Bijnor district
Sahanpur Fort
Sahanpur Fort
Location of Bijnor district in Uttar Pradesh
Location of Bijnor district in Uttar Pradesh
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DivisionMoradabad
HeadquartersBijnor
Area
 • Total4,049 km2 (1,563 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total3,682,713
 • Density910/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Literacy70.43%
 • Sex ratio917
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Websitehttp://bijnor.nic.in/

Bijnor district is one of the 75 districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Bijnor city is the district headquarters. The government of Uttar Pradesh seeks it to be included in National Capital Region (NCR) due to its close proximity to NCT of Delhi.[2]

Bijnor is notable for its sugarcane production and mills, with two of the top five sugar mills situated in the district.[3]

History

Bijnor district was created in 1817 out of part of Moradabad district, and it was originally called Nagina district after its headquarters at Nagina.[4] The headquarters was relocated to Bijnor in 1824, although the district was still called "Nagina district" until 1837, when it officially became known as Bijnor district.[4]

Medieval history

In 1399, the district was ravaged by Timur. Later, during the time of Akbar, Bijnor was part of his Mughal Empire. In the early 18th century, the Rohilla Pashtuns established their independence in the area called by the Rohilkhand. Around 1748, the Rohilla chief Ali Mohammed Khan made his first annexations in Bijnor, the rest of which soon fell under the Rohilla domination. The northern districts were granted by Ali Mohammed Khan to Khurshid Ahmed Baig, who gradually extended his influence west of the Ganges and at Delhi, receiving the title of Najib-ud-daula with the position of the paymaster of the Mughal forces. Marathas invaded Bijnor who was also instigated by enemies of Rohillas, leading to several battles. Rohilla chief, Najib, who sided with Ahmad Shah Abdali in Panipat, was made vizier of the empire.[5]

Colonial era

In 1772 the Nawab of Oudh made a treaty with the Rohillas, to expel the Marathas in return for a money payment. Nawab of Oudh carried out his part of the bargain, but the Rohilla chieftains refused to pay. In 1774 the Nawab concluded with the East India Company government of Calcutta a treaty of alliance, and he then called upon the British, in accordance with its terms, to supply a brigade to assist him in enforcing his claims against the Rohillas. This was done; in the Rohilla War, the Rohillas were driven beyond the Ganges to the east, and Bijnor was incorporated in the territories of the nawab, who in the same year (1774) ceded it to the British East India Company. During the rebellion of 1857 Bijnor was occupied by the nawab of Najibabad, a grandson of Zabita Khan, on 1 June. The Barha Sayyids of Bijnor, who were hereditary enemies of the Rohillas, threw their in their lot with the Rohillas Pathans and fought on their side almost to a man during the rebellion.[6] In spite of fighting between the Hindus and the Muslim Pathans, the Nawab succeeded in maintaining his position until 21 April 1858, when he was defeated by the British at Nagina.[5]

Geography

Bijnor, or more correctly Bijnaur, occupies the north-west corner of the Moradabad Division (historically, Rohilkhand or Bareilly region). The western boundary is formed throughout by the deep stream of the river Ganges, beyond which lie the four districts of Dehradun, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, and Meerut. To the north and north-east in the hill country of Garhwal, the dividing line being the submontane road, which runs from Haridwar along the foot of the Himalayas to Ramnagar, Haldwani, and Tanakpur. This road, popularly known as the Kandi Saradk, belongs throughout its length to Garhwal, the transfer having taken place a few years since. On the east the Phika river for the greater part of its course constitutes the boundary, separating this district from Nainital and Moradabad, as far as its junction with the Ramganga; and to the south lie the Thakurdwara Tehsil of Moradabad. Amroha and Hasanpur tahsils of Amroha District. The boundary being conventional and undetermined by natural features. The extreme parallels of north latitude are 29° 2' and 29° 58' and of east longitude 78° 0' and 78° 57' from Lalitpur, the most northerly point, to koti Rao in the furthest eastern corner the distance in 56 miles (90 km); and from Koti Rao to Kamharia in the south-westerly angle 57 miles (92 km); and from Kamharia to Lalitpur 62 miles (100 km). The total area of the district is liable to change slightly from time to time by reason of the erratic action of the Ganges and Ramganga: In 1906 it amounted to 1,145,272 acres (1789.5 square miles, 4634.75 km²) the average for the last five years being 1,147,967 acres (4,645.66 km²).

There remains the low fringe of Khadir along the Ganges to the west. This generally resembles the lowlands that skirt the rivers of the interior, the low flats which adjoin the stream itself being purely alluvial in character, while above them rises a terrace of higher ground extending inland as far as the chain of stagnant morasses lying immediately under the bangar cliff.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901776,308—    
1911802,166+0.33%
1921736,765−0.85%
1931831,403+1.22%
1941905,793+0.86%
1951979,406+0.78%
19611,184,306+1.92%
19711,480,734+2.26%
19811,927,023+2.67%
19912,454,521+2.45%
20013,131,619+2.47%
20113,682,713+1.63%
source:[7]

According to the 2011 census Bijnor district has a population of 3,682,713,[8][1] roughly equal to the nation of Liberia[9] or the US state of Oklahoma.[10] This gives it a ranking of 74th in India (out of a total of 640).[8] The district has a population density of 808 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,090/sq mi) .[8] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.64%.[8] Bijnor has a sex ratio of 913 females for every 1000 males,[8] and a literacy rate of 70.43%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 21.38% and 0.08% of the population respectively.[8]

Religion

Religions in Bijnor district (2011)[11]
Religion Percent
Hindus
55.18%
Muslims
43.04%
Sikhs
1.37%
Others†
0.41%
Distribution of religions
Includes Jains (0.17%), Christians (0.17%), Buddhists (<0.05%).
Tehsil Hindus Muslims Others Ref
Bijnor 63.46% 35.66% 0.88% [11]
Nagina 50.73% 46.10% 3.17% [11]
Dhampur 54.99% 42.93% 2.08% [11]
Najibabad 48.44% 50.37% 1.19% [11]
Chandpur 58.15% 40.14% 1.71% [11]

Majority of the people of the district follow Hinduism followed closely by adherents of Islam. Sikhism is followed by a little more than one percent of the population. Jainism, Christianity and Buddhism have small number of adherents.[11]

Languages

Languages of Bijnor district (2011)[12]

  Hindi (76.33%)
  Urdu (22.53%)
  Punjabi (0.96%)
  Others (0.18%)

Hindi and Urdu are the official languages.[13] At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 76.33% of the population of the district spoke Hindi, 22.53% Urdu and 0.96% Punjabi as their first language.[12]


Administration

Politics

The MP of Bijnor is Malook Nagar. He represents Bahujan Samaj Party.

Assembly constituencies

Najibabad, Chandpur, Noorpur, Dhampur, Nagina (reserved), Bijnor, Barhapur, Nehtaur (Reserved)

Settlements

Urban[edit]

Rural

Economy

Bijnor district has a vast sugar industry with total nine sugar mills of which Dhampur mill and Bundki mill are among India's top sugar mills. Approximately 2.09 lakh hectares of land is dedicated to sugarcane farming.[3]

Notable people

References

  1. ^ a b "Census of India: Bijnor district". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  2. ^ "UP seeks to include 6 districts in NCR". indianexpress.com. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b Dabas, Harveer (12 December 2016). "sugarcane: Bijnor has 2 of India's top 5 sugar mills". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  4. ^ a b Nevill, H.R. (1908). Bijnor: A Gazetteer, Being Volume XIV Of The District Gazetteers Of The United Provinces Of Agra And Oudh. Allahabad: Government Press. pp. 124–5. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  5. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bijnor". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 928–929.
  6. ^ District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh: Volume 14. United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (India). p. 189.
  7. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  8. ^ a b c d e f "District in Uttar Pradesh". www.citypopulation.de. 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  9. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Liberia 3,786,764 July 2011 est.
  10. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Oklahoma 3,751,351
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "Table C-01 Population by Religion: Uttar Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  12. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Uttar Pradesh". www.censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  13. ^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2019.

Coordinates: 29°25′N 78°31′E / 29.417°N 78.517°E / 29.417; 78.517