This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs to be updated. The reason given is: written like an essay. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2019) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "West Karbi Anglong district" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

West Karbi Anglong district
Hills in Baithalangso
Hills in Baithalangso
Location in Assam
Location in Assam
Map
West Karbi Anglong district
Coordinates (Hamren): 17°21′N 75°10′E / 17.35°N 75.16°E / 17.35; 75.16 - 18°19′N 76°09′E / 18.32°N 76.15°E / 18.32; 76.15
Country India
StateAssam
DivisionCentral Assam
Established15 August 2016
HeadquartersHamren
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesAutonomous District (shared with Dima Hasao & Karbi Anglong district)
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesBaithalangso
Area
 • Total3,035 km2 (1,172 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total295,358
 • Density97/km2 (250/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialAssamese[2]
 • Regional§ Languages
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Websitewestkarbianglong.assam.gov.in

The West Karbi Anglong district is a district of the Indian state of Assam. It is a relatively new district formed out of the existing Karbi Anglong district in 2016. The administrative headquarters of the district is located at Hamren. The district is a part of the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council and is administered according to the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.[3]

Etymology

The name West Karbi Anglong, reflects its origin as a portion carved from the Western part of the Karbi Anglong district in 2016. Karbi is the name of the indigenous tribe that lives in and around the region while Anglong is the word they use in the Karbi language to mean a "hill" or a "mountain". So the term Karbi Anglong literally means Karbi Hills.[4]

History

Main article: Karbi people

Prior to the British colonisation of the area, the hill tribes of Northeast India maintained their independence from the surrounding settled kingdoms due to their geographic location being relatively isolated from the rest of the Brahmaputa valley. Following the recommendations of the Simon Commission, the hills area (now comprising the present-day districts of Karbi Anglong, West Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao) was granted a different status under Section 92 of the Government of India Act, 1935. Classified as "Partially Excluded Areas," the Mikir Hills was exempt from the jurisdiction of the Assam government and was administered directly under the special powers of the Governor.[5]

In the mid-1930s, Semsonsing Ingti, widely considered the "Father and architect of Karbi nation and nationalism," alongside figures like Khorsing Terang, Seng Bey, and Nihang Rongphar, emerged from the community to demand a separate administrative unit for the Karbis. In 1940, Ingti and his colleagues submitted a memorandum to the then Assam Governor, Sir Robert Neil Reid, at Mohungodijua. To further intensify the movement, a socio-political organisation called the Karbi-A-Dorbar was formed in 1946.[6]

After India gained independence, United Mikir & North Cachar Hills, a former hill district in Assam, was constituted on 17 November 1951, under the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. And on 2 February 1970, it was divided into two separate districts: Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills.[7] Despite its division in 1970, the region formerly known as the United Mikir & North Cachar Hills district continues to see ongoing aspirations for an autonomous state.[8][9]

In 2016, the Karbi Anglong district was further divided into two, of which the whole existing area of the Hamren Civil sub-division, which included towns like Dongkamukam, Hamren and Baithalangso (Vothatlangso) and other adjoining areas formed the new district of West Karbi Anglong. Hamren was made the headquarter of the newly created district. However, the pre-existing Karbi Anglong district was not renamed to East Karbi Anglong.[10]

Geography

The Karbi Anglong plateau is an extension of the Indian Plate (The Peninsular Block) in the state of Assam, India. This area receives maximum rainfall from the Southwest summer Monsoon from June through September.[11] It is bounded by Dima Hasao district in the East, Morigaon district in the west, Morigaon, Nagaon, and Hojai districts in the north, and the state of Meghalaya and Dima Hasao district in the south.[3]

The West Karbi Anglong district is situated between 25° 33' and 26º 09' north latitude and 92º 08' and 93º 04' east longitude[3] and it occupies an area of 3,035 square kilometres.[12] The important rivers of this district are: The Myntriang river, Karbi Langpi river, Kopili river and Amreng river. Among these rivers, Hydroelectricity powerplants have been set up on the Myntriang and Karbi Langpi rivers.[13][14]

Flora and fauna

The district has hills and plains covered with dense tropical forests and has State Reserved Forests in Amreng, Rongkhang and Jakota. The district also has District Council Reserved Forests in Sarchim, Kolonga and Amreng (1st Edition and 2nd Edition). Despite numerous hills dotting the district, only a few qualify as mountains. Laru Peak, standing at 1,290 meters above sea level, is the highest.[3]

Demographics

In 2001, the Donka sub-district of Karbi Anglong, which later became a part of West Karbi Anglong district, had a population of 2,47,169, which rose to 2,95,358 in 2011. The following table provides information about the decadal variation in population from 2001–2011 as well as the population distribution of the district, as of 2011:[1]

Rural/Urban Population Decadal variation

(2001–2011)

Percentage of population
2001 2011 2001 2011
Rural 2,30,484 2,77,495 20.40% 93.25% 93.95%
Urban 16,685 17,863 7.06% 6.75% 6.05%
Total 2,47,169 2,95,358 19.50% 100% 100%

According to the 2011 census, West Karbi Anglong district has a population of 2,95,358. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 19.50%. The West Karbi Anglong district has a sex ratio of 954 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 63.35%. 17,863 (6.05%) of the total population lives in urban areas. The Scheduled Tribes comprise 65.52% (1,93,518) of the population, while Scheduled Castes make up 3.87% (11,438).[1]

Religion

Religions in West Karbi Anglong district[a] (2011)[15]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
79.51%
Christianity
19.14%
Other or not stated
1.35%
  1. ^ Donka revenue circle

According to the 2011 census data, Hindus form the majority religious community within the district, comprising 79.51% of the total population. Christians constitute the second-largest religious group, accounting for 19.14%. The remaining 1.35% of the population either practices other religions[a] or did not state their religion.[15]

Religion Population (2001)[16] Percentage Population (2011) Percentage
Hinduism 2,00,251 81.02% 2,34,833 79.51%
Christianity 44,221 17.89% 56,538 19.14%
Others[b] 2697 1.09% 3,987 1.35%
Total Population 2,47,169 100% 2,95,358 100%

Language

According to the 2011 census, Karbi is spoken as a first language by 49.68% of the population. Other languages include Bhojpuri (10.37%), Nepali (6.98%), Bengali (5.89%), Garo (5.73%), Tiwa (5.43%), Assamese (4.69%), Khasi (3.27%), Hindi (3.18%), Dimasa (1.45%), and Boro (1.28%).[17]

Languages of West Karbi Anglong district (2011)[17]

  Karbi (49.68%)
  Bhojpuri (10.37%)
  Nepali (6.98%)
  Bengali (5.89%)
  Garo (5.73%)
  Tiwa (5.43%)
  Assamese (4.69%)
  Khasi (3.27%)
  Hindi (3.18%)
  Dimasa (1.45%)
  Boro (1.28%)
  Others (2.05%)

Administration

The district is administrated under Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council. The CEM or Chief executive member of the district is supported by 14 Executive Members of the Council.[18] The Principal Secretary (generally an officer selected from IAS/ACS cadre) of Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council is the administrative head of the district.[19] The Deputy Commissioner is responsible for the maintenance of law & order, and administration of justice.

Hamren is the district headquarter. The district has one sub-division, namely Hamren sub-division, and one Revenue circle, Dongkamukam.[20]

Constituencies

There is one legislative assembly constituency, No. 20, Baithalangso (ST) in West Karbi Anglong. There are also nine autonomous council constituencies in West Karbi Anglong: Duar Amla, Amri, Chinthong, Socheng, Rongkhang, Bithung Rengthama, Kopili, Hamren and Amreng.[21]

Development blocks

There are four development blocks under West Karbi Anglong district: Amri development block, Chinthong development block, Rongkhang development block and Socheng development block.[21]

Police station

The West Karbi Anglong district have four police stations at the following locations: Hamren, Baithalangso, Kheroni and Jirikindeng. There are also five Police outposts in the following locations: Donkamokam, Ulukunchi, Amtereng, Mailoo and Makoilum.[21]

Economy

Agriculture is the primary economic activity for residents of the West Karbi Anglong district. Major crops cultivated in the district include ginger, sugarcane, maize, cotton, coconut, chilies, and black pepper.

Livestock rearing in Assam is highly livelihood-oriented, with over 90% of households in the district engaging in it. Pig rearing is the most common livestock activity, with nearly every tribal household in semi-urban and rural areas raising a small unit of local or exotic breeds. Dairy farming has the potential to become a major occupation for unemployed educated youth and provide significant supplemental income for small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, and women in the district.[22]

Transport

The district headquarter is well connected by road. Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council Transport buses run at regular intervals from the district headquarters to major destinations like Guwahati, Nagaon, Diphu, Lanka, Hojai and Jowai. As for railways there are currently no stations within the district. The nearest railway station from Hamren is in Hojai which is 48 kilometres away. There is also no airport in the district and the nearest one is Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport in Guwahati.[23]

Notable towns and places of interest

Notable people

Notes

  1. ^ Includes Sikhism, Buddhism, Islam, and Other religions and persuasions (including Unclassified Sect.)
  2. ^ Including Sikhism, Buddhism, Islam, Other religions and persuasions (including Unclassified Sect.), and not stated

References

  1. ^ a b c "District Census Handbook: Karbi Anglong" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2023.
  2. ^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d "District Profile of West Karbi Anglong". westkarbianglong.assam.gov.in. Archived from the original on 29 April 2023.
  4. ^ Konnerth, Linda (8 June 2020), A Grammar of Karbi, De Gruyter Mouton, doi:10.1515/9783110765038, ISBN 978-3-11-076503-8, retrieved 4 February 2024
  5. ^ Hussain, Monirul (1987). "Tribal Movement for Autonomous State in Assam". Economic and Political Weekly. 22 (32): 1329–1332. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4377333.
  6. ^ Daulagajau, Jonison. "Aspiration for an 'Ethnic' Identity: Assessing Autonomy Movement in Karbi Anglong District of Assam, India" (PDF). International Journal of Recent Research in Social Sciences and Humanities (IJRRSSH). 2 (4): 110–119.
  7. ^ Law, Gwillim. "Districts of India". Statoids. Archived from the original on 2 February 2024. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  8. ^ Menon (15 September 1987). "Karbi tribals demand autonomous state within Assam". India Today. Archived from the original on 2 February 2024. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  9. ^ Madhukalya, Amrita (29 July 2018). "Karbi Anglong- Dima Hasao bodies want autonomous state in Assam". DNA India. Archived from the original on 2 February 2024. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  10. ^ "Notification of new districts Majuli, Hojai, West karbi Anglong, Charaideo, South Salmara Mankachar and Biswanth" (PDF). Government Of Assam, Revenue & Disaster Management(Directorate of Land Records). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2024.
  11. ^ Vasudevan, Hari; et al. (2006). "Structure and Physiography". India:Physical Environment. New Delhi: NCERT. p. 17. ISBN 81-7450-538-5.
  12. ^ "West Karbi Anglong District | Hill Areas | Government Of Assam, India". had.assam.gov.in. Archived from the original on 9 August 2022.
  13. ^ "Running Projects of APGCL | Power | Government Of Assam, India". power.assam.gov.in. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  14. ^ "Karbi Langpi Hydroelectric Power Project India - GEO". globalenergyobservatory.org. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  15. ^ a b "Table C-01 Population By Religion: Assam". census.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011. Archived from the original on 30 May 2023.
  16. ^ "C-01: Population by religious community, Assam - 2001". new.census.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2001. Retrieved 9 February 2024.
  17. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population By Mother Tongue: Assam". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011. Archived from the original on 20 July 2023.
  18. ^ "KAAC | Legislative & Executive Structure". www.karbianglong.co.in. Archived from the original on 16 April 2022.
  19. ^ "KAAC | Administrative Structure". www.karbianglong.co.in. Archived from the original on 16 April 2022.
  20. ^ Hasnu, Sunil Kumar. "Official Website of Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council". karbianglong.co.in. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  21. ^ a b c "General Data of West Karbi Anglong". westkarbianglong.assam.gov.in. Archived from the original on 2 February 2024. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  22. ^ "Area Development Schemes | Karbi Anglong (West) District" (PDF). NABARD. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2024. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  23. ^ "Communication to the District". westkarbianglong.assam.gov.in. Archived from the original on 24 January 2024. Retrieved 6 February 2024.

25°51′N 92°32′E / 25.850°N 92.533°E / 25.850; 92.533