Tripuri People
Tipra People
Tripuri couple in traditional attire
Total population
1.2 million (2011)
Regions with significant populations
 India1,011,294[1]
           Tripura950,875[1]
           Mizoram32,634[1]
           Assam22,890[1]
           Meghalaya2,735[1]
           Nagaland350[1]
           Gujarat239[1]
           Manipur208[1]
           Jammu and Kashmir190[1]
           Rajasthan169[1]
           West Bengal120[1]
           Maharashtra118[1]
           Karnataka114[1]
 Bangladesh156,578 (2021)[2]
Languages
Kokborok (Tripuri)
Religion
Majority
Hinduism (93.6%)
Minority
Christianity (6.4%)
See Tripuri people's Religion
Related ethnic groups

The Tripuri (also known as Tripura,[3][4] Tipra, Tiprasa, Twipra, Tipperah) are a Tibeto-Burman-speaking ethnic group of Northeast Indian state of Tripura. They are the descendants of the inhabitants of the Twipra/Tripura Kingdom in North-East India and Bangladesh. The Tripuri people through the Manikya dynasty[5] ruled the Kingdom of Tripura for ~450 years until the kingdom joined the Indian Union on 15 October 1949.

Etymology

History

A Risa pattern.
Distribution of Tipra, as reported in the Language Survey of India 1903
Distribution of Tipra, as reported in the Language Survey of India 1903

Tripuris are the native people of Tripura having its own unique and distinct rich culture, tradition, and history. They were able to expand their influence as far south as Chittagong Division, as far west as Comilla and Noakhali (known during the British period as "plains Tipperah") and as far north as Sylhet Division (all in present Bangladesh). Chittagong Hill Tracts was the part of Tipperah Kingdom till British took control of the Indian subcontinent. In the year 1512, the Tipperas were at the height of their supremacy when they defeated the Mughals. The ruling dynasty passed through several periods of history and ruled Tripura for several centuries until the 18th century, after which Plain Tippera became a colony of Britain and Hill Tippera remained an independent princely state. On 14 October 1949, Hill Tippera was merged into the newly independent India as Tripura State.

Culture

Festivals

Buisu

The Buisu[6] festival is the two long day festival[7] of Tripuri/Tripura People in India and Bangladesh. This Festival is the traditional New Year's Day which falls on 13 or 14 April.

The Buisu Festival begins with Hari Buisu[8] which is the first day. In Hari Buisu Tripuri People clean up their houses and decorate their houses with different flowers. They pray a special prayer in the evening in their houses and temples. The next day is known as Buisu which is the main event, where people visit each other's houses. During this main Buisu, people actually socialize with each other. People cook different traditional foods along with others.

Hangrai

Hangrai[9] is a harvest festival and one of the main festivals of Tripuri people. This festival is very meaningful to Tripuri People. The Tripuris celebrate Hangrai with a festive way.[10] People start taking preparation of Hangrai which begins 4-5 days before. The younger generation make Nowshah, small huts made of bamboo and paddy husks. They gather for picnic where hot rice cakes and different foods are served. Elders would remain at home and take shower early in the morning and wear fresh clothes. They gather around and share their Awangs, Moi or Curries and rice-based alcohol Arak or chuwak. They enjoy the entire day until midnight.

In this festival Tripuri People visit holy places, worship God and perform individual sacrifices and rituals.[11]

Religion

Religion among the Tripuri

  Hinduism (93.6%)
  Christianity (6.4%)

In the 2011 census, 93.6% of the Tripuri people followed an admixture of Hindu and folk religions and 6.4% were Christians (mostly, Baptists). Tripuri Hinduism is a syncretic religion, melding traditional folk religion with Hindu elements, commonly found in northeastern India.[12] A minority of the Uchoi clan of the Tripuri are Buddhist.[13]

Gastronomy

Tripuri people loves to eat different types of fresh vegetables from hill. In their food menu, Bamboo Shoots are one of the traditional dish which they call "Muya"[14] in their Kokborok Language.

The use of dry fish is common in their daily cuisine. Sticky rice which is one of the traditional food of Tripuri People and they eat sticky rice in different ways including Awang Bangwi/ Awang Bwthai,Awang Sokrang, Awang Phanswi, Phap ni Awang and Awang Belep[15]

Eight Traditional Recipes or Cuisines which Tripuri People eat in their daily life.[16]

  1. Chakhwi[17]
  2. Gudok
  3. Bermabwtwi
  4. Mosdeng
  5. Awandru
  6. Mwkhwikwtwi
  7. Serma
  8. Thokmui

Awang Bangwi

Awang Bangwi or Awang Bwthai[18] which is one of the traditional food of Tripuri People. This cone shaped rice rolls in Lairu or banana leaves for steam which is loved by Tripuris. Awan Bangwi which is a rice cake prepared by Tripuris including sticky rice,butter or Ghee, reisins, nuts, ginger and onion.[19] Awan Bangwi is the national food of Tripura State.[20]

Bamboo Chicken/Pork/Fish

Using bamboo for cooking chicken or pork or fish is popular and traditional way of cooking process of Tripuri People. The process is simple. Marinating chicken or pork or fish with different ingredients and stuff the chicken/pork/fish inside the bamboo with little water. Then cook it for 40-50 min on Charcoal.

This Bamboo Chicken[21]/Pork/Fish is widely popular among Tripuri People.

Tripuri games and sports

Main article: Tripuri games and sports

"Pait" one of the ancient Tripuri brain game

Like many parts of the world the Tripuri has traditional sports. It is common in almost all the clans of Tripuri. They are called thwngmung in Tripuri.

Language

Main article: Kokborok language

The Tripuri people speak Kokborok (also known as Tipra), a Tibeto-Burman language. Tripuri is the official language of Tripura, India. There are estimated to be more than one million speakers of the dialects of Tripuri in Tripura, and additional speakers in Mizoram and Assam in India, as well as Sylhet and the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh. It is also spoken in Feni.

There are three main dialects of Tripuri, though the central dialect of the royal family, DebBarma (Puratan Tripur), is a prestige dialect understood by everyone. It is the standard for teaching and literature. It is taught as the medium of instruction up to class fifth and as subject up to graduate level in Tripura.

Historically, Tripuri was written in native Tripuri script known as Koloma, the earliest known writing in Tripuri dates from the 1st century AD, and was written in Koloma. The script was replaced by an alphabet based on the Eastern Nagari script. Currently the revival of ancient Koloma script is in process.

Some of the most notable Tripuri historical literary works, written by court scholars, include:

Kinship

The main Tripuri clans are:

Society

A rignai pattern.

The Tripuri people consist of clans, each with its own elementary social and administrative organisation starting from the village level and up to the chieftainship of the whole community.[22]

Tripuri couple in traditional attire
Tripura girls in their traditional attire

These indigenous communities enjoy their traditional freedom based on the concept of self-determination. The relation between the king and the subject communities was as Maharaja (king) of Tripura-Missip or liaison officer Roy or headman of the community – Sardar the chief of the village – the individual. Earlier, only the Debbarma or Tipra ethnic group was included in the Tripuri Kshatriya group. Later, the Raja included other groups like Reang, Jamatia and Noatia as well, in an attempt to foster a sense of kindness among the people under his region.[23]

The Tripuri people have a rich historical, social, and cultural heritage which is totally distinct from that of the mainland Indians. Their distinctive culture – as reflected in their dance, music, festivals, management of community affairs, dress and food habits – has a strong base. Kokborok, the lingua franca of the 12 largest linguistic groups of the indigenous Tripuris and other dialects spoken in Tripura are of the Tibeto-Burman group and distinct from those spoken in India. There is no influence from those spoken by other peoples in the north-eastern region.

Calendar

Main article: Tripuri calendar

The Tripuris follow a traditional luni-solar calendar Tripurabda, which has 12 months and a 7-day week, like the Gregorian calendar.

The Tripura Era's New Year is on the 1st of Vaishakh which corresponds to 14 or 15 of April of Common_Era, depending on whether that year is a Leap year or not. The months are named in pan Indian months, time since its inception 1419 years back by Tripuri king Hamtor pha alias Himti pha alias Jujharu pha in 512 Saka Era.

Notable people

Indian

Bangladeshi

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Distribution of the 99 Non-Scheduled Languages- India/ States/ Union Territories-2011 Census" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. pp. 48, 49. Retrieved 10 April 2021. Look for "92. TRIPURI", total number of Tripuri speakers in India given as 11294 on page 48, then state wise break-up on page 49
  2. ^ "Table 1.4 Ethnic Population by Group and Sex" (PDF) (in Bengali). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2021. p. 33.
  3. ^ Hasan, Nur; Jahan, Rownak (2014). "A survey of medicinal plants used by the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 10: 3–19. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-10-19. PMC 3996145. PMID 24502444.
  4. ^ Ahmed, Sazdik; Ravhee, Shahla (2020). "A Study on the Settlement Morphology of Tipra (Tripura) ethnic group in Sreemangal, Bangladesh". Journal of Recent Activities in Architectural Sciences: 3–19. doi:10.46610/JoRAAS.2020.v05i01.003. S2CID 234648795.
  5. ^ Jain, Anshika (11 June 2019). "Tripura's Ujjayanta: Seat of the Manikyas". Live History India. It rose like a phoenix out of the ashes, quite literally. Situated in the city of Agartala is the exquisite Ujjayanta Palace, home of the Tripura royals and also a state museum. This delicate beauty was built in the late 19th century by Maharaja Radha Kishore Manikya of the Manikya dynasty, after a devastating earthquake flattened Agartala, the capital of Tripura. It went on to become a symbol of a modern phase in the Kingdom of Tripura. You may not have heard of them but the Manikya dynasty of Tripura is one of the oldest continuously reigning dynasties of India. The exact date of its founding is shrouded in legend – the Rajmala, a 15th century chronicle of the kings of Tripura, traces the history of the dynasty to the Mahabharata. But, historically speaking, the dynasty is said to have been founded by Ratna Manikya in 1267 CE. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  6. ^ "Buisu Festival: Govt's emphasis on cultural development quality living of tribals". Tripura Net. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  7. ^ "CM to inaugurate 20th state-level Buisu Festival". The Rise East. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  8. ^ "How And Why A Handful Of Rice From Each Household Is Essential To Celebrate Tripura's Garia Puja". Advasi Lives Matter. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  9. ^ Debbarma, Baby; Kaipeng, Ramengzaua (2022). "A STUDY ON THE FOLK FESTIVAL OF TRIPURA TRIBALWITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO-DEBBARMA, REANG AND JAMATIA" (PDF). The International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT). 10. ISSN 2320-2882.
  10. ^ "Makar Sankranti 2023: When to celebrate Makar Sankranti". The Times of India.
  11. ^ Jamatia, Neha (14 January 2022). "A Festival Where Young People Construct Bamboo Huts Only To Burn Them The Next Day". Adivasi Lives Matter.
  12. ^ "Tripura" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.
  13. ^ "Buddhist monk from Tripura elected secretary general of the International Buddhist Confederation". 15 December 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  14. ^ "Food And Local Cuisines Of Tripura". Tripura Online.
  15. ^ Debbarma, Anuprava (23 September 2022). "Five Ways In Which Tripuris Enjoy Their Traditional Food, The 'Sticky Rice'". Advasi Lives Matter.
  16. ^ CHAKRABORTY, DIPANNITA; DAS NAYAK, RITA (2022). Transitional Aspects of Indigenous People: North East India. EBH PUBLISHERS. p. 26-29. ISBN 9789392038419.
  17. ^ "Chakhwi: A Tribal Curry From Tripura Made With Baking Soda". Slurrp. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  18. ^ "Regional Indian dishes that are prepared in the most unique and unbelievable manner". Times of India. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  19. ^ "Cakes and Bakes". Tripura. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  20. ^ Chopra, Natasha. "Regional Indian dishes that are prepared in the most unique and unbelievable manner". NDTV. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  21. ^ "Bamboo Chicken: The Famous Traditional Food of Tripuri People". Naver Daily.
  22. ^ "Tripuri community has started reviving its traditional bodies in Tripura". www.sentinelassam.com. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  23. ^ Asian Studies, Volume 4 by Netaji Institute for Asian Studies, p.4
  24. ^ "Asiad: Somdev Creates History, India Retains 8th Spot". Outlook. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  25. ^ "Somdev receives Arjuna Award". Hindustan Times. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  26. ^ Agencies, New Delhi (20 September 2011). "Somdev Devvarman receives Arjuna Award". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  27. ^ "Kidambi Srikanth, Somdev Devvarman receive Padma Shri awards; Padma Bhushan for Dhoni". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 April 2021.