UNESCO World Heritage Site
Taj Mahal, one of the most famous tourist destinations in Uttar Pradesh and India.

The architecture of Uttar Pradesh demonstrates a diverse and eclectic combination of Buddhist, Hindu, Indo-Islamic and Indo-European architectural styles. Two of its architectural monuments—the Taj Mahal, the Agra Fort as well as the township of Fatehpur Sikri founded by the famous Mughal Emperor Akbar are designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The architectural structures in Uttar Pradesh include Buddhist Stupas and Viharas, ancient monasteries, townships, forts, palaces, temples, mosques, mausoleums, memorials and other community structures. Uttar Pradesh's architectural structures also includes Hindu temples, Ghats etc. largely found in ancient cities like Varanasi, Brindaban (Vrindavan), Mathura, Prayagraj.[1]

Ancient

Archaeological site at Sarnath (Dhamek stupa is visible in background)
Archaeological site at Sarnath (Dhamek stupa is visible in background)

Buddhist

Most of the ancient buildings and structures at Sarnath were damaged or destroyed by the Turks. However, amongst the ruins can be distinguished:

The Dashavatara Temple at Deogarh

For Buddhists, Sarnath (or Isipatana) is one of four pilgrimage sites designated by Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumina.

Hindu monuments

Famous temples are the Dashavatara Temple in Deograh, Kashi Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi and Krishnajanmabhoomi in Mathura.

Dashavatara Temple: Lord Vishnu sleeping on the serpent with the five Pandava warriors and Draupadi beneath.
Dashavatara Temple: Lord Vishnu sleeping on the serpent with the five Pandava warriors and Draupadi beneath.

Indo-Islamic

Main and side pishtaq leading into the iwan of Atala Masjid.
Main and side pishtaq leading into the iwan of Atala Masjid.

Further information: Indo-Islamic architecture

Sultanates

Atala Masjid of Jaunpur shows a lot of influences of Hindu architecture. In fact, there is a clear resemblance of Hindu style of architecture, in the entire Masjid. The reason for such similarity is because the Atala Masjid is situated on the site of a temple of Atala Devi.[2] Hence the Atala Masjid, Jaunpur also gets its name from this Hindu Temple.

Mughal

Further information: Mughal architecture

Rear of Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri.

Uttar Pradesh has three World Heritage Sites: Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri. Allahabad Fort stands on the banks of the Yamuna near the confluence with the river Ganges. It is the largest fort built by Akbar.[3][4][5]

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal in Agra, built between 1632 and 1643 during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan is considered to be one of the best examples of Mughal architecture, as well as Indo-Islamic architecture as a whole.[3][6] While earlier Mughal buildings were primarily constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones. Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement. It is surrounded by vast gardens on all four sides.

Oudh

Lucknow, the capital of the state, has several beautiful historical monuments such as Bara Imambara and Chhota Imambara.[7][8] It has also preserved the damaged complex of the Oudh-period British Resident's quarters, which are being restored.

Bara Imambara facade, Lucknow India
Bara Imambara facade, Lucknow India

British Colonial period

European styles

The Allahabad Public Library built in the Scottish Baronial style, and All Saints Cathedral, Allahabad and Kanpur Memorial Church built in the gothic revival style are examples of European-styled buildings in Uttar Pradesh.

Indo-Saracenic Architecture

Further information: Indo-Saracenic architecture

The Lucknow Charbagh railway station and Kanpur Central railway station were built in the Indo-Saracenic style.

Charbagh Railway Station at Lucknow.
Charbagh Railway Station at Lucknow.

Post-Independence

NOIDA is a planned city and IT hub.[citation needed]

Notable buildings

References

  1. ^ "Architecture of Uttar Pradesh". HiSoUR - Hi So You Are. 11 May 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  2. ^ Advanced history of medieval India By S.R. Bakshi
  3. ^ a b Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Taj Mahal". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  4. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Agra Fort". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  5. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Fatehpur Sikri". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Taj Mahal - Official Website of Taj Mahal, Government of Uttar Pradesh (India)". www.tajmahal.gov.in. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  7. ^ "List of Monuments - Uttar Pradesh". Archaeological Survey of India. 8 July 2012.
  8. ^ "The historical monument called Bara Imambara of Lucknow that is also known as Asfi Imambara". Lucknow online news. Retrieved 8 July 2012.