|Source||Gomat Taal, Madho Tanda, Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh|
|• location||Middle Ganga Plain|
|• elevation||200 m (660 ft)|
|Length||475 km (295 mi)|
|• location||Saidpur, Uttar Pradesh|
|• average||234 m3/s (8,300 cu ft/s)|
The Gomti, Gumti or Gomati River is a tributary of the Ganges. According to beliefs, the river is the son of Rishi Vashishtha and bathing in the Gomti on Ekadashi (the 11th day of the two lunar phases of the Hindu calendar month) can wash away sins. According to Bhagavata Purana one of Hinduism's major religious works, Gomti is one of the five transcendental rivers of India. The rare Gomti Chakra is found there.
The Gomti, a monsoon- and groundwater-fed river, originates from Gomat Taal (formally known as Fulhaar jheel) near Madho Tanda, Pilibhit, India. It extends 960 kilometres (600 mi) through Uttar Pradesh and meets the Ganges near Saidpur (Ghazipur district), Kaithi, 27 kilometres (17 mi) from Varanasi district.
It meets a small river, the Gaihaaee, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from its origin. The Gomti is a narrow stream until it reaches Mohammadi Kheri, a tehsil of Lakhimpur Kheri district (about 68 kilometres (42 mi)from its origin), where it is joined by tributaries such as the Sukheta, Choha and Andhra Choha. The river is then well-defined, with the Kathina tributary joining it at Mailani and Sarayan joining it at a village in Sitapur district. A major tributary is the Sai River, which joins the Gomti near Jaunpur. The Markandey Mahadeo temple is at the confluence of the Gomti and the Ganges.
After 190 kilometres (120 mi) the Gomti enters Lucknow, meandering through the city for about 30 kilometres (19 mi) and supplying its water. In the Lucknow area, 25 city drains pour untreated sewage into the river. At the downstream end, the Gomti barrage converts the river into a lake.
In addition to Lucknow, Gola Gokaran Nath, Misrikh, Neemsar, Lakhimpur Kheri, Sultanpur Kerakat and Jaunpur, Zafarabad are the most prominent of the 20 towns in the river's catchment basin. The river cuts the Sultanpur district and Jaunpur in half, becoming wider in the city.
The Gomti River is polluted at several points of its course through the 940-kilometre (580 mi) stretch of alluvial plains in Uttar Pradesh. The major sources of pollution are industrial waste and effluent from sugar factories and distilleries and residential wastewater and sewage.
The river and its tributaries, such as Kukrail Drainage, collect large amounts of human and industrial pollutants as they flow through an area of about 18 million people. High pollution levels threaten the Gomti's aquatic life. On 25 July 2008, the foundation stone of a 345-million-litre (91,000,000 US gal)-capacity sewage treatment plant was laid.
The plant, promoted as Asia's largest, failed; in 2014 it was reportedly running at 10 percent of capacity, and beyond the plant (near Bharwara) untreated sewage and solid waste entered the river. The plant was intended to intercept the 23 major natural drains entering the Gomti.
The Gomti has been stressed, particularly in and around Lucknow, for decades. There are three major issues:
Although government agencies planned major projects, such as the Bharwara sewage treatment plant and mechanical dredging, most were unsuccessful. The Gomti rises by 10–12 meters during the monsoon, and in 2008 a major flood was reported.
Around 2012, the newly-elected government and the Lucknow Development Authority began a feasibility study with the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee to build a river-front similar to Sabarmati Riverfront in Ahmedabad. The LDA submitted the report, warning about the negative consequences of reducing the Gomti to less than 250 meters wide. At 250 meters wide (with walls on both sides), the river's velocity would increase by 20 percent and its bed-shear stress by 30 percent. Current embankments would have to be raised by 1.5 meters, and the high flood level (HFL) would increase by 1.25 meters. Two bridges would be threatened with collapse under flood conditions. The plan was given to the irrigation department, which signed a memorandum of understanding with IIT Roorkee in December 2015 to conduct a similar study on the project.
The riverfront-development project is seen as a political showdown between the state government and the ruling party, whose similar construction in Ahmedabad over the Sabarmati River has been projected as a showcase of development in the state of Gujarat. Many noted environmentalists and river-system experts vehemently opposed that project as well. Both projects are seen as a template for similar interference with river systems across India, including the Yamuna, the Hindon and the Varuna.
Monsoon flooding leads to several problems when the water recedes, including the danger posed by drying potholes and pits (which host disease causing mosquitoes such as malaria and dengue).