Kangra district
Nagarkot, Trigarta
Clockwise from top-left: Baijnath Shiva temple, McLeod Ganj from Dalai Lama temple, Ranjit Singh Gate, Kangra Fort, Masrur Temples, View of Dhauladhar Range from Triund
Location in Himachal Pradesh
Location in Himachal Pradesh
Coordinates: 32°13′0″N 76°19′0″E / 32.21667°N 76.31667°E / 32.21667; 76.31667
Country India
State Himachal Pradesh
Division, Part ofKangra
Tehsils
HeadquartersDharamshala
Government
 • Lok Sabha Constituency , part of
 • Member of Parliament, Lok SabhaKishan Kapoor[1]

 • Deputy CommissionerNipun jindal , IAS[2]

 • Superintendent of PoliceVimukt Ranjan, IPS[3]
Area
 • Total5,739 km2 (2,216 sq mi)
Highest elevation5,930 m (19,460 ft)
Lowest elevation
500 m (1,600 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total1,510,075
 • Density263/km2 (680/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationHP- 68(RTO),
01/ 02D(Taxi)
Largest cityDharamshala
Gender ratio1012 females/1000 males
Literacy rate85.67%
Vidhan Sabha Constituencies15
ClimateETh (Köppen)
Avg. summer temperature32 °C (90 °F)
Avg. winter temperature20 °C (68 °F)
Websitehpkangra.nic.in

Kangra district is the most populous[5] district of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Dharamshala is the administrative headquarters of the district.

History

See also: History of the Punjab and Kangra Fort

Kangra is known for having one of the oldest serving Royal Dynasty in the world, the Katoch of the Kangra State.[6] In 1758, Raja Ghamand Chand was appointed nazim or governor of Jullundur Doab under the Afghans. Ghamand Chand was a brave and strong ruler who restored the prestige of Kangra. As he was unable to capture Kangra Fort, he built another fort at Tira Sujanpur on the left bank of the Beas, almost opposite to Alampur on a hill overlooking the town. He died in 1774 and was succeeded by his son, Tegh Chand, who died too soon in 1775.[7] Ghamand Chand's grandson, Raja Sansar Chand (r. 1775–1823) established the supremacy of Kangra over all the surrounding hill states. During his reign, Kangra became a major centre for the arts and several palaces were built.[8]

In 1805, the neighbouring hill states rebelled, with the aid of the Gurkha army. Raja Sansar Chand was forced to seek the help of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire . The Gurkha army was expelled but Ranjit Singh also annexed the most fertile part of the Kangra valley, reducing the Katochs of Kangra as well as the neighbouring rajas to the status of vassals.[8] Kangra was annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Sikh Empire in 1810.

Kangra became a district of British India in 1846, when it was ceded to British India at the conclusion of the First Anglo-Sikh War. The British district included the present-day districts of Kangra, Hamirpur, Kullu, and Lahul and Spiti. Kangra District was part of the British province of Punjab. The administrative headquarters of the district were initially at Kangra, but were moved to Dharamshala in 1855.[9][10]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901478,364—    
1911469,046−0.20%
1921469,251+0.00%
1931494,658+0.53%
1941563,163+1.31%
1951570,643+0.13%
1961657,232+1.42%
1971800,863+2.00%
1981990,758+2.15%
19911,174,072+1.71%
20011,339,030+1.32%
20111,510,075+1.21%
source:[11]

According to the 2011 census Kangra district had population of 1,510,075. The district has a population density of 263 inhabitants per square kilometre (680/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 12.77%. 5.71% of the population lives in urban areas. Kangra district has a sex ratio of 1012 females per 1000 males and a literacy rate of 85.67%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 21.15% and 5.60% of the population respectively.[12]: 18 

District highlights of 2011 Census[12]

The native people are the Kangri people and the native language is Kangri, which is very similar to Dogri. The majority of the people are Hindu, although many Tibetans and others who follow Buddhism have also settled here recently. There are also other minorities such as Sikhs, Muslims, and Christians.

Jhamakda is a folk dance of Kangra. It is exclusively performed by women. It features percussion instruments and songs.[13]

Religion

Religions in Kangra district (2011)[14]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
96.76%
Islam
1.31%
Buddhism
0.96%
Sikhism
0.59%
Other or not stated
0.42%
Distribution of religions
Religion in Kangra District
Religious
group
2011[14]
Pop. %
Hinduism 1,461,140 96.76%
Islam 19,797 1.31%
Buddhism 14,511 0.96%
Sikhism 8,929 0.59%
Christianity 3,023 0.2%
Jainism 194 0.01%
Others 2,481 0.16%
Total Population 1,510,075 100%
Religious groups in Kangra District (British Punjab province era)
Religious
group
1901[15] 1911[16][17] 1921[18] 1931[19] 1941[20]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hinduism [a] 722,554 94.07% 725,156 94.13% 722,277 94.28% 752,098 93.86% 846,531 94.12%
Islam 39,672 5.16% 38,859 5.04% 38,263 4.99% 40,483 5.05% 43,249 4.81%
Buddhism 4,176 0.54% 3,992 0.52% 3,019 0.39% 5,663 0.71% 8 0%
Sikhism 1,220 0.16% 1,910 0.25% 2,083 0.27% 2,396 0.3% 4,809 0.53%
Christianity 385 0.05% 386 0.05% 363 0.05% 576 0.07% 788 0.09%
Jainism 113 0.01% 81 0.01% 56 0.01% 94 0.01% 101 0.01%
Zoroastrianism 4 0% 2 0% 4 0% 2 0% 3,890 0.43%
Judaism 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Others 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 0%
Total population 768,124 100% 770,386 100% 766,065 100% 801,312 100% 899,377 100%
Note: British Punjab province era district borders are not an exact match in the present-day due to various bifurcations to district borders — which since created new districts — throughout the historic Punjab Province region during the post-independence era that have taken into account population increases.

Language

Languages of Kangra district (2011)[21]

  Kangri (70.88%)
  Pahadi (14.92%)
  Hindi (5.55%)
  Gaddi (2.64%)
  Punjabi (2.06%)
  Others (3.95%)

At the 2011 Census, 70.88% of the population in the district spoke Kangri, 14.92% Pahari, 5.55% Hindi, 2.64% Gaddi and 2.06% Punjabi as their first language.[21]

Politics

Main article: 14th Himachal Pradesh Assembly

Constituency Party MLA Remark
No. Name
6 Nurpur BJP Ranveer Singh
7 Indora (SC) INC Malender Rajan
8 Fatehpur INC Bhawani Singh Pathania
9 Jawali INC Chander Kumar Cabinet Minister
10 Dehra IND Hoshyar Singh
11 Jaswan-Pragpur BJP Bikram Thakur
12 Jawalamukhi INC Sanjay Rattan
13 Jaisinghpur (SC) INC Yadvinder Goma
14 Sullah BJP Vipin Singh Parmar
15 Nagrota INC Raghubir Singh Bali
16 Kangra BJP Pawan Kumar Kajal
17 Shahpur INC Kewal Singh Pathania
18 Dharamshala INC Sudhir Sharma
19 Palampur INC Ashish Butail
20 Baijnath (SC) INC Kishori Lal

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary

Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary is located at an altitude of 700 m to 1400 m, Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1994 by the Wildlife Department of Himachal Pradesh Government. It is situated in Kangra district. The wildlife sanctuary is covered by snow-clad mountains from three sides. The flora of Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary includes deodar, rhododendron, oak, spruce, pine, and mixed conifers. This wildlife sanctuary is home to animals such as red fox, black bear, leopard sambar, Asiatic lion, angora rabbit, and deer. It covers an area of 982.86 sq.km.[22]

Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary

Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary covers an areas of 207.95 sq. km. in Kangra district. It is spread through the submerged area between Pong Dam Terrace (Talwara) to the bridge on Beas River at Dehra. It was created in1975, by building the highest earthfill dam in India on the Beas River in the wetland zone of the Siwalik Hills.[citation needed]

Education

Schools

Notable people

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Members : Lok Sabha".
  2. ^ "Deputy Commissioner Kangra, Himachal Pradesh | District Kangra, Government of Himachal Pradesh | India".
  3. ^ "Who's Who | District Kangra, Government of Himachal Pradesh | India".
  4. ^ "Hanuman Tibba Climbing Expedition (19450 Ft.)".
  5. ^ "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  6. ^ "Gazetteer of the Kangra district (1883-1884)" (PDF). p. 48.
  7. ^ "Kangra from the Pages of History" (PDF). himachalpradeshtravel.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  8. ^ a b Parry, Jonathan P. (2013). Caste and Kinship in Kangra. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-136-54585-6.
  9. ^ Kangra District The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 380.
  10. ^ Dharamshala The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 11, p. 301.
  11. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  12. ^ a b "District Census Handbook: Kangra" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  13. ^ "himachalpradeshtravel.com" (PDF). Kangra’s from the Pages of History. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  14. ^ a b "Table C-01 Population by Religion: Himachal Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  15. ^ "Census of India 1901. [Vol. 17A]. Imperial tables, I-VIII, X-XV, XVII and XVIII for the Punjab, with the native states under the political control of the Punjab Government, and for the North-west Frontier Province". 1901. p. 34. JSTOR saoa.crl.25363739. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  16. ^ "Census of India 1911. Vol. 14, Punjab. Pt. 2, Tables". 1911. p. 27. JSTOR saoa.crl.25393788. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  17. ^ Kaul, Harikishan (1911). "Census Of India 1911 Punjab Vol XIV Part II". p. 27. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  18. ^ "Census of India 1921. Vol. 15, Punjab and Delhi. Pt. 2, Tables". 1921. p. 29. JSTOR saoa.crl.25430165. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  19. ^ "Census of India 1931. Vol. 17, Punjab. Pt. 2, Tables". 1931. p. 277. JSTOR saoa.crl.25793242. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  20. ^ "Census of India, 1941. Vol. 6, Punjab". 1941. p. 42. JSTOR saoa.crl.28215541. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  21. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Himachal Pradesh". www.censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  22. ^ "Dhauladhar as Wildlife Sanctuary" (PDF). Government of himachal Pradesh - Department of Forests. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  23. ^ "National Institute of Fashion Technology - [NIFT], Kangra". collegedunia.com. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  1. ^ 1931-1941: Including Ad-Dharmis

Further reading