Faizabad
City
TilakHall.jpg
Gulabbari.JPG
Maqbara with palm trees.JPG
Faizabad is located in Uttar Pradesh
Faizabad
Faizabad
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Faizabad is located in India
Faizabad
Faizabad
Faizabad (India)
Coordinates: 26°46′23″N 82°08′46″E / 26.773°N 82.146°E / 26.773; 82.146Coordinates: 26°46′23″N 82°08′46″E / 26.773°N 82.146°E / 26.773; 82.146
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DivisionFaizabad
DistrictFaizabad
Government
 • TypeMunicipal corporation
 • BodyAyodhya Municipal Corporation
 • MayorRishikesh Upadhyay, BJP[1]
Area
 • Total16.02 km2 (6.19 sq mi)
Elevation
97 m (318 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total165,228
 • Density10,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)
Language
 • OfficialHindi[3]
 • Additional officialUrdu[3]
 • RegionalAwadhi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
224001,224201,224002
Telephone code05278
Vehicle registrationUP-42
Sex ratio998/1000 /
Websiteayodhya.nic.in

Faizabad (Hindustani pronunciation: [fɛːzaːbaːd]) is a city in the Faizabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which forms a municipal corporation with the city of Ayodhya. It was the headquarters of Faizabad district and Faizabad division until 6 November 2018, when the Uttar Pradesh cabinet headed by chief minister Yogi Adityanath approved the renaming of Faizabad district as Ayodhya.[4][5] Faizabad is situated on the banks of river Saryu about 130 km east of state capital Lucknow. It was the first capital of the Nawabs of Awadh and has monuments built by the Nawabs, like the Tomb of Bahu Begum, Gulab Bari.

History

Main articles: Awadh and Nawab of Awadh

See also: Oudh State

Fort Calcutta
Fort Calcutta
Miniature. “A Palace Complex with Harem Gardens” India, Faizabad or Lucknow; c. 1765
Miniature. “A Palace Complex with Harem Gardens” India, Faizabad or Lucknow; c. 1765
Saadat Ali Khan I, the first and very powerful Nawab and progenitor of Nawabs of Awadh, who laid the foundation of Faizabad and made it the capital city.
Safdarjung, the second Nawab of Awadh, who made Faizabad a military headquarters.

"When Saadat Khan was appointed governor of Oudh he built a hunting lodge 4 miles west of Ayodhya [in 1730[6]], then the head-quarters of the province. Gardens were laid out and shops sprang up in the neighbourhood, and during the time of his successor Safdar Jang the name Faizabad was first applied. Shuja-ud-daula, the third Nawab, lived chiefly at Lucknow during the early part of his reign; but after his defeat at Buxar in 1764 he made Faizabad his residence, and during the remainder of his life added largely to its defences and also laid a large town. Shuja-ud-daula died early in 1775, and before the close of the year Asaf-ud-daula moved permanently to Lucknow. The importance of Faizabad declined, but it remained the home of Asaf-ud-daula's grandmother and mother, the Nawab Begam and Bahu Begam, whose treatment was the subject of charges against Warren Hastings. After the death of Bahu Begam in 1816 Faizabad decayed still farther".[7] Oudh State was annexed by the British in 1856. Local self-government for Ayodhya and Faizabad was introduced in 1865. The two cities were administered jointly as a municipality.[8]

Establishment of Princely state of Awadh

Gulab Bari stands in a garden surrounded by a wall, approachable through two large gateways. These buildings are particularly interesting for their assimilative architectural styles. Shuja-ud-daula's wife was the well known Bahu Begum, who married the Nawab in 1743 and continued to reside in Faizabad, her residence being the Moti-Mahal. Close by at Jawaharbagh lies her Maqbara, where she was buried after her death in 1816. It is considered to be one of the finest buildings of its kind in Avadh, which was built at the cost of three lakh rupees by her chief advisor Darab Ali Khan. A fine view of the city is obtainable from top of the begum's tomb. Bahu Begum was a woman of great distinction and rank, bearing dignity. Most of the Muslim buildings of Faizabad are attributed to her. From the date of Bahu Begum's death in 1815 until the annexation of Avadh, the city of Faizabad gradually fell into decay. The glory of Faizabad finally eclipsed with the shifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula.[6]

Faizabad was also a centre of one of many battles of the Mutiny of 1857. A detailed history of Faizabad can be read in 'Tareekh-e-Farahbaksh', written by Munshi Mohd. Faiz Baksh, (after whom Faizabad is named) a courtier in the Shuja-ud-Daula's court. This book has been translated into English by Hamid Afaq Qureshi as 'Memoirs of Faizabad'. Faizabad also finds a prominent and detailed mention in Guzashta Lucknow written by Abdul Halim Sharar. The fourth nawab of Awadh, Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, shifted the Capital of Avadh to Lucknow in 1775 after his terms with his mother became sour.[9]

Hanging of Ashfaqulla Khan

Ashfaqulla Khan was hanged in Faizabad jail on 19 December 1927 for his role in the Kakori Train robbery on 9 August 1925.[10][11]

Demographics

Religions in Faizabad municipal council (2011)[12]

  Hinduism (69.88%)
  Islam (28.32%)
  Sikhism (0.83%)
  Christianity (0.23%)
  Jainism (0.06%)
  Buddhism (0.04%)
  Others (0.01%)
  Not Stated (0.62%)

The 2011 Census of India has separate data for Faizabad municipal council (N.P.P.) and Faizabad Cantonment, which were counted as separate towns:[13]

The following data are for Faizabad municipal council in the 2011 census.

The following data are for Faizabad Cantonment in the 2011 census.

Historical population of Faizabad (excluding the cantonment)
YearPop.±%
1901 71,179—    
1911 54,655−23.2%
1921 56,620+3.6%
1931 59,992+6.0%
1941 55,215−8.0%
1951 76,582+38.7%
1961 83,717+9.3%
1971 102,835+22.8%
1981 101,873−0.9%
1991 124,437+22.1%
2001 144,705+16.3%
2011 165,228+14.2%
Source: [2]
Historical population of Faizabad Cantonment
YearPop.±%
19315,726—    
19412,417−57.8%
19515,916+144.8%
19614,579−22.6%
19716,971+52.2%
198110,794+54.8%
199111,843+9.7%
200114,040+18.6%
201112,391−11.7%
Source: [2]

See also: List of cities in Uttar Pradesh

Geography

Climate

Typical of the central plains of India, Faizabad has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Summer (March to July) temperatures can range from 35 to 45 °C (95 to 113 °F), whilst winter (November to February) temperatures can range from 6 to 25 °C (42.8 to 77.0 °F). More than 85 percent of the annual rainfall of 1,100 millimetres or 43 inches falls during the southwest monsoon from June to September.

Climate data for Faizabad (1971–2000, extremes 1959–2003)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
35.8
(96.4)
41.7
(107.1)
45.5
(113.9)
46.0
(114.8)
47.4
(117.3)
41.6
(106.9)
39.2
(102.6)
37.8
(100.0)
37.7
(99.9)
35.8
(96.4)
31.0
(87.8)
47.4
(117.3)
Average high °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
26.3
(79.3)
32.0
(89.6)
37.7
(99.9)
39.4
(102.9)
37.6
(99.7)
33.6
(92.5)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
29.6
(85.3)
25.1
(77.2)
31.9
(89.4)
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
10.1
(50.2)
14.3
(57.7)
19.7
(67.5)
23.7
(74.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77.0)
24.6
(76.3)
23.3
(73.9)
19.1
(66.4)
12.6
(54.7)
8.0
(46.4)
17.7
(63.9)
Record low °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
1.8
(35.2)
7.6
(45.7)
11.4
(52.5)
17.7
(63.9)
16.4
(61.5)
18.0
(64.4)
18.2
(64.8)
15.2
(59.4)
7.4
(45.3)
3.0
(37.4)
1.0
(33.8)
0.8
(33.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.5
(0.69)
14.4
(0.57)
6.6
(0.26)
8.3
(0.33)
17.9
(0.70)
141.0
(5.55)
297.3
(11.70)
324.9
(12.79)
209.5
(8.25)
51.4
(2.02)
4.3
(0.17)
9.5
(0.37)
1,102.5
(43.41)
Average rainy days 1.4 1.5 0.8 0.7 1.4 5.5 12.3 12.4 8.1 2.2 0.2 0.7 47.3
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 64 59 45 39 42 56 75 79 77 73 69 67 62
Source: India Meteorological Department[14][15]

Transport

By Road

Faizabad is situated on National Highway 27 and has connectivity with Kanpur (213 km), Lucknow (127 km), Varanasi (202 km), Allahabad (161 km) and Gorakhpur (165 km). The state government's Road Transport Service runs regular and frequent buses to and from these cities. NH27 connects Lucknow to Barauni via Faizabad and Gorakhpur whilst NH330 connects Faizabad to Allahabad via Sultanpur. Nawab Yusuf Road connects Faizabad to Varanasi via Jaunpur, NH330A connects Faizabad to Raibareli via Kumarganj, Faizabad and Jagdishpur and NH 330 connects Faizabad to Bharich via Gonda , NH 330C is Connected by Azamgarh to Faizabad via Ambedkar Nagar and Balrampur is connected by Faizabad Via NH334 and Utraula and Mankapur connects Faizabad by SH14 .

By Train

Ayodhya Junction railway station in Ayodhya city near Faizabad.

Faizabad Junction railway station: The Indian Railways network connects Faizabad directly with Kanpur (4 hours) Lucknow (3 hours), Varanasi (4 hours.) and Allahabad (5 hours).

Faizabad railway station, Faizabad, Faizabad district.  In October 2021, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, Yogi Adityanath, decided to rename the station "Ayodhya Cantt railway station".[16] Indian Railways approved the change on 2 November 2021.[17]
Faizabad railway station, Faizabad, Faizabad district. In October 2021, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, Yogi Adityanath, decided to rename the station "Ayodhya Cantt railway station".[16] Indian Railways approved the change on 2 November 2021.[17]

Faizabad Superfast Express is a train which runs weekly connecting Faizabad Junction railway station to Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai. Its one of the two trains which runs between Faizabad to Mumbai the other one is Saket Express which runs twice a week. It is numbered as 22103/22104. Rameswaram - Faizabad Shraddha Sethu Express is a weekly Superfast Express connecting Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu and Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh. It takes nearly 3 days to reach the destination and one of the longest running train in India. A few mail express trains also connect Faizabad to Kolkata, New Delhi and Mumbai. Faizabad Delhi express runs daily from Faizabad to Delhi and Delhi to Faizabad. New railway line proposed from Lalganj to Faizabad via Raibareli Akberganj.

Ayodhya Junction railway station: Ayodhya Junction is the second major railway station in Ayodhya city near Faizabad.

Acharya Narendra Dev Nagar railway station: It is another option to reach faizabad. This small station lies in the heart of the city "near to chowk".

By Air

Nearest airports are Ayodhya Airport, Lucknow International Airport (128 km), Allahabad Airport (144 km) and Varanasi International Airport (200 km)

Places of interest

Tourism

Gulab Bari is the tomb of the third Nawab of Awadh Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula in Faizabad
Gulab Bari is the tomb of the third Nawab of Awadh Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula in Faizabad

Gulab Bari: Literally meaning 'Garden of Roses', the tomb of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula (third Nawab of Awadh), this place has a collection of roses of various varieties set by the sides of water fountains. Gulab Bari also houses a maqbara (Mausoleum) of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula in the campus.

Bahu Begum ka Maqbara (Bahu Begum's Mausoluem) in Faizabad
Bahu Begum ka Maqbara (Bahu Begum's Mausoluem) in Faizabad

Bahu Begum ka Maqbara: (The Mausoleum of the Queen Bride) the memorial built for queen of Nawab Shujah-ud-Daulah, Unmatuzzohra Bano Begum. Its one of the tallest buildings in Faizabad and is an example of non-mughal Muslim architecture.[citation needed]

Military Temple: (The Dogra Regimental Centre/ Corps of Military Police CMP Temple) Located in cantonment area.

Guptar Ghat: the Ghat (Jetty) where Lord Rama is believed to have taken 'jal samadhi' (leaving the earth for 'Baikuntha', the divine abode of Lord Vishnu, by drowning himself). It has view of the Saryu River and its green banks and has several ancient temples.

Company Gardens : Adjoining Guptar Ghat, on the banks of River Saryu, is Company Gardens, a botanical garden built during British Rule. it has a well maintained, sprawling garden set amidst lush greenery. It also has an orchard spread over acres. Plants and Trees can also be bought here. The remains of the fort built by Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula after the battle of Buxar is also within walking distance.

Ghanta Ghar: The heart of Faizabad city, houses a clock tower (Ghanta means 'clock' in Hindi and Ghar is the Hindi word for 'house') in the middle of the city center. All distances within the city are measured from this location. The place is also known as Chowk, which houses the main vegetable and spice market in the town.

Shringi Rishi Ashram: 35 km from Faizabad in Goshainganj is ashram of Sage (Rishi in Sanskrit/Hindi) Shringi. Shringi Rishi performed 'Putrakameshti Yajya' for King Dashrath of Ayodhya, after that Lord Rama and his three brothers were born. There is an ashram of Shringi Rishi situated at Sherwaghat near Mehbubganj 11 km from Goshainganj on the banks of Sarayu river at Sherwa Ghat. A temple of Shringi Rishi, is also located at Sherwaghat, and a fair is held every year in May in his honour. A cave is also located in district Faizabad near Mehbubganj Near Goshainganj where he is supposed to have stayed.

Maharshi Balmiki Ashram Babuapur  : Named after the saint Maharishi Balmilki who wrote Ramayan in Sanskrit language in the time of Lord Rama. It is located 28 km from Faizabad city in Babuapur village directly connected with dilasiganj.

Shopping places

Faizabad Chowk, is the heart of the city.
Faizabad Chowk, is the heart of the city.

Faizabad Chowk: Next to Ghanta Ghar, is the central market of Faizabad town. One can find vegetables, fruits and spices, jewellery shops, clothing and other retail.

Rikabganj: About a kilometer away from Chowk (towards Lucknow) lies the Rikabganj market which has a multitude of pharmacies. The market also has some seed shops which cater to the farmers of the adjoining regions.

Bajaja: (now known as Subhas Nagar)A place adjacent to Chowk towards Sultanpur Road holds a market for Clothes and garments. In Urdu Bajaja means cloth market. This area also holds major banks such as Union Bank of India, SBI and Allahabad Bank.

Fatehganj: This is a market mainly for wholesale grocery and other house hold items. This area is on the same road on which Bajaja falls. Hotel Krishna Palace is adjacent to the fountain near Faizabad jail. This is the place which is near to Bus Station as well as Railway Station.

Education

Avadh University

Universities

Engineering colleges

Sports

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar International Sports Stadium Loc: 26°43′47″N 82°08′17″E / 26.72972°N 82.13806°E / 26.72972; 82.13806 is an international standard sports complex being built on NH 330 (Faizabad to Sultanpur Road) in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh. The new sports complex would have astro turf, synthetic track, olympic size swimming pool, cricket field, hostels and other required facilities. It is the part of multi crore Rs. project for sports complex by state government. The Lokayukta office has received a complaint from one Bhanu Pratap Singh of Ayodhya who has accused the minister of corruption in the construction of Ayodhya International stadium. According to the complainant, the sports minister had a nexus with former sports director Hari Om and former project manager R.D. Prasad and had deliberately delayed the construction of the 86 crore Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar stadium, paving the way for an escalation of costs to 1.50 billion.[18][19]

Notable people

Olympian and Arjuna Award winner boxer Akhil Kumar and pop singer Barry Hay were born in Faizabad.

Gallery

Surrounding districts

See also

References

  1. ^ Pandey, Alok; Nair, Arun (1 December 2017). "BJP's Rishikesh Upadhayay Elected First Mayor Of Ayodhya". NDTV. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "A -4 Towns And Urban Agglomerations Classified By Population Size Class In 2011 With Variation Since 1901", 2011 Census of India, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
  3. ^ a b "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  4. ^ PTI (6 November 2018). "UP cabinet approves renaming of Faizabad as Ayodhya". India Today. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  5. ^ "About District | District Ayodhya - Government of Uttar Pradesh". District Ayodhya - Government of Uttar Pradesh.
  6. ^ a b "Welcome to Faizabad History". official website of Faizabad district. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  7. ^ "Fyzabad". Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. 12. 1908. p. 117.
  8. ^ "Fyzabad". Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. 12. 1908. p. 118.
  9. ^ "History of Faizabad". myuttarpradesh.co.in/. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  10. ^ Shankaranarayana Rao, N.P. "Ashfaqulla Khan: The Immortal Revolutionary". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Archived from the original on 5 November 2002. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  11. ^ Singh, Aparna (2 August 2004). "Daredevilry of sons of the soil". The Times of India (newspaper). Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Religion PCA (India & States/UTs/District/Sub-Distt/Town Level) – Uttar Pradesh", 2011 Census of India, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Primary Census Abstract Data Tables – Uttar Pradesh – Faizabad district", 2011 Census of India, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
  14. ^ "Station: Faizabad Climatological Table 1971–2000" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1971–2000. India Meteorological Department. October 2011. pp. 265–266. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  15. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M214. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  16. ^ "UP govt to rename Faizabad railway station as Ayodhya Cantt". The Telegraph (India). 23 October 2021.
  17. ^ "Faizabad Junction railway station renamed as Ayodhya Cantt: Railways". The New Indian Express. 2 November 2021.
  18. ^ "Sports minister faces lokayukta probe in U.P." Asian Age. Lucknow. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012.
  19. ^ "Ayodhya Prasad Pal comes under Lokayukta scanner for corruption charges". 30 October 2011.