Guite is the progenitor clan of Zomi people, also called Chin in Myanmar, Mizo, or Paite, or even Kuki in India. According to Zam, Nigui Guite is the elder brother of the ancestral fathers of the Thadou people, namely Thangpi (great-grandfather of Doungel), Sattawng, and Neirawng.[1] This genealogy is recently in-scripted on the tribal memorial stone at Bungmual, Lamka in the presence of each family-head of the three major clans, Doungel, Kipgen, and Haokip, on August 7, 2011.[2] Some historians, like Shakespeare,[3] assumed Lamlei was the Nigui Guite himself but the Guites themselves recounted Tuahciang, the father of Lamlei, as the son of Nigui Guite instead, in their social-religious rites (see in the following genealogical charts). Regarding Guite as the born son of Songthu and his sister, Nemnep (aka Nembuk), it was the practice of ancient royalties to issue royal heir and also to keep their bloodline pure instead. Depending on local pronunciation, the clan was also called differently such as Nguite,[4] Vuite,[5] and was also recorded even as Gwete,[6] Gwite,[7] Nwite,[8] Paihte by the Lushei.[3] In accord with the claim of their solar origin, the Guite clan has been called nampi, meaning noble or major or even dominant people, of the region in local dialect in the past.[9]

Adoption of the name

The name Guite is a direct derivation of the name of the progenitor of the family, known as Guite the Great (see, following genealogical charts), whose mysterious birth was, according to oral tradition, related to the Sun.

Therefore, in order to reflect this solar relationship (i.e., "ni gui" meaning the ray of the Sun), the name "Guite" is said to have been given at his birth by his father, Songthu (also Chawngthu, Chongthu, Thawngthu, and Saothi).[10] After the birth of Guite, Songthu, also known as Prince of Aisan in his later years, moved near to Aisan creek and settled down there with his wife, Neihtong, to give way to his sister Nemnep and her child, Guite, to inherit the Ciimnuai Estate. Therefore, Guite, the elder son, and his descendants are all entitled to the Ciimnuai legacy while as Thangpi, the younger, and his descendants (Doungel and siblings) are titled as Aisan Pa (or Prince of Aisan) accordingly.[11] Further, in reference to Guite’s noble birth, a local proverb was circulated that is still known in the region. The proverb says:

Nampi' ta ni in zong siam [Local Proverb, c. 12th century]
Even the Sun bless the noble birth.

Some notable Guite princes

Ciimnuai generation

Ton Lun. Being known as the first to celebrate the festival of Ton, therefore, was traditionally known as Ton Mang, meaning the Master/Lord of Ton (cf., name of his grandson in the genealogical chart).

Ni Gui. A renowned Guite prince, who, according to oral tradition, was said to formulate most of traditional rites and cultural practices (i.e., tributary system, festive songs and lyrics, religio-social festivals, social family system, etc.) that some of them are still in practice in present northern Chin State of Myanmar and present Lamka (Churachandpur or even New Lamka) area of Manipur India.[12]

Gui Mang I. The prince who organized the Ciimnuai (Chiimnuai, Chinwe) city-state that its remainings can still be collected at the nearby present village of Saizang, Tedim township.[13] Further, the following folksong was ascribed to be composed of Prince Gui Mang:

Mang ii tusuan kil bang hong khang ing, Zaang aa pehsik gawm ing;
Khuakiim aa mi siahseu in kai ing, ka khua Ciimtui tungah ka vang kaammei awi sang sa zaw ee [G. Mang, c. AD. 1300]
I, the royal descendant, has grown up like a three, bringing irons and coppers from the plain;
Collecting taxes and tributes from around, my fame and reputation have been even more than wildfire.

Mang Suum I. The eldest son of Gui Mang I, who divided the land into three major regions—the upper region tuilu (Guava) under his youngest brother Nak Sau (or Kul Lai), the lower region tuitaw (Vangteh via Tawizawi) under his younger brother Kul Gen and the central region (Ciimnuai) under his suzerainty.[14] This is the beginning of the attribution of Mual thum kampau Guite Mang to the Guite family, meaning the supreme ruling clan of the three-mountains-region, which are the Ciim Taang (central Ciim mountain region), the Khum Taang (south-eastern Khum mountain region), and the Len Taang (north-western Len mountain region). The legend of this division is still remembered with a folktale related to the following folksong:

Tuilu aa pai ni leh kha siam, tuitaw aa pai simzawng vontawi dawnto peeng mawh [Interpretation of Prince Nak Sau of a mythical bird that was said singing this song while three princes were making discussion and divination at the place called Nakhuzaang, c. 14th century]
To go up to the upper river is to be blessed by the sun and the moon; to go down to the lower river is to be poor but would have wine.

Further, there are also another existing poetic song retained in Vangteh chronicle that marked this land division:

Ciim leh Tawi tui a ih maankhawm in, ning leh ai-sa in kizawituah ang;
Tuu bang suanh dang in ki-el lo-in, phung Gui ni nuai-ah kibawmtuah ang [M. Suum I & K. Gen, c. 1400].[15]
As long as the people of Ciim (short form for Ciimnuai) and people of Tawi (short form for Tawizawi) reign or prosper, let us maintain our fellowship banquet, a banquet of wine and meat;
Let our offspring not go against each other but let us join together under the name of solar Gui family.

Vangteh generation

Gen Dong. Making Vangteh his political center, began extending Guite's dynastic rule to the south (tuitaw) and westward, crossing the Manipur river, and also was well documented in the oral traditions of other tribes also.[16] The birth story of Prince Gen Dong was behind a popular nursery rhyme that is still in use in several local places, such as Vangteh, Saizang, Kaptel, etc. The rhyme, as originally composed by Prince Mang Suum, is as follows:

Ka nau aw ee, Gen Dong aw, Ciimnuai dongah Gen dong aw [M. Suum I, c. 1400].
My little baby, named Gen Dong (meaning Gen is asking or taking counsel), that Gen (reference to Kul Gen) has asked of me to far Ciimnuai in showing of his respect.

Mang Kiim. A capable prince from Vangteh, who traveled to more than fifty-three towns and villages, making sacred rites, called Uisiang-at in native language, in claiming of Guite's dynastic rule and guardianship of the land as Priestly King.[17]

Pau Hau. A powerful Guite prince from Vangteh, who was known as the one who went down to Chittagong (present Bangladesh) to learn gunpowder and as the first person to use it in the region.[18] Under his leadership, Vangteh became the capital of seven princes, therefore known as the center of "Hausa sagih leh tuangdung dawh sagih," meaning seven princes and seven courts.

Tun Kam. A contemporary of Pau Hau and a Guite prince from Vangteh but more known as Prince of Tualphai, who is a member of seven princes of Vangteh and also a member of the Association of Nine Lords in the then Tedim region.[19]

Tedim-Lamzang generation

Gui Mang II. The prince who was said to be the first to found present Tedim with the accompaniment of other tribes such as Gangte, Vaiphei, and probably others collectively identified as Simte (people from lower region). The name was said derived from a sprinkling light of the pool called Vansaangdim under bright sunlight. Therefore, is called TE, meaning "bright shining," and DIM, meaning "sprinkling, twinkling, and so even likely celebrating."[20] This is a commemorative song for the founding.

Dimtui vangkhua sai bang ka sat, nunnop tonzawi ka kaihna;
Sangmang lapna ka khawlmual aw, siah leh litui cingkhawm ee [Guimang II, c. AD 1550].
Native Dimtui which I founded, full of good life and festivals;
My resting place where I hanged my banners, and where taxes and tributes are flooded like waters filled the pool [Guimang II, c. AD 1550].

Pum Go. The prince who restated his capital from Lamzang to Tedim. A folksong, said to be composed by him in commemoration of the festival of Ton, is still sung in the region as following:

Dimtui vangkhua khuamun nuam aw, sial leh sawm taang a tunna; Sial leh sawm taang a tunna, siingta'n lamh bang eng na ee;
Taang silsial ee, taang silsial ee, Dimtui vangkhua taang silsial ee; Dimtui vangkhua taang silsial ee, kawi tawh laukha ka hualna hi ee [P. Go, c. AD. 1740]
Very comfortable place is my native Dimtui (a poetic attribution to TE DIM), where all my dreams fulfilled; Where all my dreams fulfilled, that everyone envies of my native;
It's shining, yes, shining, my native Dimtui is shining modestly; My native Dimtui is shining modestly, where I made lasting vow to my beloved (dear wife).

Mualpi generation

Go Khaw Thang. A powerful prince from Mualpi (originally occupied by the Mangvung/Mangvoong family of Thado tribe 1834-1850),[21][22] also known as Goukhothang or Go Khua Thang, or even as Kokutung by Carey and Tuck. He is the only Zomi prince whom the neighbouring Meitei (Manipur) Kingdom ever acknowledged as Raja (or Ningthou in Metei language). His powerful dominion spread over more than 70 cities, towns, and villages.[23] He was known as the then leader of Zo people as Carey and Tuck also noted him as the Yo (correct Zo people) Chief of Mwelpi (correct Mualpi).[24] History tells us that the three major tribes as Zo (a) Gwite (b) Vaipe (Vaiphei) and (c) Zo Chin now called Mizo and Hmar.[25]

Suum Kam. Son of Raja Goukhothang is another powerful Guite prince. Colonel Thompson of Manipur, taking advantage of the embassy sent from Kamhow Sukte to discuss the release of his former lord and also brother-in-law, Goukhothang, suggested a treaty be made with Manipur. Sumkam was released from prison along with the bones of his father. [26] A peace treaty was later made between Sumkam and Maharaja Chandrakirti on 11 March 1875, by drinking zu, Zo traditional wine, in their gun-barrels. The treaty was came to be called Treaty of Sanjentong, marking the boundary of the Guites and the Meiteis at present Moirang of Manipur, covenanted the non-interference between the Guites and the Meiteis but friendship and promised to betroth a Meitei princess to the house of Prince Suum Kam in securing peace (see, the ending part of Raja Goukhothang Documentary video).[27] In commemoration of this treaty, Suum Kam composed a poetic song as following:

Tuan a pupa leh Khang vaimangte' tongchiamna Kaangtui minthang aw,
Penlehpi leh Kaangtui minthang, A tua Zota kual hi ee[28] [S. Kam, 1875]
The famous crystal water, where forefathers and Indian kings (a reference to Maharaja of Manipur) of lower region made a covenant,
The great sea and crystal water (a reference to Loktak Lake), whereby is called to be the home of Zo descendants.

Genealogical charts

Out of many political centers of the once Guite dynastic rule, Lamzang-Tedim (later shifted to Mualpi or Molpi until last camp at Hanship in present Churachandpur (Lamka) District of Manipur), Tuimui, Selbung, Haiciin, and Vangteh were the most prominent places. Due to geographical distance, and as times passed by, of course, there are several minor differences in the chronicles retained in each place, as provided below for comparison.

Comparative chronicles: early period

Chro 1
Chro 2
(Main entry)
Vangteh Chro
(Cf. Bapi/Tuimang)
(PZS & KN)
Tuah Ciang Tuah Ciang Tuah Ciang Tuah Ciang x
Lam Lei Lam Lei Lam Lei Lam Lei x
x x x Ciang Khua x
x Lei Mang Lam Mang Lei Mang x
x x x Mang Vum x
Bawk Lu Ngek Nguk Ngek Nguk Ngek Nguk x
Ngek Nguk Bawk Lu Bawk Lu Bawk Lu x
x x x Gui Sum x
x x x Mat Lun x
Mang Pi Mang Pi Mang Pi Mang Pi x
x x x Mang Lun x
Ton Lun Ton Lun Ton Lun Ton Lun x
Go Vum Go Vum Go Vum Go Vum x
Ton Mang Ton Mang Ton Mang Ton Mang x
x x x x Ni Gui c. 13th century
Gui Gen x x Gui Gen Gui Gen c. late 13th century
Vui Mang Vui Mang Gui Mang Gui Mang Gui Mang Ciimnuai
Mang Sum, Kul Gen[29] x Gui Sum x MS, KG, Nak Sau[30] early 15th century
Vum Sum x x Vum Mang Vum Mang (Gen Dong)

Comparative rearrangements

No. KZT (1972) No. NLZ (1998) Place/Time
1. GUITE 1. GUITE Khualawi, present China
2. Ni Gui 2. Tuah Ciang
3. Gui Gen 3. Lam Lei, Hauzel, Dousel
4. Gui Mang 4. Ciang Khua
5. Mang Sum Kul Gen Nak Sau 5. Lei Mang, Ngaihte
6. Tuah Ciang Gen Dong no record 6. Mang Vum
7. Lam Lei Mang Tawng 7. Bawk Lu
8. Bawk Lu Mang Kiim 8. Ngek Nguk
9. Ngek Nguk Go Phung 9. Gui Sum, Sailo(va)
10. Mang Pi Za Mang 10. Mat Lun
11. Ton Lun Man Pau 11. Mang Pi
12. Go Vum Mang Pau 12. Mang Lun
13. Ton Mang Kaih Mang 13. Ton Lun, Sing On (Hatzaw/Hatlang) Theizang, Kabaw Valley, AD 830
14. Gui Mang Hau Kai 14. Go Vum
15. Gui Vum Mang Sel 15. Ton Mang Old Ciimnuai, Kabaw Valley
16. Mang Pum Kai Pum 16. Ni Gui[31][12] Old Taaksat, Kawlpi (Kalay) Valley
17. Vum Mang Go Thawng 17. Gui Gen, Samte
18. Gui Lun Pum Kam 18. Gui Mang Ciimnuai
19. Thang Go Thawng Do Cin 19. Mang Sum I Kul Gen Nak Sau (Kullai) Land-Division within Guite Dy.
20. Sum Mang Kam Za Lian 20. Vum Mang Gen Dong Hang Khe-eng PT-C, VT, Guava
21. Pum Go PG 21. Vum Sum Mang Tawng, S. Niang (F) Doe Lian
22. Mang Sum 22. Gui Mang II, Mangzil Mang Kiim, Hangkhiap Lian Kim Tedim, VT, GV
23. Go Kho Thang 23. Gui Lun Go Phung, Mantong, Tonglai Tomcil, Kom Kiim (F), Tombu Tedim, VT, Ciimnuai
24. Sum Kam 24. Thang Go Za Mang Vial Nang, Lodai Lamzang, VT, Ngur
25. Thang Pau 25. Mang Pum, (Tonsing) Ma-an Pau Mang Thang
26. Kam Za Mang 26. Sum Mang Mang Pau (Gorkha)[32]
27. Zangkolian 27. Pum Go Kaih Mang, PHau, DMuang Tedim, VT
28. Pau Min Thang 28. Mang Sum II Hau Kai (Mang Phung) Mualpi, VT
29. PG 29. Gokhothang Mang Sel (Thual Kai) First contact with the British
30. 30. Sum Kam Kai Pum (Hau Tun) Tonglon, VT
31. 31. Thang Pau, Zamkhualian Go Thawng (Kai Thawng) Mimbung, VT (British Supremacy)
32. 32. Kam Za Mang, MKThang Pum Kam (Tun Za Sing) Under British Admin.
33. 33. Zaangkholian, LianCinPau Thawngdocin (Thawngliando) End of Hereditary Sys. in Burma (1948)
34. 34. Pau Min Thang Kamzalian (Singkhatdong) Present Era

Clarification of abbreviations

(Alphabetical order)

Tradition of Guite dynastic rule

By dating the establishment of the Ciimnuai city-state of present Tedim township to be the early 14th century,[35] Guite dynastic rule can rightly be said to be more than half a century long (until British annexation in the early 20th century, c. 1300–1900), though most southern part of its tributary land was gradually turned to the allied force of southern Pawihang (Poi or Pawite) beginning from the mid-18th century. As cited above, following the legend of land division between the three legendary Guite princes (M. Suum, K. Gen, and N. Sau), the geopolitics of the Guite dynasty can accordingly be divided into three major regions---the central Ciimnuai region under Mang Suum I, the lower Tuitaw region under Kul Gen, and the upper Tuilu region under Nak Sau (Kul Lai).[36] Though the Guite dynastic traditions of the two elder princes were respectively kept alive until the advancement of the British army, the story of the youngest prince Nak Sau was unfortunately lost from sight except a very brief oral account retained in Vangteh chronicle (that traces Kom Kiim as the daughter of Tom Cil, the last known prince from the line of Nak Sau, and the rest was said as if became the Gorkhas or at least banded together with). While reserving for the lost tradition of Prince Nak Sau, reflecting from the available traditions of Mang Suum and Kul Gen, the two most distinctive features of the Guite dynastic tradition would be its religious orientedness and its confederated administrative system.


  1. ^ Ngul Lian Zam (Guite), "Mualthum Kampau Guite Hausate Tangthu" (Amazon/CreateSpace, United States, 2018), ISBN 978-1721693559. This is a new comprehensive survey of the Guite family history.
  2. ^ See well noted in Pu Senchong, Silver Jubilee Thusimbu (Thusimbu Committee: Manlyphai, Tamu, Myanmar (Burma), 2012), 1-2.
  3. ^ a b Shakespear, John (1912). The Lushei Kuki Clans. Macmillan and Co. Limited. p. 142.
  4. ^ See explanation of the name in the first paragraph of the "History and Legend" at Vangteh.
  5. ^ See other alternate names for the language name "Chin, Paite" at Ethnologue: Languages of the World.
  6. ^ Please, refer to "People and Races: Myanmar People" and scroll down to "Chin" at Myanmar Travel Information 2007 Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Please, see word switch between "Guite" and "Gwete" in the fourth paragraph of the page at Siamsin Pawlpi (SSPP)
  8. ^ Bertram Sausmarez Carey and Henry Newman Tuck, The Chin Hills: A History of the People, Our Dealings with Them, Their Customs and Manners, and a Gazetteer of Their Country (Rangoon, Burma: Government Printing, 1896), 2-4 [Nwite is probably a mispronunciation of Nguite by Burman guides when the British came to the land via inner Burman kingdom for the first time].
  9. ^ See article, "Guite," in Sing K. Khai, KUKI People and Their Culture (Lamka, Churachandpur, India: Khampu Hatzaw, 1995), 21-22.
  10. ^ For oral tradition about Songthu, see, T. Gougin, History of Zomi(Zou) (Lamka, India: T. Gougin, 1984), 2. Also, William Shaw, The Thadou Kukis(Calcutta, India: Cultural Publication of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1929), 24-26 [following the local pronunciation of the Thadous, Shaw spelled "Songthu" as "Chongthu"].
  11. ^ Gangte, T.S. (2010). The Kukis of Manipur: A Historical Analysis. Gian Ridhi Offset. p. 9.
  12. ^ a b Further, there are many other family-groups who claimed Prince Ni Gui as their progenitor, i.e., the chronicle of Sailo chieftains claim their progenitor Sishinga as the other son of Ni Gui or Ni Ngui (Ninguitea in their local common address) by Lalthangliana [in his History of Mizo in Burma, a Master's thesis Submitted to Arts & Science University, Mandalay, Burma in 1975, unpublished], Samte family also claimed to be another line descended from Ni Gui [cf., Gin Z. Cin, villager of Kaptel, present Tedim township, Chin State], and Naulak/Nouluck family also claims to be related to Ni Gui some way or another.
  13. ^ Surajit Sinha, Tribal Polities and State Systems in Pre-Colonial Eastern and North Eastern India (Calcutta, India: Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, K. P. Bagchi & Co., 1987), 312 [Sinha also refer to Ciimnuai (Chiimnuai/Chiimnwe/Chinwe) as the first Guite/Vuite village].
  14. ^ Khai, Zo Culture, 21.
  15. ^ Cf., Mr. Langh Khup, the grandson of Prince Tun Za Sing, the last hereditary Prince of Vangteh, as of recorded by Mr. Ngul L. Zam in his handwriting and forwarded to Khumpita upon his request, dated 18 April 2008.
  16. ^ Cf., Khai, Zo Culture, 16.
  17. ^ Cf., "Khua-suum sim" under the heading "The birth of Vangteh" at Vangteh wikipage.
  18. ^ Cf., "Pau Hau in thau a nei hi," in Joseph H. Cope, com., Zolai Simbu (Tedim, Chin Hills, 1920).
  19. ^ According to oral traditions, those who were known as the nine lords are Vungh Vial (Saizaang), Tun kam (Vangteh), Maang Song (Laamzaang), Do Maang (Lophei), Ciang Phut (Kalzaang), Suan Thuk (Thuklai), Go Maang (Khuasak), Hang Kam (Buanman), Kaih Maang (Mualbem) (taken from manuscript prepared by Pum Za Kham, Tonzang, Myanmar).
  20. ^ Please, refer to ongoing Wiki article Tedim.
  21. ^ Mackenzie, Alexander (1979). The North East Frontier of India. Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 169.
  22. ^ Bertram S. Carey, H.N. Tuck (1896). The Chin Hills, vol. I. Delhi: Cultural publishing House. pp. 17, 19, 141.
  23. ^ Gougin, History of Zomi, 67ff; and also, please, view full documentary video of his life edited by Laizoms Musika at Zogam Salpha.
  24. ^ Bertram S. Carey and Henry N. Tuck, Chin Hills, Vol 1 (1896), page 141.
  25. ^ H.N. Tuck, Bertram S. Carey (1976). The Chin Hills, vol. I. Aizawl: Tribal Research Institute. pp. 2, 3.
  26. ^ Mackenzie, Alexander (1979). The North East Frontier of India. Mittal Publications. p. 168.
  27. ^ For more on Guite's dynastic tradition, cf., Dr. Chinkholian Guite, Politico-Economic Development of the Tribals of Manipur: A Study of the Zomis (New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1999), 35-62.
  28. ^ Some traditions prefer to read the "Pi-leh-pu" (a reference to ancestors) instead of "Penlehpi" (a reference to big sea/ocean).
  29. ^ Cf., Khai, Zo Culture, 21.
  30. ^ See, "The birth of Vangteh" at Vangteh wikipage.
  31. ^ Though other chronicles except Vangteh missed Ni Gui, in light of traditions of other tribes and clans, Ni Gui is worth including in the list. See "Ni Gui".
  32. ^ It was said that descendants of Nak Sau, prince of Taaksat, became Gorkhas, cf., oral tradition of Vangteh chronicle.
  33. ^ Khup Za Thang, Capt. K. A., Zo Suan Khang Simna Laibu: the Genealogy of the Zo (Chin) Race of Burma (Parague, 1972).
  34. ^ Cf., Khai, Zo Culture, 21.
  35. ^ Khai, Zo Culture; and also, C. Thang Za Tuan, Prof., "Zomi Tanchin Tomkim," in Zolus Journal 4 (1999): 3-6 [Dr. Tuan is a retired Deputy Director General of Basic Education Dept., the Ministry of Education, Myanmar].
  36. ^ Khai, Zo Culture, 21; and also, Laibu Bawl Committee, Sialsawm Pawi leh Khumhnuai Vangteh Khua Tangthu (Pinlone, Kalay Myo, Myanmar, 1994), 1-3 [this book is a local publication in commemoration of the annual Sialsawm festival held in 1993].

See also