hsb
Glottologuppe1395
ELPUpper Sorbian
Linguasphere53-AAA-bb < 53-AAA-b < 53-AAA-b...-d (varieties: 53-AAA-bba to 53-AAA-bbf)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Upper Sorbian (endonym: hornjoserbšćina), occasionally referred to as Wendish,[2] is a minority language spoken by Sorbs, in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, which is today part of Saxony, Germany. It is grouped in the West Slavic language branch, together with Lower Sorbian, Czech, Polish, Silesian, Slovak, and Kashubian.

History

The history of the Upper Sorbian language in Germany began with the Slavic migrations during the 6th century AD. Beginning in the 12th century, there was a massive influx of rural Germanic settlers from Flanders, Saxony, Thuringia and Franconia. This so-called "Ostsiedlung" (eastern settlement or expansion) led to a slow but steady decline in use of the Sorbian language. In addition, in the Saxony region, the Sorbian language was legally subordinated to the German language. Language prohibitions were later added: In 1293, the Sorbian language was forbidden in Berne castle before the courts; in 1327 it was forbidden in Zwickau and Leipzig, and from 1424 on it was forbidden in Meissen. Further, there was the condition in many guilds of the cities of the area to accept only members of German-language origin.

However, the central areas of the Milzener and Lusitzer, in the area of today's Lusatia, were relatively unaffected by the new German language settlements and legal restrictions. The language therefore flourished there. By the 17th century, the number of Sorbian speakers in that area grew to over 300,000. The oldest evidence of written Upper Sorbian is the Burger Eydt Wendisch document, which was discovered in the city of Bautzen and dates to the year 1532.

Upper Sorbian in Germany

A bilingual sign in Germany; German in first place and Upper Sorbian in second

There are an estimated 20,000 to 25,000[citation needed] speakers of Upper Sorbian. Almost all of these live in the state of Saxony, chiefly in the district of Bautzen (Budyšin). The stronghold of the language is the village of Crostwitz (Chrósćicy) and the surrounding municipalities, especially to the west of it. In this core area, Upper Sorbian remains the predominant vernacular.

Phonology

Vowels

The vowel inventory of Upper Sorbian is exactly the same as that of Lower Sorbian.[3]

Vowel phonemes[4]
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Consonants

Consonant phonemes[3][12]
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar/
Uvular
Glottal
hard soft hard soft soft hard soft hard
Nasal m n
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡s (t͡sʲ) t͡ʃ
voiced (d͡z) d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced (v) z () ʒ ʁ ʁʲ
Approximant w l j

Final devoicing and assimilation

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)

Upper Sorbian has both final devoicing and regressive voicing assimilation, both word-internal and across word boundaries.[5][34] In the latter context, /x/ is voiced to [ɣ]. Regressive voicing assimilation does not occur before sonorants and /h/.[34]

Stress

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)

Samples

The Lord's Prayer in Upper Sorbian:

Wótče naš, kiž sy w njebjesach. Swjeć so Twoje mjeno. Přińdź Twoje kralestwo. Stań so Twoja wola, kaž na njebju, tak na zemi. Wšědny chlěb naš daj nam dźens. Wodaj nam naše winy, jako my tež wodawamy swojim winikam. A njewjedź nas do spytowanja, ale wumóž nas wot złeho. Amen.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Upper Sorbian:

Wšitcy čłowjekojo su wot naroda swobodni a su jenacy po dostojnosći a prawach. Woni su z rozumom a swědomjom wobdarjeni a maja mjezsobu w duchu bratrowstwa wobchadźeć.

(All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)[37]

See also

References

  1. ^ Upper Sorbian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "9780781807807: Sorbian (Wendish)-English English-Sorbian (Wendish) Concise Dictionary (Concise Dictionaries) (English and Sorbian Languages Edition) – AbeBooks – Strauch, Mercin: 0781807808".
  3. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  4. ^ a b c Howson (2017), pp. 363–634.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Stone (2002), p. 604.
  6. ^ a b c Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 32.
  7. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 33.
  8. ^ Howson (2017), p. 365.
  9. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 601, 606–607.
  10. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  11. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 31.
  12. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 46.
  13. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 35–37, 41, 46.
  14. ^ a b c Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 41.
  15. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:36–37, 41, 46). On page 36, the author states that Upper Sorbian /w/ is less velar than Polish /w/. The weakness of the velarization is confirmed by the corresponding image on page 37.
  16. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 36.
  17. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 603–604.
  18. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 37–41, 46.
  19. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 190–191.
  20. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 37, 39, 46.
  21. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 39, 46.
  22. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 38.
  23. ^ a b Zygis (2003), p. 191.
  24. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 40–41.
  25. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181, 190–191.
  26. ^ Zygis (2003), p. 180.
  27. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 600, 602.
  28. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 42–44, 46.
  29. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 26–27, 42–43.
  30. ^ Howson (2017), p. 362.
  31. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 43.
  32. ^ Howson (2017), pp. 362, 365.
  33. ^ Stone (2002), p. 602.
  34. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 26.
  35. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 27.
  36. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 28.
  37. ^ Sorbian at Omniglot.com

Bibliography

  • Howson, Phil (2017), "Upper Sorbian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 47 (3): 359–367, doi:10.1017/S0025100316000414, S2CID 232350142
  • Ross, Malcom. 2020. Syntax and contact-induced language change. In A. Grant (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Language Contact. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 123–154. [Upper Sorbian and German contact, with resulting changes in Sorbian]
  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina
  • Stone, Gerald (2002), "Sorbian (Upper and Lower)", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 593–685, ISBN 9780415280785
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175–213, doi:10.21248/zaspil.32.2003.191

Further reading

Dictionaries

Czech-Sorbian and Sorbian-Czech

German-Sorbian

Sorbian-German