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Uttar Pradesh Police
उत्तर प्रदेश पुलिस
Emblem
Flag
Common nameUP Police
Motto"सुरक्षा आपकी, संकल्प हमारा"
(Hindi)
"Your protection, our pledge"
Agency overview
Formed
  • 1863; 159 years ago (1863)
Annual budget29,172 crore (US$3.9 billion) (2021–22 est.) [1]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionUttar Pradesh, IN
 
Size243,286 km2 (93,933.25 sq mi)
Population199,812,341 (est. 2011)
Governing bodyDepartment of Home (Uttar Pradesh)
Constituting instrument
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersPolice Headquarters (Signature Building), Sector-7, Gomti Nagar Extension, Shaheed Path, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh[2]
Gazetted Officers1,369 (406 IPS officers and 963 PPS officers)[3][4]
Non-Gazetted officers and Constables231,443[5]
Minister responsible
Agency executive
Facilities
Helicopters1[6]
Dogs78[7]
Website
uppolice.gov.in

The Uttar Pradesh Police (UP Police), (IAST: Uttara Pradeśa Pulisa), is the primary law enforcement agency within the Uttar Pradesh state of India. Established in 1863 as the Office of the Inspector General of Police, United Provinces under the Police Act, 1861.,[8] the U.P Police is one of the oldest police departments in the Republic of India, and is the largest police force in the world.[9] The UP Police headquarters is at Signature Building, Gomti Nagar, Ahemamau in Lucknow.[10]

The UP police employ around 1,368 gazetted officers, and 231,443 non gazetted uniformed officers. Uttar Pradesh police are governed by the Department of Home and Confidential of Uttar Pradesh.[8] The Uttar Pradesh Police is headed by the Director General of Police (DGP) for the state of Uttar Pradesh, who is the highest-ranking (DG) IPS officer of the state cadre. UP Police is the first Indian state police agency to have a highway patrol Unit, the UP Highway Police (UPHP).[11]

Signature Building – UP Police headquarter, Lucknow
Signature Building – UP Police headquarter, Lucknow

History

The present police system was created following the recommendation of the Police Commission headed by H.M. Court in 1860 and was enacted as Police Act of 1861.[12] H.M. Court became the first inspector general of police of the then North West Province and Avadh which comprised the territory of the present state of Uttar Pradesh.

Since then many amendments in the Police Act of 1861 have happened which has shaped the current institution and structure of police in the state.[12]

Organization and structure

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A Director General of Police (DGP) heads the state police. He is assisted by many police officers. State police headquarters is situated in Lucknow.

For the purpose of maintaining law and order in the state, the state of Uttar Pradesh is divided into 8 police zones. Each zone is headed by an officer of the rank of additional director general of police who is an officer of the Indian police Service. Each police zone is constituted by 2 to 3 police ranges. There are a total of 18 police ranges in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Each range is headed by an officer of the rank of either inspector general of police or deputy inspector general of police which corresponds with the administrative division. Each police range is constituted by around 2 to 4 districts.

There are a total of 74 police districts in the state. In each district (except Lucknow (city), Gautam Buddha Nagar, Kanpur Nagar and Varanasi), the head of the police is the SP or SSP. In the discharge of his duties he is assisted by Superintendent of Police (SP), Deputy Superintendent of Police (Deputy SP) or Assistant Superintendent of Police who may either be the officers of the Provincial Police Service or Indian Police Service. The number of SPs and Deputy SPs varies with the size, population, police work, or nature of police work in different districts. The number of SPs and Dy.SPs in districts like Lucknow, Kanpur Nagar, Agra, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, Meerut, Allahabad is considerably more than other districts. Whereas in smaller districts like Baghpat, Kannauj, Mahoba, Chandauli the number of the PPS officers is relatively lesser.

Typically, a police district in the state corresponds with the administrative district. Though, the head of the police force in the district is the senior superintendent of police (SSP)/superintendent of police (SP), who is always an officer of the Indian Police Service, the ultimate/final responsibility with regard to the maintenance of the law and order in the district lies with the district magistrate who is an officer of the Indian Administrative Service. The police district is further subdivided into police sub-divisions or police circles. A police circle is usually headed by an officer of the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police or Assistant Superintendent of Police. The officer heading the police circle/sub-division is designated as the Circle Officer (C.O.) in the state of Uttar Pradesh. A police circle is usually constituted by 2 to 4 police stations. Each police station is headed by a police inspector. Throughout the state of Uttar Pradesh and other states, especially in North India, there is the main police station in the older/ main part of the city known as the Kotwali. The Kotwali covers the main or usually the older part of the town/city under its jurisdiction. Earlier, when the cities and towns were smaller and had a lesser population than at present and they hadn't grown in size so much, Kotwali covered the main town area of the cities or the districts. A police station is also called as a thana in the local language. The officer in charge of a police station is designated as or called as the station officer (S.O.) or station house officer (S.H.O). He is assisted by various sub-inspectors, head-constables, constables. There are also a number of police chowkis that come under the police station. A police chowki is under the charge of a sub-inspector of police. The regular constabulary carries the bulk of normal beat policing and patrolling.

The police commissioner system has been implemented in the cities of Lucknow City, Gautam Buddh Nagar, Kanpur Nagar and Varanasi. In the commissionerate system, the Commissioner of Police (CP) in the rank of Additional Director General of Police (ADG) heads the district. In Lucknow, the CP is assisted by 2 Joint Commissioners of Police (JCPs) in the rank of IG, and in Gautam Buddh Nagar, the commissioner is assisted by 2 Additional Commissioners (Addl. CPs) in the rank of DIG who look after Law and order while other looks into Crime & Headquarters. Under them, there is a team of IPS & PPS officers who are posted as DCPs and ACPs. Three DCPs are posted in a zone. One DCP's insignia is the state emblem above one star, who is senior to the other two DCPs, whose insignia is one state emblem only. Under the DCPs work ACPs, who are the chiefs of various circles. They are vested with the powers of the executive magistrate for criminal cases. Police Commissionerates are independent of zonal & range police chiefs supervision. They are also vested with powers of an executive magistrate under various acts.

Police Units

Units of Uttar Pradesh Police
No. Unit Current Officer Executive Rank
1 DG Police HQRS Mukul Goel DGP
2 Police HQRS Bhagirath P. Jogdand ADG
3 Anti Corruption Org Zaki Ahmad ADG
4 Anti Terrorist Squad (ATS) Dr. G. K. Goswamy IG
5 Criminal Investigative Department (CID) Dawa Sherpa ADG
L. V. Antony Kumar ADG
Dr. Ramkrishna Swarnkar ADG
6 Economic Offences Wing (EOG) Dr. Rajendra Pal Singh DG
7 Fire Services Vijay Prakash ADG
8 Government Railway Police (GRP) Piyush Anand ADG
9 Human Rights Monmohon Kumar Bashal ADG
10 Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC) Ajay Anand ADG
11 Recruitment Board (UPPR &PB) Dr. Raj Kumar Vishwakarma ADG
12 Rules & Manual Radhey Shyam SP
13 Security Binod K. Singh ADG
14 Special Enquires Chandra Prakash DG
15 Special Investigative Team (SIT) Dr. Rajendra Pal Singh DG
16 Special Task Force (STF) Amitabh Yash ADG
17 Traffic Directorate Jyoti Narayan ADG
18 Training Directorate Sujan Vir Singh DG
Brij Raj DG
19 Technical Services Sandeep Salunke DG
20 Telecom Sunil Kumar Gupta ADG
21 Vigilance D S Chauhan (Acting)
22 Logistics Bijaya Kumar Maurya ADG
23 (UP 112) ITECCS Ashok Kumar Singh ADG
24 State Disaster Response Force Chandra Prakash DIG
25 Mahilla Samman Prakoshth Neera Rawat ADG

Police Commissionerates

There are 4 police commissionerates under UP Police:-

  1. Lucknow City Police Commissionerate
  2. Kanpur Nagar Police Commissionerate
  3. Varanasi City Police Commissionerate
  4. Gautam Buddh Nagar Police Commissionerate

Zones, ranges and districts

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List of the police zones, ranges and districts falling under them
# Zone Headed by

(post)

# Range Headed by

(post)

# District Headed by

(post)

1 Lucknow zone ADG/IG 1 Lucknow IG/DIG 1 Lucknow Rural SP
2 Unnao SP
3 Sitapur SP
4 Hardoi SP
5 Rae Bareli SP
6 Kheri SP
2 Ayodhya DIG 1 Ayodhya SSP
2 Barabanki SP
3 Sultanpur SP
4 Ambedkar Nagar SP
5 Amethi SP
2 Bareilly zone ADG/IG 1 Bareilly IG/DIG 1 Bareilly SSP
2 Shahjahanpur SP
3 Pilibhit SP
4 Badaun SSP
2 Moradabad DIG 1 Moradabad SSP
2 Jyotiba Phule Nagar SP
3 Rampur SP
4 Bijnor SP
5 Sambhal SP
3 Meerut zone ADG/IG 1 Meerut IG/DIG 1 Meerut SSP
2 Baghpat SP
3 Ghaziabad SSP
4 Bulandshahr SSP
5 Hapur SP
2 Saharanpur DIG 1 Saharanpur SSP
2 Muzaffarnagar SSP
3 Shamli SP
4 Agra zone ADG/IG 1 Agra IG/DIG 1 Agra SSP
2 Mathura SSP
3 Firozabad SP
4 Mainpuri SP
2 Aligarh DIG 1 Aligarh SSP
2 Hathras SP
3 Etah SSP
4 Kasganj SP
5 Kanpur zone ADG/IG 1 Kanpur IG/DIG 1 Kanpur Outer SP
2 Kanpur Dehat SP
3 Auraiya SP
4 Kannauj SP
5 Farrukhabad SP
6 Etawah SSP
2 Jhansi DIG 1 Jhansi SSP
2 Jalaun SP
3 Lalitpur SP
6 Prayagraj zone ADG/IG 1 Prayagraj IG/DIG 1 Prayagraj SSP
2 Kaushambi SP
3 Pratapgarh SP
4 Fatehpur SP
2 Chitrakoot Dham DIG 1 Chitrakoot SP
2 Hamirpur SP
3 Banda SP
4 Mahoba SP
7 Varanasi zone ADG/IG 1 Varanasi IG/DIG 1 Varanasi Rural SP
2 Chandauli SP
3 Jaunpur SP
4 Ghazipur SP
2 Mirzapur DIG 1 Mirzapur SP
2 Bhadohi SP
3 Sonbhadra SP
3 Azamgarh DIG 1 Azamgarh SP
2 Mau SP
3 Ballia SP
8 Gorakhpur zone ADG/IG 1 Gorakhpur IG/DIG 1 Gorakhpur SSP
2 Maharajganj SP
3 Kushinagar SP
4 Deoria SP
2

Basti

DIG 1 Basti SP
2 Sant Kabir Nagar SP
3 Siddharth Nagar SP
3 Devipatan DIG 1 Gonda SP
2 Balrampur SP
3 Shravasti SP
4 Bahraich SP
Total zones 8 Total ranges 18 Total districts 74

List of Uttar Pradesh Police Chiefs

List of Directors General/ Inspectors General of Uttar Pradesh Police[13][14][15][16][17][18]
No. Name From To
Directors General of Police (DGP)[19][14][15][16]
49 Mukul Goel 1 July 2021 Incumbent
48 Hitesh Chandra Awasthy 01 Feb 2020 30 June 2021
47 Om Prakash Singh 1 Jan 2018 31 Jan 2020
46 Sulkhan Singh 22 Apr 2017 31 Dec 2017
45 S. Javeed Ahmad 1 Jan 2016 22 Apr 2017
44 Jagmohan Yadav 1 Jul 2015 31 Dec 2015
43 Arvind Kumar Jain 31 Jan 2015 30 Jun 2015
42 Arun Kumar Gupta 1 Jan 2015 31 Jan 2015
41 Anand Kumar Banerjee 28 Feb 2014 31 Dec 2014
40 Rizwan Ahmed 1 Jan 2014 28 Feb 2014
39 Deo Raj Nagar 12 Apr 2013 31 Dec 2013
38 A. C. Sharma 19 Mar 2012 12 Apr 2013
37 Atul 8 Jan 2012 19 Mar 2012
36 Brij Lal 30 Sep 2011 8 Jan 2012
35 R. K. Tiwari 31 Aug 2011 30 Sep 2011
34 Karamvir Singh 23 Sep 2009 31 Aug 2011
33 Vikram Singh 23 Jun 2007 23 Sep 2009
32 G. L. Sharma 15 Mar 2007 23 Jun 2007
31 Bua Singh 3 Apr 2006 14 Mar 2007
30 Yashpal Singh 11 Jan 2005 03 Apr 2006
29 V. K. B. Nair 28 Jun 2003 11 Jan 2005
28 Hakam Singh 20 Mar 2003 28 Jun 2003
27 R. M. Shukla 20 Jul 2002 20 Mar 2003
26 R. K. Pandit 31 Jul 2001 20 Jul 2002
25 M. C. Dwivedi 31 Jul 2000 31 Jul 2001
24 Shri Ram Arun 23 Dec 1999 31 Jul 2000
23 K. L. Gupta 2 Apr 1998 23 Dec 1999
22 Shri Ram Arun 3 May 1997 2 Apr 1998
21 Haridas 24 Nov 1996 3 May 1997
20 S. N. P. Sinha 4 Jul 1996 24 Nov 1996
19 V. S. Mathur 31 Mar 1996 4 Jul 1996
18 Girish Bihari 12 Aug 1995 31 Mar 1996
17 V. S. Mathur 30 Sep 1994 12 Aug 1995
16 V.P. Kapoor 8 Jun 1993 30 Sep 1994
15 Prakash Singh 23 Dec 1992 8 Jun 1993
14 S.V.M. Tripathi 30 Sep 1992 23 Dec 1992
13 Prakash Singh 22 Jul 1991 30 Sep 1992
12 V. K. Jain 31 Dec 1990 22 Jul 1991
11 R. P. Mathur 30 Dec 1989 31 Dec 1990
10 R. P. Joshi 31 Jul 1989 30 Dec 1989
9 Harimohan 31 Dec 1988 31 Jul 1989
8 R. N. Gupta 8 Jun 1987 31 Dec 1988
7 D. S. Bhatnagar 31 Mar 1987 8 Jun 1987
6 P. C. Kakkar 1 Jan 1987 31 Mar 1987
5 D. K. Agarwal 17 Sep 1985 31 Dec 1986
4 J. N. Chaturvedi 1 Apr 1984 17 Sep 1985
3 S. C. Dixit 25 Jul 1982 31 Mar 1984
2 Naresh Kumar 5 Mar 1982 24 Jul 1982
1 Mahendra Singh 24 Feb 1981 4 March 1982
Inspector Generals of Police[16][17][18]
14 Naresh Kumar 24 Feb 1981 4 Mar 1982
13 Mahendra Singh 12 Mar 1980 23 Feb 1981
12 Lal Singh Verma 5 Jul 1977 11 Mar 1980
11 Sarvan Tandon 27 Mar 1976 4 Jul 1977
10 Govind Chandra 16 May 1975 26 Mar 1976
09 H. K. Kherr 1 Dec 1973 15 May 1975
08 A. K. Dass 5 Nov 1971 30 Nov 1973
07 Islam Ahmad 18 May 1971 4 Nov 1971
06 N. S. Saxena 20 Feb 1970 17 May 1971
05 Jiyaram 10 Apr 1967 19 Feb 1970
04 Shanti Prasad 17 Feb 1961 9 Apr 1967
03 M. S. Mathur 1 Apr 1954 16 Feb 1961
02 T. P. Bhalla 13 Jan 1953 31 Mar 1954
01 B. N. Lahari 27 Oct 1947 12 Jan 1953
List of Inspector Generals of United Provinces Police [18]
No. Name From To
11 SG Pearce 1 December 1946 26 October 1947
10 P Meabsure 28 June 1945 30 November 1946
10 MA Inglis 6 July 1940 26 June 1945
9 RA Horton 7 November 1937 5 July 1940
8 AH Phillips 15 March 1937 6 November 1937
7 RA Horton 16 June 1935 18 February 1937
5 ST Holling 7 April 1934 15 June 1935
6 HR Roe 5 November 1933 6 April 1934
5 ST Holling 27 April 1931 4 November 1933
RJS Dodd 5 November 1928 25 March 1931
4 AH Williamson 3 May 1928 4 November 1928
3 RJS Dodd 7 November 1925 2 May 1928
2 AD Ashdown 1 October 1923 6 November 1925
1 LM Kaye 23 February 1919 30 September 1923

Technology

Facial recognition system

UP police uses a database of 500,000+ criminals with facial recognition technology in its "Trinetra" face identification system.[20][21]

Social media research center

A social media command and research center has been established in Meerut. The center monitors trends in social media that can have an impact on law & order situation and advise concerned district and range police chiefs.[22]

Firearms

Most of the weapons in service with the Uttar Pradesh Police are locally produced by the Indian ordnance factories controlled by the Ordnance Factories Board, the police also induct various weapons imported by the Ministry of Home Affairs as part of modernization plans.

HK MP5 noBG
HK MP5 noBG
AMOGH – Carbine
AMOGH – Carbine

As per the 2017 audit by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Uttar Pradesh Police has a shortage of 45,047 handguns and an excess of 56,298 rifles.[23][24][25]

48%, 58,853, of the 1.22 lakh (122,000) rifles available to the state police are of point-303 bore category, which was rendered obsolete by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1995.[23][24][25]

GLOCK 17 Gen 4 Pistol MOD 45160305
GLOCK 17 Gen 4 Pistol MOD 45160305
AK-47
AK-47

Weapons of the UP Police also include:

Corruption and misconduct

The Uttar Pradesh Police has an extensive history of police brutality,[26][27] misconduct, and corruption,[28] as well as discrimination on the basis of caste[29] and religion.[30][27][31]

Corruption in hiring

In 2007, 18,000 police officers were fired as they were hired despite being unqualified for the job. These new recruits were illiterates who bribed between ₹100,000 and ₹500,000 to cheat in the UP police entrance tests.[32]

Fake encounters

In 2018 India Today carried out an investigative piece reporting incidents of UP police framing innocent people and killing them in staged encounters for money and promotions.[33] A sub-inspector had allegedly offered to gun down an innocent civilian for around Rs 8 lakh.[34] Between 2015–2018, 211 complaints of fake encounters were filed in India out of which 39 were on UP police.[35] In 2012, 17 UP police personnel were given life term for killing an incontinent 24-year-old man in a 1992 fake encounter and later they branded the victim as a terrorist.[36]

Others

In 2020, Uttar Pradesh government started an operation to screen allegedly corrupt police officials who will be forced to take retirement.[37]

In the 2020 Hathras gang rape and murder, UP Police forcibly cremated the body of the victim girl without the consent of her family.[38] The station house officer was transferred for his "failure to promptly act" in the case.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Uttar Pradesh Budget Analysis 2020–21" (PDF). prsindia.org. 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  2. ^ "Signature Building | Home Department, Government of Uttar Pradesh, India". uphome.gov.in. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  3. ^ "LIST OF INDIAN POLICE SERVICE OFFICER IN UTTAR PRADESH CADRE". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  4. ^ "LIST OF PROVINCIAL POLICE SERVICE OFFICER IN UTTAR PRADESH CADRE". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  5. ^ "Nominal Roll System – Uttar Pradesh Police". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  6. ^ "UP Police to get a chopper to keep eye on Naxalite activity – Indian Express". archive.indianexpress.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  7. ^ "UP Police begins hunt for special sleuths to sniff out danger, criminals". Hindustan Times. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 5 July 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  8. ^ a b "The Police Act, 1861" (PDF). Uttar Pradesh Police. 22 March 1861. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  9. ^ Gidwani, Deepak (4 April 2013). "World's largest police force-UP police has half the strength". DNA India. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  10. ^ "Ahead of Diwali, UP govt ends services of 25,000 Home Guards over pay issue". Hindustan Times. 15 October 2019. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  11. ^ "UP to have country's 1st highway patrol force". Hindustan Times. 16 May 2015. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  12. ^ a b "General Information". uppolice.gov.in. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  13. ^ "Former UP Police Chiefs". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  14. ^ a b "DGP-UP-Archive". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  15. ^ a b "DGP U.P. Archive 2". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  16. ^ a b c "DGP U.P. Archive 3". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  17. ^ a b "DGP U.P. Archive 4". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  18. ^ a b c "DGP U.P. Archive 5". Uttar Pradesh Police. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  19. ^ Khullar, Vatsal (7 February 2019). "Uttar Pradesh Budget Analysis 2019–20" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  20. ^ "AI and facial recognition tech 'Trinetra' launched to aid Uttar Pradesh Police- Technology News, Firstpost". Tech2. 27 December 2018.
  21. ^ "AI, face recognition to help UP Police catch criminals". Livemint. 27 December 2018. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  22. ^ "Meerut gets 2nd social media lab in country after Mumbai – TOI Mobile | The Times of India Mobile Site". m.timesofindia.com. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  23. ^ a b "Report of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India for the year ended 31 March 2016 on Performance Audit of Modernisation and Strengthening of Police Forces" (PDF). Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Government of Uttar Pradesh. pp. 15–16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  24. ^ a b "CAG paints grim picture of UP police functioning". The Economic Times. Allahabad. Press Trust of India. 27 July 2014. OCLC 61311680. Archived from the original on 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  25. ^ a b "CAG raps Uttar Pradesh govt over rise in crimes against women". Hindustan Times. HT Correspondent. 23 August 2016. Archived from the original on 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  26. ^ Sircar, Anisha. "India's coronavirus lockdown is bringing out the worst in its police force". Quartz India. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  27. ^ a b Rozario, Anthony S. (10 February 2020). "CAA Protests | UP Cops Beat Detained Children for Sleeping: Report". TheQuint. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  28. ^ "UP police officer letter to CM reveals police posting racket". www.telegraphindia.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  29. ^ Team, DNA Web (9 October 2015). "Police allegedly strip Dalit family naked in UP for filing complaint". DNA India. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  30. ^ Schultz, Kai; Yasir, Sameer (2 January 2020). "As India Violence Gets Worse, Police Are Accused of Abusing Muslims". Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
  31. ^ "CAA: UP Police Tortured Children Swept Up In Citizenship Law Protests". HuffPost India. 25 December 2019. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  32. ^ Gentleman, Amelia (16 October 2007). "Purge of police in India's Uttar Pradesh is criticized". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
  33. ^ DelhiAugust 7, India Today Web Desk New; August 7, 2018UPDATED; Ist, 2018 11:43. "3 UP cops suspended after India Today TV expose on fake encounters". India Today. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ DelhiAugust 6, Jamshed Khan Sushant Pathak Amit Kumar Chaudhary Agra/New; August 7, 2018UPDATED; Ist, 2018 06:37. "Exposed: Uttar Pradesh's cash-for-encounter raj". India Today. Archived from the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ "Uttar Pradesh second on list of fake encounter plaints with NHRC | Lucknow News – Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  36. ^ "17 UP cops get life term for killing man in fake encounter". Hindustan Times. 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  37. ^ "Yogi Adityanath govt cracks whip on corrupt Uttar Pradesh police officials by asking them to take compulsory retirement – India News , Firstpost". Firstpost. 4 July 2019. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  38. ^ DelhiSeptember 30, Tanseem Haider Himanshu Mishra New; September 30, 2020UPDATED; Ist, 2020 22:24. "Hathras horror: Police, victim's family give contradictory accounts". India Today. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ DelhiSeptember 27, India Today Web Desk New; September 27, 2020UPDATED; Ist, 2020 21:32. "Hathras gangrape case: SHO transferred to police lines for failing to 'act promptly'". India Today. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)