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Nogai
ногай тили, ногайша (nogay tili, nogayşa)
Native toNorth Caucasus, Dobruja (Romania and Bulgaria), Turkey, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, in the time of Nogai Horde and Crimean Khanate also Crimea (Jamboyluk, Jedisan, Yedickul, Kuban, Budjak)
RegionCaucasus, Dobruja
EthnicityNogais
Native speakers
87,000 (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Cyrillic, Latin[2][3]
Official status
Official language in
Dagestan (Russia)
Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia)
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2nog
ISO 639-3nog
Glottolognoga1249
ELPNoghay
 Alabugat Tatar[5]

Nogai (/nˈɡ/; Ногай тили, Nogay tili, Ногайша, Nogayşa) also known as Noğay, Noghay, Nogay or Nogai Tatar, is a Turkic language spoken in Southeastern European Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania and in Turkey. It is the ancestral language of the Nogais. Is from the Kipchak-Nogai branch and the languages Kazakh, Karakalpak and Crimean Tatar (northern dialect) are similar to the nogai language. In 2014 is the first Nogai novel book published, called "Akşa Nenem" and is written in latin alphabet.[6]

Classification

Nogai is generally classified into the Kipchak–Nogai branch of Kipchak Turkic.[7] The latter also includes Siberian Tatar in Russia, Kazakh in Kazakhstan and Karakalpak in Uzbekistan.

Three distinct dialects are recognized:

The outlying Yurt and Alabugat dialects, or Nogai Tatars, is divergent due to Tatar influence.

Karagash, Yurt and Utar are three more varieties sometimes classified as Nogai dialects but the Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences recognizes them as separate languages.[8]

History

The Nogai, descended from the peoples of the Golden Horde, take their name and that of their language from the grandson of Genghis Khan, Nogai Khan, who ruled the nomadic people west of the Danube toward the end of the 13th century. They then settled along the Black Sea coast of present-day Ukraine.

Originally, the Nogai alphabet was based on the Arabic script. In 1928, a Latin alphabet was introduced. It was devised by the Nogai academic Abdul-Khamid Shershenbievich Dzhanibekov [ru] (Djanibek), following principles adopted for all Turkic languages.

In 1938, a transition to the Cyrillic alphabet began. The orthography based on the Latin alphabet was alleged to be an impediment to learning Russian.

The expulsion of the Nogai from Ukraine in the nineteenth century separated Nogai speakers into several geographically isolated groups. Some went to Turkey and Romania, while others stayed within the Russian Empire, settling in northern Dagestan and neighbouring areas of Chechnya and Stavropol Kray.

The Nogai language has disappeared very rapidly in Turkey. Today it is mostly spoken by the older generation, however there are still younger speakers, as there are some villages in Turkey where it is a common mode of communication. In the Soviet Union the language of instruction in schools was Russian, and the number of speakers declined there also. Recent estimates place the total number of Nogai speakers at about 80,000.

In 1973, two small Nogai-language newspapers were being published, one in Karachay–Cherkessia and another in the Dagestan Autonomous SSR (Ленин йолы), but most speakers never heard of these publications, and the papers did not reach Nogai villages.

Nogai is now part of the school curriculum from the 1st to the 10th year in the Nogai District of Dagestan. It is also taught at the Karachayevo-Cherkess Pedagogical School and the national branch of the Pedagogical Institute.

Phonology

Vowels
Front Back
Close i, y ɯ, u
Mid e o
Open æ, œ a
Consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Plosive p, b t, d k, ɡ q
Fricative (f, v) s, z ʃ, ʒ [χ], [ʁ]
Affricate (ts) (tʃ), dʒ
Nasal m n ŋ
Liquid l, r
Approximant w j

Phonemes in brackets indicate allophones, and parentheses indicate copied lexical sounds.[9]

Alphabet

Main article: Nogai alphabets

There are 3 stages in the history of Nogai writing:

The Nogai alphabet based on Cyrillic was created in 1938. It included all of the Russian alphabet letters except Ё ё, and also the digraphs Гъ гъ, Къ къ, Нъ нъ. The digraphs Оь оь, Уь уь were added in the same year. In 1944 the digraphs Гъ гъ, Къ къ were excluded from the alphabet.

The last reform of the Nogai writing took place in 1960, when, as a result of discussions at the Karachay-Cherkessia Research Institute, Language and Literature, the letters Аь аь and Ё ё were added to it. After that, the Nogai alphabet took its present form.[10]

Modern Nogai alphabet:

А а Аь аь Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Нъ нъ О о Оь оь П п
Р р С с Т т У у Уь уь Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш
Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

References

  1. ^ Nogai at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Nogai language and alphabets".
  3. ^ The first Nogai novel book is written in latin alphabet: http://www.turkevi.org/ilk-nogayca-roman-kitabi-yayinlandi/
  4. ^ "Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 - European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  5. ^ Endangered Languages Project data for Alabugat Tatar.
  6. ^ "İlk Nogayca roman kitabı yayınlandı… – türkevi araştırmalar merkezi".
  7. ^ "Glottolog 4.4 - Nogai". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2021-07-25.
  8. ^ Koryakov, Yuri. "Languages of Russia". Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  9. ^ Lars Johanson, Éva Ágnes Csató (1998). The Turkic Languages.
  10. ^ Калмыкова, С. А. (1972). Вопросы совершенствования алфавитов тюркских языков СССР: Алфавит ногайского языка. Наука (in Russian): 118–125.