Tamsa River
StateMadhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
Physical characteristics
 • locationMaihar tehsil, Satna district, Kaimur Range, Madhya Pradesh
 • elevation610 m (2,000 ft)
 • location
About 30 km SE of Prayagraj
 • coordinates
25°16′31″N 82°04′59″E / 25.27528°N 82.08306°E / 25.27528; 82.08306
Length264 km (164 mi)
Basin size16,860 km2 (6,510 sq mi)

The Tamsa River is a tributary of the Ganges flowing through the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.


The Tamsa rises in a tank at Tamakund in the Kaimur Range at an elevation of 610 metres (2,000 ft). It flows through the fertile districts of Satna and Rewa. At the edge of the Purwa plateau, the Tamsa and its tributaries form many waterfalls. The river receives the Belan in UP and joins the Ganges at the town of Sirsa, just under 34 kilometres (21 mi) downstream of the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna. The total length of the river is 264 kilometres (164 mi). It has a total drainage area of 16,860 square kilometres (6,510 sq mi).[1][2]

The Tamsa River while descending through the Rewa Plateau and draining northwards makes a vertical fall of 70m known as Purwa Falls.[3] Some of the more notable waterfalls on the tributaries of the Tamsa river, as they come down from the Rewa Plateau, are Chachai Falls (127m) on the Beehar River, a tributary of the Tamsa; the Keoti Falls (98m) on the Mahana River, a tributary of the Tamsa; and Odda Falls (145m) on the Odda River, a tributary of the Belan River, which is itself a tributary of the Tamsa.[4]


This river bears significance to Hindus due to its identification with the river that Rama spent his first night during his fourteen years of forest exile, according to the Ramayana. When Rama left Ayodhya, people followed him and were not ready to return to their homes. In the evening, Rama, Lakshmana, and Sita and all the people reached the banks of the Tamsa. Rama and everyone agreed to spend the night at the banks of the Tamsa river and continue the journey the next morning. However, Rama left behind the people as they slept and continued his journey further.[5]

The ashrama of sage Valmiki is regarded to have been located at the banks of the Tamsa river.[6] When Sita was left behind by Rama after her departure from Ayodhya, she is said to have come to the banks of the Tamsa river some 15 km away from the city, where she met Valmiki. He requested Sita to live in his ashrama. Sita is believed to have spent most of her remaining life here, and here her twin sons Lava and Kusha received education and trained in military skills under the tutelage of Valmiki.[7]

Also on the banks of river Tamsa was the ashrama of Bharadvaja, mentioned in the Valmiki Ramayana; it is here that on seeing the plight of a bird couple, Valmiki composed his first shloka.[8]

Towns And villages situated on Tamsa River


  1. ^ K.L.Rao (1979). India's Water Wealth. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 9788125007043. Retrieved 10 July 2010. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  2. ^ Upkar Prakashan Editorial Board (17 January 2015). Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge. Upkar Prakashan. ISBN 9788174824080. Retrieved 10 July 2010. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  3. ^ K. Bharatdwaj (2006). Physical Geography: Hydrosphere. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 9788183561679. Retrieved 10 July 2010. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  4. ^ K. Bharatdwaj (2006). Physical Geography: Hydrosphere. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 9788183561679. Retrieved 11 July 2010. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  5. ^ "At the banks of the Tamsa River". The Story of Valmiki Ramayan. Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  6. ^ Vishvanath Limaye (1984). Historic Ram of Valmiki. Gyan Ganga Prakashan.
  7. ^ Mittal, J.P. (2006). History of Ancient India: From 7300 BC to 4250 BC (Volume 1). Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 368. ISBN 81-269-0615-4.
  8. ^ Kala, Jayantika (1988). Epic scenes in Indian plastic art. Abhinav Publications. p. 7. ISBN 81-7017-228-4.
  9. ^ Azamgarh District Website