Nyishi (Kamle)
Sarak
RegionArunachal Pradesh
EthnicityNyishi (Kamle) people
Native speakers
(undated figure of 10,100)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
Individual code:
mrg – (included under Plains Miri)
GlottologNone
ELPHill Miri

Nyishi (Kamle) or Sarak is a Tani language of India. It is spoken in Arunachal Pradesh by an estimated 9,000 people of the Nyishi tribe.[2] It appears to be a dialect of the Nishi language.[3]

Portrait of a girl of the Nyishi people of Kamle
Portrait of a girl of the Nyishi people of Kamle

Description

Nyishi (muri-mugli) is a member of the Tani branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages and is considered a dialect of the Nishi language. It is spoken by 9,000 people in the northern regions of India by the Nyishi people of Kamle.[4] It is threatened because the younger generation is slowly breaking away from their people's traditions and language.[5][6] Many audio books of gospel narratives in the Nyishi language of Kamle have been collected.

History of scholarship

George Abraham Grierson, in his survey of India regarding its linguistics, researched the Nyishi language and published a record over a century ago.[citation needed]

Phonology

Consonants

The following table includes an inventory of Nyishi (Kamle) consonants.[7]

Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ[8] ŋ
Stop voiceless p t c[9] k
voiced b d ɟ[10] ɡ
Fricative s ʃ h
Approximant w l j
Trill? r

Vowels are front /i, e/, central /ɨ, ʉ, ə, a/,[11] and back /u, o/. Vowels occur long and short.

Grammar

The basic Nyishi (Kamle) grammar and basic word order are like those of related Sino-Tibetan languages, similar to that of Nishi.

Numerals

Nyishi (Kamle)
1 aken
2 eñi
3 oum
4 epi
5 ango/angngo
6 ake
7 kenne
8 pine
9 kora
10 íri

Pronouns

Personal

Singular Plural
1st person ngo ngu-lu
2nd person no nu-lu
3rd person bu, bú bu-lu, bú-lu

References

  1. ^ Mising at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
  2. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2007). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Routledge. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  3. ^ Post, Mark W. (2013). Defoliating the Tani Stammbaum: An exercise in areal linguistics. Paper presented at the 13th Himalayan Languages Symposium. Canberra, Australian National University, Aug 9.
  4. ^ "Did you know Hill Miri is threatened?".
  5. ^ Audio
  6. ^ Nabam Tadar Rikam, "Emerging religious Identities of Arunachal Pradesh", Mittal Publications, 2005
  7. ^ Ju Namkung, "Phonological inventories of Tibeto-burman languages", Center for Southeast Asia Studies, University of California, 1996
  8. ^ Value unclear, perhaps [nʲ]?
  9. ^ Value unclear, perhaps [t͡ʃ]?
  10. ^ Value unclear, perhaps [d͡ʒ]?
  11. ^ Transcribed ⟨ɯ, y, ɤ, a⟩ in Namkung

Further reading