Angami Naga
Total population
141,732 (2011 Census)
Languages
Tenyidie, Keyho, Dzu-o
(Sino–Tibetan)
Religion
Christianity (98.22%),
Pfütsana (0.71%).[1]
Related ethnic groups
other Naga Ethnic Groups

The Angamis are a major Naga ethnic group native to the state of Nagaland in North-East India. The Angami Nagas are predominantly settled in Kohima District, Chümoukedima District and Dimapur District of Nagaland and are also recognized as one of the ethnic groups in the state of Manipur.[2] The Angamis are divided into four regions namely Chakhro Angami, Northern Angami, Southern Angami and Western Angami. The now separated Chakhesangs were previously known as the Eastern Angamis.

Division

The territory of the Angamis is mostly located in the present Kohima, Chümoukedima and Dimapur District of Nagaland with a part of its territory also lying in the Senapati District of Manipur. The territory is divided into four regions :

Southern Angami

Main article: Southern Angami

This region also known as Japfüphiki is bounded on the south by the Mao Nagas, on the southwest by the Maram Nagas, on the west by the Zeliangrongs, on the northwest by the Western Angamis, on the north by the Northern Angamis, on the northeast by the Chokri Chakhesangs and on the southeast by the Khezha Chakhesangs.

The towns and villages are :

Western Angami

This region is bounded by the Zeliangrongs on the west, on the southeast by the Southern Angamis, on the east by the Northern Angamis and on the northwest by the Chakhro Angamis.

The towns and villages are :

Northern Angami

This region is bounded by the Western Angamis on the west, on the south by the Southern Angamis, on the east by the Chakhesang Nagas, the northeast by the Sümi Nagas, on the north by the Rengma Nagas and on the northwest by the Western Sümis.

The towns and villages are :

Chakhro Angami

Mostly settled in the flatlands around the Districts of Chümoukedima and Dimapur.

The towns and villages are :

Former Eastern Angami

The former Eastern Angamis have separated and are now recognised as the Chakhesang Nagas.

Culture

Captain Butler and assembled Nagas; seated left to right: Lt. Ridgeway, Capt. Butler, Angami Naga interpreter Sezele of Chephama, Mikir coolie. Standing left to right: Angami Naga, Inspector of Police, Angami Naga Dotsole of Chedema, Angami Naga, Rengma Naga, Commander in Chief Manipur Army, (sacred tree with skulls), ?, 2 Rengma Nagas, Dr Brown - Political Agent, Manipur
Captain Butler and assembled Nagas; seated left to right: Lt. Ridgeway, Capt. Butler, Angami Naga interpreter Sezele of Chephama, Mikir coolie. Standing left to right: Angami Naga, Inspector of Police, Angami Naga Dotsole of Chedema, Angami Naga, Rengma Naga, Commander in Chief Manipur Army, (sacred tree with skulls), ?, 2 Rengma Nagas, Dr Brown - Political Agent, Manipur

Traditionally, the Angami Nagas are hill people depending basically on cultivation and livestock-rearing. The Angamis are known for terraced wet-rice cultivation; because of this labor-intensive cultivation, land is the most important form of property among them. They are one of the only two groups of Nagas out of the seventeen who practice wet-rice cultivation on terraces made on the hill slopes. This allows them to cultivate the same plot year after year. They depend, to a very small extent, on slash-and-burn cultivation.

Social stratification is not observed in the Angami community. Traditionally, property was divided equally among sons with daughters also receiving a share; in modern families it is shared among children. The youngest male in the family inherits the parental home, Kithoki, which means he is responsible for their care until they pass away.

Cuisine

Rice is the staple food of the Angamis. Meat is a common main dish served with boiled vegetables as side dishes.

Galho is a popular Angami cuisine made from a mixture of rice, vegetables and various meats. It uses different kinds of ingredients such as Rice, Chinese knotweed, Pork or Beef, various vegetables and so on.[3][4]

Religion

Christianity

The Angami Christians are composed of five major denominations: Baptist, Revival, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist. Baptists constitute more than 80% of the total Angami Christian population and all the Baptist churches in their region are under the Angami Baptist Church Council.

Other religions

Although more than 98% of the Angamis are Christians, they are one of the last Naga tribes having an animist population. The Angami animists practice a religion known as Pfütsana. According to the 1991 census, there were 1,760 Angami practitioners, but 10 years later the figure had halved to 884.[5] Currently there are several hundred adherents of the Pfütsana religion, scattered in nine villages of the Southern Angami region of Kohima District.[6] A religious organization, Japfüphiki Pfütsana, was founded in 1987 to streamline indigenous religious practices among the Angamis. According to the 2011 Census, 98.62% of the Angami are Christian, 0.47% are Buddhist, 0.37% Hindu, 0.24% Muslim and 0.19% Pfütsana.

Festivals

Sekrenyi

Main article: Sekrenyi

The Angamis celebrate a ten-day festival called Sekrenyi[7] (sometimes also called Phousanyi and Sokre–n in Southern Angami ) in February. The term Sekrenyi literally means sanctification festival (sekre = sanctification; nyi = feast; thenyi = festival). The festival takes places after the harvest and falls on the twenty-fifth day of the month Kezei (January–February).

Te–l Khukhu

Main article: Te–l Khukhu

Te–l Khukhu is a festival that falls on 13 July (Chünyi). It is a time of giving and sharing of food with each other. This is the only festival dedicated for girls. Gone were the days when different animistic rituals were performed but with the advent of Christianity the rituals were no longer performed. Today it is celebrated as a time of get-togetherness and sharing with the dear and near ones.[8]

Language

Further information: Angami language

There are several dialects of the Angamis, the most prominent being Khwüno Dialect (around Western Angami area), Kewhi Dialect (in the Northern Angami area) and Viswe Dialect or Keyho Dialect (in the Southern Angami area). Others include Dzu-o, Chakhro, Mima, Nali, Mozome. Tenyidie is the prestige dialect, used for publications and taught in the schools.

Notable people

Main article: List of people of Angami descent

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Table ST-14, Indian Census of 2001
  2. ^ "The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes): Order, 1950". Ministry of Law and Justice (India). Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  3. ^ "Naga cuisine: Organic is a way of life for Nagas". Indian Express. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  4. ^ "Recipe of Galho – Yummy Rice Dish from Nagaland". Roots and Leisure. 30 July 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  5. ^ Table ST-14, Table ST-14a, Census of India 2001
  6. ^ "nscn: Japfuphiki Pfutsana annual feast". Nscn.livejournal.com. 26 March 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  7. ^ "Festival of Angami Naga". Nagaland.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  8. ^ "Viswema celebrates Te–l Khukhu festival". Eastern Mirror Nagaland. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2020.

Further reading