Bongaigaon district
Bhumeshwar Hill
Bhumeshwar Hill
Location in Assam
Location in Assam
Bongaigaon district
Coordinates: 26°28′00″N 90°34′00″E / 26.4667°N 90.5667°E / 26.4667; 90.5667
Country India
DivisionLower Assam
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesBarpeta (shared with Barpeta district)
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesBongaigaon, Abhayapuri North, Abhayapuri South
 • Total1,093 km2 (422 sq mi)
 • Total738,804
 • Density680/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 • Literacy69.74%[1]
 • Sex ratio966
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS

Bongaigaon district (Prpn:ˈbɒŋgaɪˌgãʊ) is an administrative district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. The district headquarters are located at Bongaigaon. The district occupies an area of 1,093 km2.


According to lore, the name 'Bongaigaon' derives from the words 'bon' (wild) and 'gai' (cow). In the distant past, wild cows were often a menace to villagers in this area due to which the district got its name.



Bongaigoan district fell under Eastern Dooars. Dooars between Sankosh River and Manas River are called Eastern Dooars.

Under the Kingdom of Bhutan

From early 17th-century some parts of present-day Bongaigaon district was under the control of Kingdom of Bhutan, till the Duar Wars in 1865 when British removed the Bhutanese influence and later the areas were merged to undivided Goalpara district of the Indian Union in 1949.

Koch dynasty

The district was part of Kamrup. In the 14th century, its rule was passed onto the Baro-Bhuyans. Later in the 1580s Nara Narayan of the Kamata kingdom conquered the area and it subsequently became the fiefdom of the Bijni family, who were descendants of Nara Narayan. When the Kamata kingdom split into Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo due to rivalry between the king and his nephew Raghu Rai, Bongaigaon became part of Koch Hajo. Soon Koch Hajo and Koch Bihar went to war, and the Mughal Nawab of Dhaka, supporting Koch Bihar, defeated Rai at Dhubri in 1602. Rai's son Parikshit signed a peace treaty, but hostilities resumed in 1614 and Parikshit was driven back to modern-day Guwahati, where he surrendered and soon after died. His son, Bijit Narayan, was made Zamindar of the region between the Manas and Sankosh: from him the Bijni family descended. Koch Hajo was tributary to the Mughals, but in the last decades of the 17th century Mughal influence waned significantly due to the Ahom-Mughal wars in which the Ahoms were eventually successful. Koch Hajo, including Bijni Zamindari, fell under Ahom influence.


The district of Bongaigaon was created on 29 September 1989 from parts of Goalpara and Kokrajhar districts.[2] 2004 saw a loss of size when part of the district was split to make Chirang district.[2]

In the late 1750s, the East India Company strengthened their influence in Bengal and Lower Assam. In 1822 the East India Company created Goalpara district containing present-day Lower Assam, the Garo Hills and northeastern Rangpur division in Bangladesh. The Bijnis continued to pay tribute to the British, and even gained a small amount of land after the Duar War in 1865. Rangpur and the Garo Hills were eventually stripped away to form different districts, but Goalpara continued to be administered as part of a Cooch Behar province. Eventually the Assam Valley province was founded in 1874, and Goalpara was moved to it. Goalpara was later divided into various districts including Kokrajhar and Dhubri, and later Bongaigaon.[3]


Bongaigaon district occupies an area of 1,093 square kilometres (422 sq mi),[4] comparatively equivalent to Réunion.[5] Bongaigaon district is surrounded by Barpeta in the east, the Brahmaputra in the south and Kokrajhar in the north and west corner and share international border with Bhutan in the north.

The places that are worth visiting in Bongaigaon are eco-park, Bagheswari temple, tea garden, and Suryapahar. The history of Bagheswari temple is such that once a priest saw in his dream that Maa Bagheswari asked him to go to a particular place where if he digs out he will find a sword that belonged to Maa Bagheswari. And the next morning when the priest went to dig in the place he saw in his dreams, he found the sword.[citation needed] After that day a temple was built over the place and there they worship the sword. There is no idol inside the temple.


In 2006 the Indian government named Bongaigaon one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[6] It is one of the eleven districts in Assam currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[6]


The district has three subdivisions: Bongaigaon, Bijni, and North Salmara. In 2004, parts of the Bongaigaon district (mainly areas under Bijni subdivision) were given over to form the Chirang district, under the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC), with its district headquarters at Kajalgaon.

There are four Assam Legislative Assembly constituencies in this district: Bongaigaon, Bijni, Abhayapuri North, and Abhayapuri South. The latter is designated for scheduled castes.[7] Bijni is in the Kokrajhar Lok Sabha constituency, whilst the other three are in the Barpeta Lok Sabha constituency.[8]


According to the 2011 census, the total population of the district is 738,804, out of which 375,818 are males while 362,986 are females. The average sex ratio is 966. The average literacy rate in urban areas is 87.4% while that in the rural areas is 66.4%. The total literacy rate of Bongaigaon district is 69.74%. The male literacy rate is 63.09% and the female literacy rate is 54.26% in Bongaigaon district. 14.86% of the population lives in urban areas. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 11.21% and 2.55% of the population respectively.[9]


Religions in Bongaigaon district (2011)[10]
Religion Per cent
Other or not stated

The district religious composition are as follows: Hindu 359,145, Muslim 371,033, Christian 5,924, Sikh 384, Buddhist 236, Jain 871 as per 2011 census report.[10] Way back in 1971, Hindus were slight majority in Bongaigaon district with forming 69.8% of the population, while Muslims were 27.8% at that time.[11]

Population of circles by religion
Circle Muslims Hindus Others
Bongaigaon (Pt) 6.99% 89.80% 3.21%
Boitamari 69.00% 29.96% 1.04%
Srijangram 66.10% 33.51% 0.39%
Sidli (Pt) 39.43% 58.98% 1.59%
Bijni (Pt) 55.99% 43.77% 0.24%


Languages of Bongaigaon district (2011)[12]

  Assamese (49.10%)
  Bengali (43.35%)
  Hindi (3.06%)
  Kamtapuri (1.45%)
  Boro (1.13%)
  Others (2.50%)

According to the 2011 census, 48.51% of the population spoke Assamese, 43.35% Bengali, 3.06% Hindi, 1.45% Kamtapuri and 1.13% Boro as their first language.[12]


  1. ^ "Total Population, child population in the age group 0–6, literates and literacy rates by sex: 2011". Office of The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Government of India. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  2. ^ a b Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  3. ^ District census 2011 – Bongaigaon
  4. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Assam: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1116. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. ((cite book)): |last1= has generic name (help)
  5. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Réunion 2,535km2
  6. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  7. ^ "List of Assembly Constituencies showing their Revenue & Election District wise break – up" (PDF). Chief Electoral Officer, Assam website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  8. ^ "List of Assembly Constituencies showing their Parliamentary Constituencies wise break – up" (PDF). Chief Electoral Officer, Assam website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  9. ^ "District Census Handbook: Bongaigaon" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  10. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population By Religion: Assam". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  11. ^ International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications › ijsrp-...PDF The Change of Religion and Language Composition in the State of Assam ...
  12. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population By Mother Tongue: Assam". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.