.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (April 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Russian article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 1,220 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at [[:ru:Рутульский язык]]; see its history for attribution. You may also add the template ((Translated|ru|Рутульский язык)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
мыхаӀбишды чӀел
Pronunciationmɨχaˤbišdɨ č’ɛl
Native toNorth Caucasus, Azerbaijan
RegionSouthern Dagestan, Russian–Azerbaijani border
Native speakers
36,400 (2010 census)[1]
Official status
Official language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3rut
Rutul in the Caucasus
Rutul is classified as Definitely Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2010)

Rutul or Rutulian[2][3] is a language spoken by the Rutuls, an ethnic group living in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan. It is spoken by 30,000 people in Dagestan (2010 census)[4] and 17,000 (no date) in Azerbaijan.[5] The word Rutul derives from the name of a Dagestani village where speakers of this language make up the majority.[6][full citation needed]

Rutul is endangered in Russia[7] and classified as "definitely endangered" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[8]


Rutul belongs to the Lezgic group of the Northeast Caucasian language family. The Rutuls call their language mɨχaˤbišdɨ č’ɛl.[9]


Rutul was not a written language until the writing system for it (based on Cyrillic) was developed in 1990. A Latin alphabet was developed in 2013 based on the Shin-Shorsu dialect.[10] Speakers are often bilingual or multilingual, having a good command of the Azeri, Lezgian and/or Russian languages. There are 8 dialects and 2 subdialects of Rutul. The literary version of the language remains in the process of development. In the Rutul-populated regions of southern Russia, Rutul is taught in primary schools (grades 1 to 4).[6][full citation needed]



Vowel phonemes[11]
Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ ɨː u
Mid ɛ
Open æ ɑ ɑː


Consonant phonemes[11]
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
plain lab. plain lab. plain lab. plain lab.
Nasal m n
Plosive voiced b d ɡ ɡʷ ɢ ɢʷ
voiceless p t k q ʡ ʔ
ejective kʷʼ qʷʼ
Affricate voiced d͡z d͡ʒ d͡ʒʷ
voiceless t͡s t͡sʷ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʷ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡sʷʼ t͡ʃʼ t͡ʃʷʼ
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʃ ʃʷ x χ χʷ ħ h
voiced z (ʒ) ɣ ʁ ʁʷ ʢ
Trill r ʜ
Approximant w l j


Before the Russian Revolution, the Rutuls used the Arabic script. In the Arabic script (Ajami), as a written source, the text of the song in the Ikhrek dialect of the Rutul language of the ashug of the 18th century Kur Rajaba is known.[12] The modern Rutul alphabet based on the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced in 1990.[13] Arabic was used, among other things, when writing scientific papers. Turkish (Azerbaijani) language was also used in everyday life. The founders of the Rutul script and the compilers of the Rutul alphabet based on the Cyrillic alphabet are S.M. Makhmudova,[14][15] K.E. Jamalov,[16] G.K. Ibragimov.[17] In 1992 prof. Makhmudova S. M. and Jamalov K. E. published an ABC book in Rutul for grade 1 students - “Alifba: 1-classad kitab”.[14][18] In this edition, in addition to the previously adopted alphabet, the digraph Дз дз was introduced.[19] After that, three more school textbooks of the Rutul language were published: “Myhaӏd chael” (grades 2 and 4) and Recipes by S. M. Makhmudova and “Rutul chael” by E. Ismailova. In 2012-2013 a textbook on the Rutul language for universities was published: Grammar of the Rutul language, Part 1-2 by S. M. Makhmudova. In 2006, Dzhamalov K. E. and Semedov S. A. released a Rutul-Russian dictionary (Ihrek dialect)[16] In this edition, the letter Ь ь was excluded from the alphabet, but Аь аь was included.[19] In 2019, the Rutul-Russian dictionary by A. S. Alisultanov and T. A. Suleimanova was published.

The Rutuls have a rich literature dating back to the 11th century with the name of Zeinab Hinavi, an Albanian poet. The classic of Rutul, Lezgin and Azerbaijani poetry is the eighteenth-century ashug Kur-Rajab. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Rutul literature was developed and developed by Jameseb Salarov, Nurakhmed Ramazanov, Magomed Ulileev, Musa Makhmudov, Ezerchi, Yusif Medzhidov, Sakit Kurbanov, Shafi Ibragimov, Veysal Cherkezov and others. In 2008, the first generalizing work "Rutul literature" was published. , which provides information about Rutul writers, poets and ashugs.

Modern Rutul Alphabet:

А а АӀ аӀ Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Гь гь ГӀ гӀ Д д Е е Ё ё
Дж дж Ж ж Дз дз З з И и Й й К к Къ къ Кь кь КӀ кӀ Л л
М м Н н О о П п ПӀ пӀ Р р С с Т т ТӀ тӀ У у Уь уь
УӀ уӀ Ф ф Х х Хъ хъ Хь хь Ц ц ЦӀ цӀ Ч ч ЧӀ чӀ Ш ш Щ щ
Ъ ъ Ы ы ЫӀ ыӀ Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Comparison chart

IPA Cyrillic Latin IPA Cyrillic Latin
ɑ A a A a o О о O o
ɑˤ АӀ аӀ AӀ aӀ p П п P p
æ Аь аь Ə ə p' ПӀ пӀ P' p'
b Б б B b r Р р R r
ʋ В в V v s С с S s
g Г г G g t Т т T t
h Гь гь H h t' ТӀ тӀ T' t'
ʁ Гъ гъ Ğ ğ u У у U u
ɣ ГӀ гӀ Gh gh y Уь уь Ü ü
d Д д D d УӀ уӀ UӀ uӀ
d͡ʒ Дж дж C c f Ф ф F f
e Е е E e χ Х х X x
ʒ Ж ж J j x Хь хь Xh xh
z З з Z z q Хъ хъ Qh qh
i И и İ i t͡s Ц ц Ts ts
j Й й Y y t͡s' ЦӀ цӀ Ts' ts'
k К к K k t͡ʃ Ч ч Ç ç
q' Кь кь Q' q' t͡ʃ' ЧӀ чӀ Ç' ç'
ɢ Къ къ Q q ʃ Ш ш Ş ş
k' КӀ кӀ K' k' ʔ Ъ ъ '
l Л л L l ɨ Ы ы I ı
m М м M m ɨˤ ЫӀ ыӀ IӀ ıӀ
n Н н N n

Related languages

Among the languages of the Lezgic group, Tsakhur appears to be the closest relative of Rutul.[20] Other than these two, there are seven more languages in the Lezgic group, namely: Lezgian, Tabasaran, Aghul, Budukh, Kryts, Udi and Archi.

Rutul alphabet

See also


  1. ^ "Rutul". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  2. ^ Makhmudova, Svetlana. "Морфология Рутульского языка". elibrary.ru.
  3. ^ Svetlana Makhmudova (2001). "Морфология рутульского языка". www.academia.edu. Moscow. p. 202.
  4. ^ "Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года". Archived from the original on 2021-10-06. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
  5. ^ Rutul language at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013) Closed access icon
  6. ^ a b (in Russian) ETHEO: Rutul Language
  7. ^ Published in: Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages. Edited by Christopher Moseley. London & New York: Routledge, 2007. 211–280.
  8. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
  9. ^ Polinsky, Maria (2020). The Oxford handbook of languages of the Caucasus. Oxford handbooks. New York: Oxford university press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-19-069069-4.
  10. ^ Clarkson, Jonathan; Iurkova, Elena (December 2015). "Important Factors in the Development of an Orthography: Shin-Shorsu Rutul—a Case Study" (PDF). SIL Forum for Language Fieldwork 2015-002. SIL International. Archived from the original on 2016-08-13. Retrieved 2016-06-22.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  11. ^ a b G. X. Ibragimov. 2004. Rutul'skij Jazyk. Machacala: Maxačkala: Dagestanskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogičeskij Universitet.
  12. ^ Ибрагимов, Гарун Халилович (2001). "Рутульский язык". Языки Российской Федерации и соседних государств. Энциклопедия в 3-х томах. Vol. 2. М.: Наука. p. 493. ISBN 5-02-011268-2.
  13. ^ Джамалов К. Э., Маамыдова С. М. Алифба: 1-классад китаб. МагьаӀджкъала, 1992
  14. ^ a b Рутульская и агульская литература
  15. ^ "Институт Языкознания РАН — Рутульский язык". Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  16. ^ a b "Рутульцы". Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  17. ^ http://www.riadagestan.ru/news/society/v_makhachkale_sostoitsya_meropriyatie_posvyashchennoe_90_letiyu_izvestnogo_rossiyskogo_filologa_garuna_ibragimova/ Archived 2015-12-08 at the Wayback Machine В Махачкале состоится мероприятие, посвященное 90-летию известного российского филолога Гаруна Ибрагимова
  18. ^ Kazuto Matsumura (2002). Indigenous Minority Languages of Russia. A Bibliographical Guide (PDF). Токио, Япония: ELPR. p. 232. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2023-08-14. "Архивированная копия" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  19. ^ a b Алисултанов, А. С. (2017). К вопросу о внесении дополнений в алфавит рутульского языка (PDF). Языки малочисленных народов России: устное vs. письменное. СПб. pp. 7–9/68.
  20. ^ "The Tsakhur language". ETHEO Project (in Russian). 11 October 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2006.