Guite is the progenitor clan of Mizo people He is also said to be the Older Brother of Thadou progenitor of the Thadou people. Mostly the Guite clan speak mizo language . Some known as Zomi and few also as kuki in India and as Zogam in Myanmar (Burma). Depending on local pronunciation, the clan was also called differently such as Nguite, Vuite, and was also recorded even as Gwete, Gwite, Nwite. In accord with the claim of their solar origin, the Guite clan has been called nampi, meaning noble or major or even dominant people, of the region in local dialect in the past.
The name Guite is a direct derivation of the name of the progenitor of the family, known as Guite the Great (see, following genealogical charts), whose mysterious birth was, according to oral tradition, related to the Sun. Therefore, in order to reflect this solar relationship (i.e., "ni gui" meaning the ray of the Sun), the name "Guite" is said given at his birth by his father, Songthu(also Chawngthu,Thawngthu), also known as Prince of Aisan. Further, in reference to this noble birth, a local proverb was circulated that is still known in the region. The proverb says:
Ton Lun. Being known as the first to celebrate the festival of Ton, therefore, was traditionally known as Ton Mang, meaning the Master/Lord of Ton (cf., name of his grandson in genealogical chart).
Ni Gui. A renowned Guite prince, who, according to oral tradition, was said to formulate most of traditional rites and cultural practices (i.e., tributary system, festive songs and lyrics, religio-social festivals, social family system, etc.) that some of them are still in practice in present northern Chin State of Myanmar and present Lamka (Churachandpur or even New Lamka) area of Manipur India.
Gui Mang I. The prince who organized the Ciimnuai (Chiimnuai, Chinwe) city-state that its remainings can still be collected at nearby present village of Saizang, Tedim township. Further, the following folksong was ascribed to be a composed of Prince Gui Mang:
Mang Suum I. The eldest son of Gui Mang I, who divided the land into three major regions—the upper region tuilu (Guava) under his youngest brother Nak Sau (or Kul Lai), the lower region tuitaw (Vangteh via Tawizawi) under his younger brother Kul Gen and the central region (Ciimnuai) under his suzerainty. This is the beginning of the attribution of Mual thum kampau Guite Mang to the Guite family, meaning the supreme ruling clan of the three-mountains-region, which are the Ciim Taang (central Ciim mountain region), the Khum Taang (south-eastern Khum mountain region), and the Len Taang (north-western Len mountain region). The legend of this division is still remembered with a folktale related to following folksong:
Further, there are also another existing poetic song retained in Vangteh chronicle that marked this land division:
Gen Dong. Making Vangteh as his political center, began extending Guite's dynastic rule to the south (tuitaw) and westward crossing the Manipur river, and also was well documented in the oral traditions of other tribes also. The birth-story of Prince Gen Dong was behind a popular nursery rhyme that is still in use in several local places, such as Vangteh, Saizang, Kaptel, etc. The rhyme, as originally composed by Prince Mang Suum, is as following:
Mang Kiim. A capable prince from Vangteh, who travelled more than fifty three towns and villages, making sacred rites, called Uisiang-at in native language, in claiming of Guite's dynastic rule and guardianship of the land as Priestly King.
Pau Hau. A powerful Guite prince from Vangteh, who was known as the one who went down to Chittagong (present Bangladesh) to learn gunpowder and as the first person to use it in the region. Under his leadership, Vangteh became the capital of seven princes, therefore known as the center of "Hausa sagih leh tuangdung dawh sagih," meaning seven princes and seven courts.
Tun Kam. A contemporary of Pau Hau and a Guite prince from Vangteh but more known as Prince of Tualphai, who is a member of seven princes of Vangteh and also a member of the Association of Nine Lords in the then Tedim region.
Gui Mang II. The prince who was said to be the first to found present Tedim with the accompaniment of other tribes such as Gangte, Vaiphei, and probably others collectively identified as Simte (people from lower region). The name was said derived from a sprinkling light of the pool called Vansaangdim under bright sunlight. Therefore, is called TE, meaning "bright shining," and DIM, meaning "sprinkling, twinkling, and so even likely celebrating." This is a commemorative song for the founding.
Pum Go. The prince who restated his capital from Lamzang to Tedim. A folksong, said to be composed by him in commemoration of the festival of Ton, is still sung in the region as following:
Go Khaw Thang. A powerful prince from Mualpi, also known as Goukhothang or Go Khua Thang, or even as Kokutung by Carey and Tuck. He is the only Zomi prince whom the neighbouring Meitei (Manipur) Kingdom ever acknowledged as Raja (or Ningthou in Metei language). His powerful dominion spread over more than 70 cities, towns, and villages. He was known as the then leader of all Zo people as Carey and Tuck also noted him as the Yo (correct Zo people) Chief of Mwelpi (correct Mualpi).
He, along with his contemporary, Kamhau, defeated the Meitei Raja on several occasions. Kamhau is another popular name in ZO history. Kamhau respected and held the Guites in high regard. Although a powerful ruler himself, he is said to be many paces behind Goukhothang in bravery, skill, tact and diplomacy. In fact, the Zomis of that time were all under the Guite banner, one way or the other.
Suum Kam. Son of Raja Goukhothang is another powerful Guite prince. He made a peace-treaty called Treaty of Sanjentong with Maharaja Chandrakirti on 11 March 1875, marking the boundary of the Guites and the Meiteis at the present Moirang of Manipur, covenanted the non-interference between the Guites and the Meiteis but friendship, and promised to betroth a Meitei princess to the house of Prince Suum Kam in securing peace (see, the ending part of Raja Goukhothang Documentary video). In commemoration of this treaty, Suum Kam composed a poetic song as following:
Out of many political centers of the once Guite dynastic rule, Lamzang-Tedim (later shifted to Mualpi or Molpi until last camp at Hanship in present Churachandpur (Lamka) District of Manipur), Tuimui, Selbung, Haiciin, and Vangteh were the most prominent places. Due to geographical distance, and as times passed by, of course, there are several minor differences of the chronicles retained in each places as provided below for comparison.
(PZS & KN)
|Tuah Ciang||Tuah Ciang||Tuah Ciang||Tuah Ciang||x||–|
|Lam Lei||Lam Lei||Lam Lei||Lam Lei||x||–|
|x||Lei Mang||Lam Mang||Lei Mang||x||–|
|Bawk Lu||Ngek Nguk||Ngek Nguk||Ngek Nguk||x||–|
|Ngek Nguk||Bawk Lu||Bawk Lu||Bawk Lu||x||–|
|Mang Pi||Mang Pi||Mang Pi||Mang Pi||x||–|
|Ton Lun||Ton Lun||Ton Lun||Ton Lun||x||–|
|Go Vum||Go Vum||Go Vum||Go Vum||x||–|
|Ton Mang||Ton Mang||Ton Mang||Ton Mang||x||–|
|x||x||x||x||Ni Gui||c. 13th century|
|Gui Gen||x||x||Gui Gen||Gui Gen||c. late 13th century|
|Vui Mang||Vui Mang||Gui Mang||Gui Mang||Gui Mang||Ciimnuai|
|Mang Sum, Kul Gen||x||Gui Sum||x||MS, KG, Nak Sau||early 15th century|
|Vum Sum||x||x||Vum Mang||Vum Mang (Gen Dong)||–|
|No.||KZT (1972)||No.||NLZ (1998)||Place/Time|
|1.||GUITE||1.||GUITE||Khualawi, present China|
|2.||Ni Gui||2.||Tuah Ciang||–|
|3.||Gui Gen||3.||Lam Lei, Hauzel, Dousel||–|
|4.||Gui Mang||4.||Ciang Khua||–|
|5.||Mang Sum||Kul Gen||Nak Sau||5.||Lei Mang, Ngaihte||–|
|6.||Tuah Ciang||Gen Dong||no record||6.||Mang Vum||–|
|7.||Lam Lei||Mang Tawng||–||7.||Bawk Lu||–|
|8.||Bawk Lu||Mang Kiim||–||8.||Ngek Nguk||–|
|9.||Ngek Nguk||Go Phung||–||9.||Gui Sum, Sailo(va)||–|
|10.||Mang Pi||Za Mang||–||10.||Mat Lun||–|
|11.||Ton Lun||Man Pau||–||11.||Mang Pi||–|
|12.||Go Vum||Mang Pau||–||12.||Mang Lun||–|
|13.||Ton Mang||Kaih Mang||–||13.||Ton Lun||Theizang, Kabaw Valley, AD 830|
|14.||Gui Mang||Hau Kai||–||14.||Go Vum|
|15.||Gui Vum||Mang Sel||–||15.||Ton Mang||Old Ciimnuai, Kabaw Valley|
|16.||Mang Pum||Kai Pum||–||16.||Ni Gui||Old Taaksat, Kawlpi (Kalay) Valley|
|17.||Vum Mang||Go Thawng||–||17.||Gui Gen, Samte||–|
|18.||Gui Lun||Pum Kam||–||18.||Gui Mang||Ciimnuai|
|19.||Thang Go||Thawng Do Cin||19.||Mang Sum I||Kul Gen||Nak Sau (Kullai)||Land-Division within Guite Dy.|
|20.||Sum Mang||Kam Za Lian||20.||Vum Mang||Gen Dong||Hang Khe-eng||PT-C, VT, Guava|
|21.||Pum Go||PG||21.||Vum Sum||Mang Tawng, S. Niang (F)||Doe Lian|
|22.||Mang Sum||22.||Gui Mang II, Mangzil||Mang Kiim, Hangkhiap||Lian Kim||Tedim, VT, GV|
|23.||Go Kho Thang||23.||Gui Lun||Go Phung, Mantong, Tonglai||Tomcil, Kom Kiim (F), Tombu||Tedim, VT, Ciimnuai|
|24.||Sum Kam||24.||Thang Go||Za Mang||Vial Nang, Lodai||Lamzang, VT, Ngur|
|25.||Thang Pau||25.||Mang Pum, (Tonsing)||Ma-an Pau||Mang Thang|
|26.||Kam Za Mang||26.||Sum Mang||Mang Pau||(Gorkha)|
|27.||Zangkolian||27.||Pum Go||Kaih Mang, PHau, DMuang||Tedim, VT|
|28.||Pau Min Thang||28.||Mang Sum II||Hau Kai (Mang Phung)||Mualpi, VT|
|29.||PG||29.||Gokhothang||Mang Sel (Thual Kai)||First contact with the British|
|30.||30.||Sum Kam||Kai Pum (Hau Tun)||Tonglon, VT|
|31.||31.||Thang Pau, Zamkhualian||Go Thawng (Kai Thawng)||Mimbung, VT (British Supremacy)|
|32.||32.||Kam Za Mang, MKThang||Pum Kam (Tun Za Sing)||Under British Admin.|
|33.||33.||Zaangkholian, LianCinPau||Thawngdocin (Thawngliando)||End of Hereditary Sys. in Burma (1948)|
|34.||34.||Pau Min Thang||Kamzalian (Singkhatdong)||Present Era|
By dating the establishment of the Ciimnuai city-state of present Tedim township to be the early 14th century, Guite dynastic rule can rightly be said to be more than half a century long (until British annexation in the early 20th century, c. 1300–1900), though most southern part of its tributary land was gradually turned to the allied force of southern Pawihang (Poi or Pawite) beginning from the mid-18th century. As cited above, following the legend of land division between the three legendary Guite princes (M. Suum, K. Gen, and N. Sau), the geopolitics of the Guite dynasty can accordingly be divided into three major regions---the central Ciimnuai region under Mang Suum I, the lower Tuitaw region under Kul Gen, and the upper Tuilu region under Nak Sau (Kul Lai). Though the Guite dynastic traditions of the two elder princes were respectively kept alive until the advancement of the British army, the story of the youngest prince Nak Sau was unfortunately lost from sight except a very brief oral account retained in Vangteh chronicle (that traces Kom Kiim as the daughter of Tom Cil, the last known prince from the line of Nak Sau, and the rest was said as if became the Gorkhas or at least banded together with). While reserving for the lost tradition of Prince Nak Sau, reflecting from the available traditions of Mang Suum and Kul Gen, the two most distinctive features of the Guite dynastic tradition would be its religious orientedness and its confederated administrative system.