Rusyn language
русинськый язык; руски язик
rusîns'kyj jazyk; ruski jazik
EthnicityRusyns
Native speakers
623,500 (2000–2006)[1]
Census population: 76,000. These are numbers from national official bureaus for statistics:
Slovakia – 38,679[2]
Serbia – 15,626[3]
Poland – 10,000[4]
Ukraine – 6,725[5]
Croatia – 2,337[6]
Hungary – 1,113[7]
Czech Republic – 777[8]
Early forms
Dialects
Cyrillic script (Rusyn alphabets)
Latin script (Slovakia)[10]
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3rue
Glottologrusy1239
Linguasphere53-AAA-ec < 53-AAA-e
(varieties: 53-AAA-eca to 53-AAA-ecc)
Idioma rusino.PNG
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Rusyn (/ˈrsɪn/;[15] Carpathian Rusyn: русиньскый язык, romanized: rusîn'skyj jazyk; Pannonian Rusyn: руски язик, romanized: ruski jazik),[16] also known by the older term, руснацькый язык, rusnac'kyj jazyk, 'Rusnak language',[17][18] is an East Slavic language spoken by Rusyns in several parts of Central and Eastern Europe, and written in the Cyrillic script.[19] The majority of speakers live in an area that spans from Transcarpathia, westward into eastern Slovakia and south-east Poland.[20] There is also a sizeable linguistic island in the Vojvodina, Serbia[20] and a Rusyn diaspora throughout the world.[21][22] Per the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Rusyn is officially recognized as a protected minority language by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Poland (as Lemko), Serbia, and Slovakia.[11]

In the English language, the term Rusyn is recognized officially by the ISO.[23] Other names are sometimes also used to refer to the language, mainly deriving from exonyms such as Ruthenian or Ruthene (UK: /rʊˈθn/, US: /rˈθn/),[24] that have more general meanings, and thus (by adding regional adjectives) some specific designations are formed, such as: Carpathian Ruthenian/Ruthene or Carpatho-Ruthenian/Ruthene.[25]

The categorization of Rusyn as a language or dialect is a source of controversy.[26] Czech, Slovak, and Hungarian, as well as American and some Polish and Serbian linguists treat it as a distinct language[27][needs update] (with its own ISO 639-3 code), whereas other scholars (in Ukraine, Poland, Serbia, and Romania) treat it as a Southwestern dialect of Ukrainian.[28][needs update]

Geographic distribution

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2021)

In terms of geographic distribution, Rusyn language is represented by two specific clusters: the first is encompassing Carpathian Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn varieties, and the second is represented by Pannonian Rusyn.[29]

Carpathian Rusyn is spoken in:

Pannonian Rusyn is spoken by the Pannonian Rusyns in the region of Vojvodina (in Serbia), and in a nearby region of Slavonia (in Croatia).

History

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2022)
The Rusyn Language in History

One of the dangers of any enterprise like the codification of a language is the desire to 'see' its history go back as far as possible. This danger affects every single language that may have had difficulties in gaining acceptance of its identity ... A good example is Ukrainian itself ... It was not recognized by ... the 19th century ('great') Russian establishment ... leading to a continued perception ... that Ukrainian was a 'dialect' of Russian ... Such treatment invariably led later Ukrainian scholars ... to refer to the language of those [earliest] features as not only 'old' Ukrainian but 'proto'-Ukrainian ... The desire to see the beginnings of Rusyn as existing before, say, the 18th century is entirely natural - it was clearly in evidence in that century, so the beginnings must have been earlier. In fact, it is possible to see linguistic traces of what we recognize as 'Rusyn' in documents in very early texts - but this is not to say that these texts were written in 'Old Rusyn'. It is safe to say that Rusyn begins to be quite recognizable in a more systematic fashion (in terms of modern Rusyn) by the 18th century. Of course, given the political and social histories of the region, and especially religious history, documents differ according to the region, time, and the (socio-)linguistic milieu in which they were composed - e.g., Church Slavonic, Russian, Latin, etc.

S. M. Pugh, The Rusyn Language, 2009[31]

The Niagovo Postilla (Njagovskie poučenija), dated to 1758, is one of the earliest texts possessing significant phonetic and morphological characteristics of modern Rusyn (specifically the Subcarpathian variant) and is potentially "linguistically traceable" to the 16th century.[32][33]

By the 18th century, the Rusyn language was "clearly in evidence" and "quite recognizable in a more systematic fashion".[34]

The first books produced exclusively for Rusyn readership were printed under the direction of bishop of Mukachevo, Joseph Decamillis (r. 1690 - 1706). Under his direction, the printshop at the University of Trnava published a catechism (Katekhisis dlia naouki Ouhorouskim liudem, 1698) and an elementary language primer (Boukvar’ iazyka slaven’ska, 1699). For decades, these would be the only textbooks available to Rusyn students.[35]

Later, in 1767 Maria Theresa's Urbarium was published throughout the Habsburg Empire in a variety of languages, including Rusyn.[36][37]

Finally, under Bishop Andriy Bachynskyi’s tenure (r. 1773 - 1809) in the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo, new texts for Rusyn student readership were published. These several editions of Ioann Kutka's primer and catechism were published in Rusyn vernacular, though with heavy influence from Church Slavonic. [38]

19th century

By the 19th century, "attempts to write in a form of Russo-Church Slavonic with a Rusyn flavor, or a type of 'Subcarpathian Russian' with Rusyn phonetic fatures," began to be made. Notably, Myxajlo Lučkaj's grammar of the Subcarpathian variety of Church Slavonic, Grammatica Slavo-Ruthena, of 1830 had a "distinctly Rusyn flavor". And while Lučkaj did not support use of vernacular as a literary language (commenting on the proper usage of either lingua eruditorum et Communis plebis, 'the languages of the learned and the languages of the common people' in his Praefatio), he did include examples of "Rusyn paradigms" in his work to attempt demonstrate its similarity to Church Slavonic. Lučkaj in effect sought to prove the two languages were close sisters of a common ancestor. [32][39]

In 1847, Greek Catholic priest Alexander Dukhnovych published the first textbook written almost fully in common Rusyn vernacular, Knyzhytsia chytalnaia dlia nachynaiushchykh (A Reader for Beginners).[40]

Classification

The classification of the Rusyn language has historically been both linguistically and politically controversial. During the 19th century, several questions were raised among linguists, regarding the classification of East Slavic dialects that were spoken in the northeastern (Carpathian) regions of the Kingdom of Hungary, and also in neighbouring regions of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. On those questions, three main theories emerged:[41]

In spite of these linguistic disputes, official terminology used by the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy that ruled the Carpathian region remained unchanged. For Austro-Hungarian state authorities, the entire East Slavic linguistic body within the borders of the Monarchy was classified as Ruthenian language (German: ruthenische Sprache, Hungarian: Rutén nyelv), an archaic and exonymic term that remained in use until 1918.[42]

20th century

After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary (1918), the newly proclaimed Hungarian Republic recognized Rusyn regional autonomy in Subcarpathian regions and created, at the beginning of 1919, a department for Rusyn language and literature at the Budapest University.[43]

By the end of 1919, the region of Subcarpathian Ruthenia was appended to the newly formed Czechoslovak state, as its easternmost province. During the next twenty years, linguistic debates were continued between the same three options (pro-Russian, pro-Ukrainian, and local Rusyn), with Czechoslovak state authorities occasionally acting as arbiters.[44]

In March 1939, the region proclaimed independence under the name Carpatho-Ukraine, but it was immediately occupied and annexed by Hungary. The region was later occupied (1944) and annexed (1945) by the Soviet Union, and incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR,[45] which proceeded with implementation of Ukrainian linguistic standards. In Soviet Ukraine, Rusyns were not recognized as a distinctive ethnicity, and their language was considered a dialect of Ukrainian language. Poland employed similar policies,[46] using internal deportations to move many Eastern Slavs from southeastern to newly acquired western regions (Operation Vistula),[47] and switch their language to Polish, and Ukrainian at school.

During that period, the only country that was officially recognizing the Rusyn minority and its language was Yugoslavia.[48]

Post-Soviet Developments

Official usage of Pannonian Rusyn in Vojvodina, Serbia.
Official usage of Pannonian Rusyn in Vojvodina, Serbia.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, modern standards of minority rights were gradually applied throughout the Eastern Europe, thus affecting the attitude of several states towards the Rusyn language. As successors of Yugoslavia, Serbia and Croatia continued to recognize the Rusyn language as an official minority language.[49]

Scholars with the former Institute of Slavic and Balkan Studies in Moscow (now the Institute of Slavonic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences) formally acknowledged Rusyn as a separate language in 1992, and trained specialists to study the language.[50] These studies were financially supported by the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Since 1995, Rusyn has been recognized as a minority language in Slovakia, enjoying the status of an official language in municipalities where more than 20 percent of the inhabitants speak Rusyn.[51]

Contemporary status

Ukrainian state authorities do not recognize Rusyns as a separate ethnicity, regardless of Rusyn self-identification. Ukraine officially considered Rusyn a dialect of Ukrainian. In 2012, Ukraine adopted a new law, recognizing Rusyn as one of several minority and regional languages, but that law was revoked in 2014.[52]

Rusyn is recognized as an officially protected, minority language by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2011), Croatia (1997), Hungary (1998), Romania (2008), Poland (as Lemko, 2009), Serbia (2006), and Slovakia (2002).[11]

It is not possible to estimate accurately the number of fluent speakers of Rusyn; however, their number is estimated in the tens of thousands.[citation needed]

Grammars and codification

Early grammars include Dmytrij Vyslockij's (Дмитрий Вислоцкий) Карпаторусский букварь (Karpatorusskij bukvar') Vanja Hunjanky (1931),[53] Metodyj Trochanovskij's Буквар. Перша книжечка для народных школ. (Bukvar. Perša knyžečka dlja narodnıx škol.) (1935).,[54][55] and Ivan Harajda (1941).[22] The archaic Harajda's grammar is currently promoted in the Rusyn Wikipedia, although part of the articles are written using other standards (see below).

Currently, there are three codified varieties of Rusyn:

Though an official standard does not exist for the Subcarpathian Rusyn variety, M. Alamašij's and Igor Kerča's Materyns'kyj jazyk - pysemnycja rusyns'koho jazyka, serves as the de facto standard. Published in 1999, with a second edition published in 2004, and a 58,000 word Rusyn-Russian dictionary in 2007, Kerča's work is used by prominent Rusyn publishers in Uzhorod, albeit with variations between published works that are typical of the spoken language.[59][60]

Apart from these codified varieties, there are publications using a mixture of these standards (most notably in Hungary and in Transcarpathian Ukraine), as well as attempts to revitalize the pre-war etymological orthography with old Cyrillic letters (most notably ѣ, or yat'); the latter can be observed in multiple edits in the Rusyn Wikipedia, where various articles represent various codified varieties.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
hard soft hard soft
Nasal m n
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡sʲ t͡ʃ
voiced d͡z d͡zʲ d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ (ʃʲ) x h
voiced v z ʒ (ʒʲ)
Rhotic r
Approximant lateral l
central (w)[a] j
  1. ^ The [w] sound only exists within alteration of [v]. However, in the Lemko variety, the [w] sound also represents the non-palatalized L, as is the case with the Polish ł.

A soft consonant combination sound [ʃʲt͡ʃʲ] exists more among the northern and western dialects. In the eastern dialects the sound is recognized as [ʃʲʃʲ], including the area on which the standard dialect is based. It is noted that a combination sound like this one, could have evolved into a soft fricative sound [ʃʲ].[61]

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
ɪ ɤ
Mid ɛ o
Open a

Grammar

Noun declension

This section is missing information about Lemko and Subcarpathian declension. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (January 2022)

Declension in Rusyn is based on grammatical number, gender, and case. Like English, only two types of grammatical number are expressed: singular and plural. And like other Slavic languages, Rusyn has three grammatical genders: feminine, masculine, and neuter. Furthermore, like those languages, Rusyn uses a seven-case system of nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental, and vocative cases.[63]

One final point of note is that the masculine gender (and only the masculine gender) is further subdivided into animate and inanimate types. While there are no suffixes specific to animacy, declension between the two differs in that for animates, the form of the accusative case copies that of the genitive case.[63]

Grammatical cases

As mentioned in the preceding section, Rusyn cases are similar to those of other Slavic languages. A very general summary of usage is given in the table below, though proper usage depends on a particular situation, prepositions, and verbs used, as well as other extenuating circumstances.[63]

Cases in Rusyn
Full name (Rusyn) Case General Usage
номінатів nominative Subjects
акузатів accusative Direct objects
ґенітів genitive Possession or belonging ("of" or

"'s")

датів dative Indirect objects ("to" or "for")
локал locative Concerning location. Only used with prepositions such as "in", "on", etc.
інштрументал instrumental Concerning "means by which".
вокатів vocative Used to address another.

Nouns will generally decline differently to indicate each case (e.g. English they/them/their/theirs). Based on how they decline, nouns can be grouped into one of four "types".

Declension type I: feminines ending in -а/-я

This type consists of grammatically feminine nouns ending in (hard) or (soft) in the nominative case. The table below includes four examples of such nouns. The first two represent the archetypal feminine paradigm, while the second two represent a "common" or "two-fold gender" paradigm.

It is important to note that this second paradigm has atypical dative, locative, and instrumental singular suffixes which are actually representative of the male/neuter declension paradigm (visible later in this article). According to Pugh, this peculiarity developed as a result of the societal roles of "judge" and "elder" being traditionally patriarchal. This phenomenon is in contrast to grammatically feminine nouns of ambiguous gender where a particular role was not historically male-oriented, such as сирота, orphan. In these cases, the typical feminine paradigm is maintained.[64]

Feminine Nouns Ending in -а/-я in the Nominative Singular[64]
Archetypal Feminine Common/Two-Fold Gender
Hard Soft Hard Soft
Sg. Nominative школа земля старосту судця
Accusative школу землю старосту судцю
Genitive школы землї старосты судцї
Dative школї землї старостови судцёви
Locative школї земли старостови судцёви
Instrumental школов [a] землёв [a] старостов
старостом
судцём
Vocative школо землё старосто судцё
Pl. Nominative школы землї старостове
старосты
судцёве
судцї
Accusative школы землї старостів судцїв
Genitive школ земль старост
старостів
судцїв
Dative школам землям старостам
старостім
судцям
судцїм
Locative школам землях старостах
старостох
судцях
Instrumental школами землями старостами судцями
English school earth elder judge
  1. ^ a b -ов is pronounced as in English owe.

Declension type II: masculines and neuters

This declension type encompasses a very large set of vocabulary as it contains nouns of both masculine and neuter genders, hard and soft stems, as well as animate and inanimate beings (for the masculine gender).[65]

Masculines ending in consonants

This declension contains a large amount of identical forms (syncretism) between cases. Depending on the noun, the number of distinct forms may number from as few as 3 to as many as 6. For singular animate nouns, there is a single form for the accusative and genitive cases, as well as a single form for the dative and locative cases. Similarly, singular inanimate nouns share a form for nominative and locative cases.[66]

Masculine Nouns Ending in a Consonant in the Nominative Singular[66]
Animate Inanimate
Hard Soft Hard Soft
Sg. Nominative сын учітель стіл край
Accusative сына учітеля
Genitive [a][66] стола краю
Dative сынови учітелёви столу краю
Locative столї краю
Instrumental сыном учітелём стілом краём
Vocative сыну учітелю столе краю
Pl. Nominative сынове учітелї столы краї
Accusative сынів учітелїв столы краї
Genitive сынів учітелїв столы краї
Dative сынам
сынім
учітелям
учітелїм
столам
столім
краям
країм
Locative сынох
сынах
учітелях
учітелёх
столох
столах
краях
краёх
Instrumental сынами учітелями столами краями
English son teacher table area, region
  1. ^ For this declension, nouns may decline with either -u or -a. Use of one or the other depends on whether the concept or object is (very generally) abstract or tangible in nature. For instance, Pugh provides the following examples for the former: "anger, pain, reason, sugar, tea"; and the following for the latter: "table, nose, knife, et al."
Neuters or masculines ending in -o, neuters ending in -e or -а/-я

The following table demonstrates the declension paradigm for nouns with hard stems which end in -o in the nominative case. Though there are some masculine nouns in this category, these nouns are predominantly neuter.

Neuter or Masculine Nouns (with Hard Stems) Ending in -o in the Nominative Singular[67]
Masculine Neuter
Inanimate Animate
Sg. Nominative домиско дїдо село
Accusative доміиіско дїда[a] село
Genitive домиска дїда села
Dative домиску дїдови селу
Locative[b] домиску дїдови селї
Instrumental домиском дїдом селом
Vocative домиско дїду село
Pl. Nominative домиска дїдове села
Accusative домиска дїдів села
Genitive домиск дїдів сел
Dative домискам дїдам селам
Locative домисках/

домискох

дїдах/

дїдох

селах
Instrumental домисками дїдами селами
English large house, building grandfather village
  1. ^ This follows the typical masculine animate paradigm where the genitive takes the place of the accusative.
  2. ^ For the locative case, there are three possible suffixes: -ovy for animates, -i for inanimates (either masculine or neuter), and -u for stems ending in velar or soft consonants.
Neuter Nouns (with Soft Stems) Ending in -e and -а/-я in the Nominative Singular[68]
Soft in Nominative Hard in Nominative [a]
Sg. Nominative условіє значіня[b] поле сердце
Accusative условіє значіня поле сердце
Genitive условія значіня поля сердця
Dative условію значіню полю сердцю
Locative условієу/ условії значіню/ значінї плю/ полё сердцю/ сердцї
Instrumental условіём значінём полём сердцём
Pl. Nominative условія значіня поля сердця
Accusative условія значіня поля сердця
Genitive условіє значінь поль сердець/ сердць
Dative условіям значіням полям сердцям
Locative условіях значінях полях сердцях
Instrumental условіями значінями полями сердцями
English condition meaning field heart
  1. ^ Over time, soft consonants before -e have hardened in Rusyn.
  2. ^ This suffix changed over time from -e to -a.

Declension type III: other feminines

All nouns in this type are feminine. The paradigm can be identified by the following suffixes in the nominative singular case: a paired consonant (-cons.+ь),[i] an unpaired palato-alveolar consonant (, , щ, , or -дж),[ii] or the suffix -ов. Additionally, the noun мати, maty, 'mother' is also part of this type.

Feminine Nouns Ending in a Consonant and 'Mati'[70]
Paired Cons. Palato-Alveolar Cons. -ов мати
Sg. Nominative тїнь ніч мыш церков мати/ матїрь
Accusative тїнь ніч мыш церков матїрь
Genitive тїни ноч мышы церкви матери
Dative тїни ноч мыші церкви матери
Locative тїни ноч мыші церкви матери
Instrumental [a] тїнёв ночов мышов церковлёв матїрёв
Pl. Nominative тїни ноч мышы церкви матери
Accusative тїни ноч мышы церкви матери
Genitive тїней ночей мышей церквей матерей
Dative тїням ночам мышам церквам матерям
Locative тїнях ночах мышах церквах матерях
Instrumental тїнями ночами мышами церквами матерями
English shadow night mouse church mother
  1. ^ The declension for all feminine nouns in the instrumental case is the same (-ов) across all declension types.

Declension type IV: neuters ending in -а/-я

This declension paradigm is used very rarely. It entirely consists of grammatically neuter nouns. This paradigm can be identified by the -a suffix in the nominative and accusative cases, as well as the appearance of the affix -t- between the stem and suffix in other cases. There is no variation in this paradigm: all nouns decline in an identical manner.[71]

Type IV is predominantly made up of words referring to the young of animals and humans. However, this should not be taken as a hard rule as some nouns which historically declined differently (e.g. вымя, vŷmja, 'udder' and горня, hornja, 'cup, mug'), now decline according to this paradigm instead.[71]

Neuter Nouns Ending in -a and [72]
Sg. Nominative гуся гача вымя/ вымня
Accusative гуся гача вымя/ вымня
Genitive гусяти гачати вымяти/ вымняти
Dative гусяти гачати вымяти/ вымняти
Locative гусяти гачати вымяти/ вымняти
Instrumental гусятём гачатём вымятём/ вымнятём
Pl. Nominative гусята гачата вымята/ вымнята
Accusative гусята гачата вымята/ вымнята
Genitive гусята гачата вымята/ вымнята
Dative гусятам гачатам вымятам/ вымнятам
Locative гусятах гачатах вмятах/ вмнятах
Instrumental гусятами гачатами вымятами/ вымнятами
English gosling colt, foal udder

Verbal conjugation

This section is missing information about conjugation types. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (January 2022)

Verbs may be divided into two major conjugation types, which may be identified based on the "stem-marker" that appears during conjugation. Unfortunately, the infinitive verb forms are often ambiguous and as such, there is no general system that allows an infinitive to be identified as either Type I or Type II. Some infinitive suffixes, however, are unique to at least Type I, i.e. -ути, -овати, -нути, etc. In the following sections, the stem-markers are given in Latin as Cyrillic often obscures the markers in the conjugated forms.[73]

Conjugation type I

Type I may be divided into several sub-types, the most notable of which are the vowel+j stem-markers: -uj-, -ij-, -yj-, etc. It is important to remember that in the infinitive and some conjugations that the consonant, -j-, is truncated when followed by another consonant, e.g. -aj-ty → -a-ty.[74]

UJ stem markers

The -uj- set of verbs can be divided into two groups based the presence of the suffixal markers -ova- or -uj- in the infinitive. The former group representing the overwhelming majority of verbs in this type.[75]

Conjugation of Verbs with -UJ- Stem Marker[76]
-OVA- -UTY
Hard Soft Hard
Infinitive бісїдовати оновлёвати чути
Sg. 1st Person (I) бісїдую оновлюю чую
2nd Person (you) бісїдуєш оновлює чуєш
3rd Person (he, she, it) бісїдує оновлює чує
Pl. 1st Person (we) бісїдуєме оновлюєме чуєме
2nd Person (you all) бісїдуєте оновлюєте чуєте
3rd Person (they) бісїдують оновлюють чують
English to speak to renew to hear
IJ stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with -IJ- Stem Marker[77]
Infinitive зеленїти молодїти
Sg. 1st Person (I) зеленїю молодїю
2nd Person (you) зеленїєш молодїєш
3rd Person (he, she, it) зеленїє молодїє
Pl. 1st Person (we) зеленїєме молодїєме
2nd Person (you all) зеленїєте молодїєте
3rd Person (they) зеленїют молодїют
English to turn green to grow young
YJ stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with -YJ- Stem Marker[78]
Infinitive вити пити
Sg. 1st Person (I) вию пию
2nd Person (you) виєш пиєш
3rd Person (he, she, it) виє пиє
Pl. 1st Person (we) виєме пиєме
2nd Person (you all) виєте пиєте
3rd Person (they) виют пиют
English to wind to drink
ЫJ stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with -ЫJ- Stem Marker[79]
Infinitive крыти шыти
Sg. 1st Person (I) крыю шыю
2nd Person (you) крыєш шыєш
3rd Person (he, she, it) крыє шыє
Pl. 1st Person (we) крыєме шыєме
2nd Person (you all) крыєте шыєте
3rd Person (they) крыют шыют
English to cover to sew
A(J) stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with -A(J)- Stem Marker[80]
-ATY -ЫVA-
Infinitive чітати мати одкрывати
Sg. 1st Person (I) чітам мам одкрывам
2nd Person (you) чіташ маш одкрываш
3rd Person (he, she, it) чітать мать одкрывать
Pl. 1st Person (we) чітаме маме одкрываме
2nd Person (you all) чітате мате одкрывате
3rd Person (they) чітають мають одкрывають
English to read to have to discover
AVA stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with -AVA- Stem Marker[81]
-AVA- -AJ- -AVA- -AJ-
Infinitive давати узнавати
Sg. 1st Person (I) давам даю узнавам узнаю
2nd Person (you) даваш даєш узнаваш узнаєш
3rd Person (he, she, it) давать дає узнавать узнає
Pl. 1st Person (we) даваме даме узнаваме узнаме
2nd Person (you all) давате дате узнавате ьзнате
3rd Person (they) давають дають узнавають узнають
English to give
A stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with -A- Stem Marker[82]
Infinitive пичати указати скатати послати насыпати
Sg. 1st Person (I) пишу укажу скачу пошлю насылплю
2nd Person (you) пишеш укажеш скачу пошлю насыплеш
3rd Person (he, she, it) пише укаже скаче пошлю насыпле
Pl. 1st Person (we) пишеме укажеме скачеме пошлеме насыплеме
2nd Person (you all) пишете укажете скачете пошлете насыплете
3rd Person (they) пишуть укажуть скачуть пошлють насыплють
English to write to show to hop or jump to send to strew
NU stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with -NU- Stem Marker[83]
Infinitive вернути привыкнути
Sg. 1st Person (I) верну привыкну
2nd Person (you) вернеш привыкнеш
3rd Person (he, she, it) верне привыкне
Pl. 1st Person (we) вернеме привыкнеме
2nd Person (you all) вернете привыкнете
3rd Person (they) вернуть привыкнуть
English to return to become accustomed to
Non-syllabic stem markers
Conjugation of Verbs with Non-Syllabic Stem Markers[84]
CCV-ty > CVC- CCV-ty > CVCC- CV-ty > CC- CVC-ty > CC- CCV-ty > CC-
Infinitive брати взяти жати зачати выняти дерти рвати
Sg. 1st Person (I) веру бозьму жну зачну выйму дру рву
2nd Person (you) вереш бозьеш жнеш зачеш выймеш дреш рвеш
3rd Person (he, she, it) вере бозье жне заче выйме дре рвеш
Pl. 1st Person (we) време бозьеме жнеме зачеме выймеме дреме рвеме
2nd Person (you all) врете бозьете жнете зачете выймете дрете рвете
3rd Person (they) вруть бозьуть жнуть зачуть выумуть друть рвуть
English to take to take to reap to begin to draw or pull out to thrash or whip to tear
Consonant stems
Conjugation of Verbs With Stems Ending in Consonants[85]
Infinitive нести вести течі мочі іти лячі
Sg. 1st Person (I) несу веду течу можу іду ляжу
2nd Person (you) несеш ведеш течеш можеш ідеш ляжеш
3rd Person (he, she, it) несе веде тече може іде ляже
Pl. 1st Person (we) несеме ведеме течеме можеме ідеме ляжеме
2nd Person (you all) несете ведете течете можете ідете ляжете
3rd Person (they) несуть ведуть течуть можуть ідуть ляжуть
English to carry to lead to flow to be able to go to lie down

Conjugation type II

Y-type I
Conjugation of Y(1) Type Verbs[86]
Infinitive говорити пилити глыти
Sg. 1st Person (I) гово пилю глушу
2nd Person (you) говориш пилиш глушыш
3rd Person (he, she, it) говорить пилить глушыть
Pl. 1st Person (we) говориме пилиме глушым
2nd Person (you all) говорите пилме глушыте
3rd Person (they) говоть пилять глушать
English to say or speak to saw (wood) to muffle, stifle or make quiet
Y-type II
Conjugation of Y(2) Type Verbs[87]
Infinitive бозити гасити патити пустити ходити
Sg. 1st Person (I) божу гашу пачу пущу ходжу
2nd Person (you) бозиш гасиш гатиш пустиш ходиш
3rd Person (he, she, it) бозить гасить гатить пустить ходить
Pl. 1st Person (we) бозиме гасиме гатиме пустиме ходиме
2nd Person (you all) бозите гасите гатите пустите ходите
3rd Person (they) бозять гатять гатять пустять ходять
English to take by vehicle to put out or extinguish to erect a dam or barrier to admit or allow in to go or walk
I-type
Conjugation of І-Type Verbs[88]
Infinitive трубіти шелестіти вертіти летїти свистїти
Sg. 1st Person (I) трублю шелещу верчу печу свищу
2nd Person (you) трубиш шелестиш вертиш летиш свистиш
3rd Person (he, she, it) трубить шелестить вертить летить свистить
Pl. 1st Person (we)8 трубиме шелестиме вертиме летиме свистиме
2nd Person (you all) трубите шелестите вертите летите свистите
3rd Person (they) трублять шелестять вертят летять свистять
English to trumpet to rustle to drill or turn to fly to whistle
Palato-Alveolar Stems
Conjugation of 'Palato-Alveolar'-А Verbs[89]
Infinitive бурчати верещати лежати кричати бояти ся стояти
Sg. 1st Person (I) бурчу верещу лежу кричу бою ся стою
2nd Person (you) бурчіш верещіш лежыш кричіш боїш ся стоїш
3rd Person (he, she, it) бурчіть верещіть лежыть кричіт боїт ся стоїт
Pl. 1st Person (we) бурчіме верещіме лежыме кричіме боїме ся стоїме
2nd Person (you all) бурчіте верещіте лежыте кричіте боїте ся стоїте
3rd Person (they) бурчать верещать лежать кричать боять ся стоять
English to mutter to screech or squeal to lie on something to fear to stand

Irregular Verbs

Conjugation of Y(2) Type Verbs[90]
Infinitive їсти дати быти повісти
Sg. 1st Person (I) їм дам єм повім
2nd Person (you) їш даш єсь повіш
3rd Person (he, she, it) їсть дасть є повість
Pl. 1st Person (we) їме даме сьме повіме
2nd Person (you all) їсте дате, дасте сьте повісте
3rd Person (they) їдяать дадуть суть повідять
English to eat to give to be to tell

Alphabet

Each of the Rusyn standard varieties has its own Cyrillic alphabet. The table below shows the Rusyn alphabet of the Prešov Standard, with notes on other varieties. The alphabets of the other Carpathian Rusyn varieties, Lemko Rusyn and Subcarpathian Rusyn, differ from the Prešov Standard in lacking ё and ї. For the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet, see Pannonian Rusyn language § Alphabet.[citation needed]

Romanization (transliteration) is given according to ALA-LC,[91] BGN/PCGN,[92] generic European,[citation needed] ISO/R9 1968 (IDS),[93] and ISO 9.

Capital Small Name Romanization Pronunciation
ALA BGN Euro IDS ISO
А а a a a a a a /a/ (listen)
Б б бы b b b b b /b/ (listen)
В в вы v v v v v /v/ (listen)
Г г гы h h h h h /ɦ/ (listen)
Ґ ґ ґы g g g g g /ɡ/ (listen)
Д д ды d d d d d /d/ (listen)
Е е e e e e e e /ɛ/ (listen)
Є є є i͡e je je/'e je ê /je, ʲe/
Ё [a][b] ё ё ë jo jo/'o ë /jo, ʲo/
Ж ж жы z͡h ž ž ž ž /ʒ/ (listen)
З з зы z z z z z /z/ (listen)
І [b] і i i i i i ì /i/ (listen)
Ї [a] ї ї ï ji ji/'i ï ï /ji, ʲi/
И [c] и и i/y y î i i /ɪ/ (listen)
Ы [b] ы ы ŷ y y y/ŷ y /ɨ/ (listen)
Й й йы ĭ j j j j /j/ (listen)
К к кы k k k k k /k/ (listen)
Л л лы l l l l l /l/ (listen)
М м мы m m m m m /m/ (listen)
Н н ны n n n n n /n/ (listen)
О о o o o o o o /ɔ/ (listen)
П п пы p p p p p /p/ (listen)
Р р ры r r r r r /r/ (listen)
С с сы s s s s s /s/ (listen)
Т т ты t t t t t /t/ (listen)
У у у u u u u u /u/ (listen)
Ф ф фы f f f f f /f/ (listen)
Х х хы k͡h ch ch ch h /x/ (listen)
Ц ц цы t͡s c c c c /t͡s/ (listen)
Ч ч чы ch č č č č /t͡ʃ/ (listen)
Ш ш шы s͡h š š š š /ʃ/ (listen)
Щ щ щы shch šč šč šč ŝ /ʃt͡ʃ/
Ю ю ю і͡u ju ju/'u ju û /ju, ʲu/
Я я я i͡a ja ja/'a ja â /ja, ʲa/
Ь [d] ь мнягкый знак
(English: soft sign)
or ірь
' /ʲ/
Ъ [b][e] ъ твердый знак (ір) "

Usage notes

  1. 1 2 Not used in Lemko.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Not used in Pannonian Rusyn.
  3. 1 The Pannonian Rusyn alphabet places this letter directly after з, like the Ukrainian alphabet. According to ALA–LC romanization, it is romanized i for Pannonian Rusyn and y otherwise.
  4. 1 "Soft Sign": marks the preceding consonant as palatalized (soft)
  5. 1 "Hard Sign": marks the preceding consonant as NOT palatalized (hard).
  6. In Ukraine, usage is found of the letters о̄ and ӯ.[95][96][97]
  7. Until World War II, the letter ѣ (їть or yat') was used, and was pronounced /ji, ʲi/ or /i/ (listen). This letter is still used in part of the articles in the Rusyn Wikipedia.

Number of letters and relationship to the Ukrainian alphabet

The Prešov Rusyn alphabet of Slovakia has 36 letters. It includes all the letters of the Ukrainian alphabet plus ё, ы, and ъ.

The Lemko Rusyn alphabet of Poland has 34 letters. It includes all the Ukrainian letters with the exception of ї, plus ы and ъ.

The Pannonian Rusyn alphabet has 32 letters, namely all the Ukrainian letters except і.

Alphabetical order

The Rusyn alphabets all place ь after я, as the Ukrainian alphabet did until 1990. The vast majority of Cyrillic alphabets place ь before э (if present), ю, and я.

The Lemko and Prešov Rusyn alphabets place ъ at the very end, while the vast majority of Cyrillic alphabets place it after щ. They also place ы before й, while the vast majority of Cyrillic alphabets place it after ш, щ (if present), and ъ (if present).

In the Prešov Rusyn alphabet, і and ї come before и, and likewise, і comes before и in the Lemko Rusyn alphabet (which doesn't have ї). In the Ukrainian alphabet, however, и precedes і and ї, and the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet (which doesn't have і) follows this precedent by placing и before ї.

The ISO process

This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: Pannonian Rusyn has an ISO code since January 2020. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2022)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has assigned an ISO 639-3 code (rue) for Rusyn language.[98]

In April 2019, a group of linguists (including Aleksandr Dulichenko), supported a proposal that was addressed to the ISO, requesting suppression of the code (rue) and division of Rusyn language in two distinctive and separate languages, that would be named as: East Rusyn language (designating Carpathian Rusyn varieties), and South Rusyn language (designating Pannonian Rusyn varieties). In January 2020, the ISO authorities rejected the request.[99]

In November 2020, the same group of linguists, with some additional support, formulated a new proposal, also addressed to the ISO, requesting recognition of a new language, under the proposed name: Ruthenian language (with additional designation as: Rusnak language). According to their proposal, that designation would represent a specific linguistic variety, that was referred to in their previous proposal (from April 2019) as South Rusyn (otherwise known as Pannonian Rusyn, a term not mentioned in either of two proposals). The request is still under deliberation.[100]

If granted, the pending request from November 2020 would have various implications, both in the fields of ISO classification and terminology. Eventual recognition of the proposed new language would effectively reduce the scope of the present code (rue) to Carpathian varieties of Rusyn language, thus leading to an outcome that was already rejected by ISO authorities in January 2020.[101]

The proposal from November 2020 did not provide an explanation for terminological transition from initially proposed term South Rusyn (2019) to newly proposed terms Ruthenian and Rusnak (2020).[102] Both terms (Ruthenian and Rusnak) that are claimed for the proposed new language (encompassing only Pannonian varieties of Rusyn language), already have much wider and well established meanings, both in historical and scientific terminology. In the field of Slavistic studies, the term Ruthenian language is used primarily as a common exonymic designation for former East Slavic linguistic varieties that were spoken on the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine during the late medieval and early modern periods, from the 15th up to the 18th centuries.[103]

The other term (Rusnak), that was included in the November 2020 proposal as a requested alternative designation for the linguistic variety spoken by Pannonian Rusyns, also has much wider meaning, since it is used by both Pannonian and Carpathian Rusyns as one of several self-designations for their people and language,[17][18] thus revealing the lack of basis for the requested reduction of that term to only one of those groups.

Newspapers

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See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The terms "paired" and "unpaired" refer to a consonant’s use with the soft sign, the letter ь. Consonants that can be palatalized with the soft sign are referred to as "paired consonants", as in the case of н/нь. Others that are inherently hard or soft and never appear with ь are referred to as "unpaired consonants", as in the cases of the letters к or ч.[69]
  2. ^ a b Pugh refers to these collectively as "hushers".

References

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