The Hyolmo (Tibetic: ཡོལ་མོ་) are a people mainly from the Eastern and Northern Himalayan Regions of Nepal. They refer to themselves as the "hyolmo" or "Yolmopa"[1] and are native residents of the Helambu valleys (situated over 43.4 kilometres/27 miles and 44.1 kilometres/27.4 miles to the north of Kathmandu respectively) and the surrounding regions of Northeastern Nepal. Their combined population in these regions is around 11,000. They also have sizeable communities in Bhutan, Darjeeling, Sikkim and some regions of South-Western Tibet. They are among the 59 indigenous groups officially recognized by the Government of Nepal as having a distinct cultural identity[1] and are also listed as one of the 645 Scheduled Tribes of India.

The Hyolmo people speak the Hyolmo language of the Kyirong–Kagate branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Accordingly, it has a high lexical similarity to Tibetan, although the two languages are not completely mutually intelligible.

Etymology

The term "Yolmo" or "Hyolmo" consists of two separate words — Hyul, which means "a place or area surrounded by high mountains", and Mo, which means "goddess", indicating a place under the protection of a female deity.[1] For centuries, Tibetan Buddhists have referred to the Helambu region using the term "Yolmo". In recent years, most people, Yolmos and otherwise, seem to prefer the name "Helambu" itself. It is also often claimed that the name "Helambu" is derived from the Yolmo words for potatoes and radishes (Hey means "potato" and lahbu means "radish").[2][3] This etymology, however, is disputed and often considered spurious. Some refuters of this explanation argue that "Helambu" is an ambiguation of the word "Yolmo" phonetically contoured by the speakers of Nepali.[4]

There is an ongoing discussion amongst Yolmo scholars regarding the spelling of "Yolmo" in the Latin script. Some favour "Yolmo" while others prefer "Hyolmo" or "Yholmo" wherein the presence of the letter "H" indicates that the first syllable of the word is spoken with a low, breathy tone. It is worth noting that Robert R. Desjarlais (except in his most recent work[5]) and Graham E. Clarke (works cited below) both use "Yolmo", while the Nepal Aadivasi Janajati Mahasangh (Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities) uses "Hyolmo".[6]

Culture

Society

The Hyolmo tribe is organised into several clans, viz. Nyingma-Lama, Shangba, Terngilinpa, Dangsong, Sarma-Lama, Lhalungpa, Lama Dhomare, Chyaba, Chujang, Thongtso, Sharwa all of which follow the patrilineal system of descent. "Bride-stealing" used to be a staple among their customs but it is no longer practiced or encouraged.[7]

Religion

Their primary religion is Tibetan Buddhism of the Nyingmapa school, intermixed with animism and paganism as incorporated within the general dimensions of Bon.[1]

Language

Main article: Yolmo language

The Hyolmo language shares high lexical similarities with Sherpa and Tibetan. It is traditionally transcribed in the Sambhoti (Tibetan) script, but many modern academics use the Devanagari script as well. The Hyolmo language is also very closely related to Kagate, another language of the Kyirong-Kagate language sub-group.

Economy

Essentially, the Hyolmo people are agriculturalists. Potatoes, radishes, and some other crops constitute their primary sustenance, along with milk and flesh from the yak which the Hyolmo are known to herd.[8] In the last few decades, the Helambu region has also become a popular site for tourism and trekking, and many Hyolmo are now employed in the tourism industry as tour-guides either in their own respective villages or in various other parts of Nepal.

The "Kagate"

An ethnic group related to the Hyolmo are the Kagate (or Kagatay) who stem from the original hyolmo inhabitants of the Helambu, Melamchi Nimadumbu valleys. What distinguishes them is that the Kagate began migrating southeast from Helambu, and eventually, into the Ramechhap District over 100 years ago,[9] and that they practiced the craft of paper-making during their peregrinations in order to make a living — thereby earning themselves the moniker "Kagate" (which is Nepali for "paper-maker"). They have since developed certain characteristics in their speech that are distinct from traditional Hyolmo. The Yolmo speaking groups in the Lamjung District and Ilam District have also historically been called "Kagate" although both groups claim a clear distinction between themselves and the Kagate of Ramechhap.[9] However, "Hyolmo" and "Kagate" are often used as terms for both the ethnic group and their dialect interchangeably.

Distribution

Nepal

According to the Nepal National Census of 2011,[10] the population of the Hyolmo people living within Nepal is 10,752, who are distributed over 11 districts of the country, and 99% of this population speak the Hyolmo language. However, the number of monolingual Hyolmo speakers is very low and on a gradual decline, as the number of monolingual Nepali-speaking Hyolmo and bilingual Hyolmo with English as their second language increases.[1] The largest Hyolmo settlements in Nepal (and also internationally) are in the Helambu and Melamchi Valleys which are home to over 10,000 Hyolmo. A separate group of about 700 reside in the Lamjung district while some have settled closer to Pokhara.[9] There are also a number of villages in the Ilam district where Hyolmo is spoken.

India

The Yolmos are listed as a Scheduled Tribe in the states of West Bengal and Sikkim in India.[11]

Bhutan and Tibet

The Yolmo language is also spoken by significant populations in Bhutan and the Gyirong County of southwestern Tibet.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "is Yolmopa/publisher=Indigenous Voice". Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  2. ^ Clarke, Graham E. (1980). "A Helambu History". Journal of the Nepal Research Centre. 4: 1–38.
  3. ^ Clarke, Graham E. (1980). M. Aris and A. S. S. Kyi (ed.). Lama and Tamang in Yolmo. Warminster: Aris and Phillips. pp. 79–86.
  4. ^ Hari, Anne Marie (2010). Yolmo Grammar Sketch. Kathmandu: Ekta Books. p. 1.
  5. ^ Desjarlais, Robert (2016). Subject to Death. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  6. ^ "Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities". Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities. Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities. 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-24.
  7. ^ Sato, Seika (1997). "Crossing 'capture' out: On the marginality of the capture marriage tactics in Hyolmo, Nepal". 帝京社会学第.
  8. ^ Bishop, Naomi (1998). Himalayan Herders. Fort Worth; London: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. ISBN 9780534440602.
  9. ^ a b c Gawne, Lauren (2013). "Report on the relationship between Hyolmo and Kagate" (PDF). Himalayan Linguistics. 12 (2): 1–27.
  10. ^ "Indigenous Peoples - Hyolmo". Indigenous Voice. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
  11. ^ List of Notified Scheduled Tribes, Census of India

Further reading