Chandel district
Chandel district
Location in Manipur
Location in Manipur
Coordinates: 24°19′N 93°59′E / 24.317°N 93.983°E / 24.317; 93.983
Country India
StateManipur
HeadquartersChandel
Area
 • Total2,100 km2 (800 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total85,072
 • Density40.51/km2 (104.9/sq mi)
Language(s)
 • OfficialMeitei (Manipuri)[1][a]
 • RegionalThadou language and Anāl language
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-MN-BI
Vehicle registrationMN
Websitechandel.nic.in

Chandel district is one of the 16 districts of Manipur state in northeastern India. Its headquarters is the town of Chandel. In December 2016, a part of the district was split to establish the new Tengnoupal district.[2] The district is mainly populated by Kuki-Zo and Old Kuki/Naga tribal people.

History

2011 district map of Manipur; the Chandel district was divided into the present Chandel district and Tengnoupal district in 2016

In 1974, the Chandel district was formed under the name "Tengnoupal district". In 1983, the name was changed to Chandel district, as the district headquarters was located at Chandel.[3] In December 2016, the present-day Tengnoupal district was split from the Chandel district.[4][5]

Economy

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Chandel as one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[6] It was then one of the three districts in Manipur receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[6]

Demographics

Religions in Chandel district (2011)[7]
Religion Percent
Christianity
93.20%
Hinduism
5.75%
Islam
0.66%
Other or not stated
0.39%
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1951 24,049—    
1961 27,679+15.1%
1971 38,723+39.9%
1981 56,444+45.8%
1991 71,014+25.8%
2001 118,327+66.6%
2011 144,182+21.9%
2011 Chandel district (includes the present Tengnoupal district)
Source: Census of India[8]

According to the 2011 census Chandel district has a population of 144,182.[9] This gives it a ranking of 602nd in India (out of a total of 640).[9] The district has a population density of 43 inhabitants per square kilometre (110/sq mi).[9] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 21.72%.[9] Chandel has a sex ratio of 932 females for every 1000 males,[9] and a literacy rate of 70.85%.[9] The tribal composition of the district in 2011 is as below:

Population[10] Percentage

of Total Pop.

All Scheduled Tribes 128,280 89.0%
Kuki-Zo tribes[b] 59,910 41.6%
Naga tribes[c] 1,398 1.0%
Old Kuki/Naga[d] 65,916 45.7%

Languages of Chandel district (2011)[12]

  Thadou (37.69%)
  Anal (30.26%)
  Zou (4.74%)
  Ao (2.77%)
  Maring (2.26%)
  Hindi (1.99%)
  Kom (1.93%)
  Others (18.36%)

After the separation of Tengnoupal district 2016, the residual district has a population of 85,072, which is entirely rural. it has a sex ratio of 921 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 0.09% and 92.56% of the population respectively.[9]

Languages

The main languages in the district are Anal (an Old Kuki language) and Thadou (a New Kuki language). Other Old kuki languages spoken include Lamkang, Moyon, Monsang, Chothe, Tarao, Maring, Khoibu, etc.

At the time of the 2011 census, 37.69% of the population spoke Thadou, 30.26% Anal, 4.74% Zou, 2.77% Ao, 2.26% Maring, 1.99% Hindi and 1.93% Kom as their first language. 12.05% of the population spoke languages classified as 'Others' on the census because they had fewer than 10,000 speakers in the country.[12]

Flora and fauna

In 1989, the Chandel district (which then included the Tengnoupal district) became home to the Yangoupokpi-Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 185 km2 (71.4 sq mi).[13]

Autonomous district council

At the district level there is the Chandel Autonomous District Council.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Meitei language (officially known as Manipuri language) is the official language of Manipur. Other regional languages of different places in Manipur may either be predominantly spoken or not in their respective places but "Meitei" is always officially used.
  2. ^ The Kuki-Zo tribes include Gangte, Hmar, Paite, Simte, Sukte, Thadou, Vaiphei, Zou, and some smaller tribes designated as "Any Kuki" and "Any Lushai (Mizo)".
  3. ^ The Naga tribes include Angami, Kabui, Kacha Naga, Mao, Maram, Poumai, Sema and Tangkhul.
  4. ^ The Old Kuki tribes retaining the Kuki classification include: Aimol, Chiru, Kom, Koireng, Kharam, and Ralte. The tribes under the Naga umbrella include: Anal, Chothe, Koirao, Lamkang, Maring, Moyon, Monsang, Purum and Tarao.[11]

References

  1. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. p. 78. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  2. ^ Esha Roy (6 December 2016). "Simply put: Seven new districts that set Manipur ablaze". Indian Express. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  3. ^ "District Census Handbook: Chandel - Village and Town Directory" (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Manipur. 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  4. ^ "7 new districts formed in Manipur amid opposition by Nagas". Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  5. ^ KanglaOnline (9 April 2013). "United Naga Council political tour in Chandel – KanglaOnline". Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  6. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  7. ^ "Table C-01 Population by religious community: Manipur". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  8. ^ "A-2 Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901". Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census Hand Book - Chandel" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  10. ^ A-11 Appendix: District wise scheduled tribe population (Appendix), Manipur - 2011, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Government of India, 2011
  11. ^ Kom, Ch. Sekholal (June 2015). "Ethno-nationalism: Competing Micro-nationalist Dissents in Manipur". Social Change. 45 (2): 289–307. doi:10.1177/0049085715574192. ISSN 0049-0857.
  12. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by mother tongue: Manipur". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  13. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Manipur". Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.