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Muzaffarnagar
City
Nickname: 
Sugar Bowl of Uttar Pradesh
Muzaffarnagar is located in Uttar Pradesh
Muzaffarnagar
Muzaffarnagar
Coordinates: 29°28′55″N 77°42′00″E / 29.482°N 77.700°E / 29.482; 77.700
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictMuzaffarnagar
First Settled1399
Founded1633
Incorporated as City1826
Founded bySyed Muzaffar Ali Khan
Named forSyed Muzaffar Ali Khan
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Board of Muzaffarnagar
 • District MagistrateArvind Mallappa Bangari IAS[1]
 • Member of Parliament, Lok SabhaSanjeev Kumar Balyan (BJP)
 • Member of Legislative AssemblyKapil Dev Agarwal (BJP)
Area
 • Total204.8 km2 (79.1 sq mi)
Elevation
267 m (876 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total494,792
 • Rank15 (In U.P.)
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
 • City
351,838
DemonymMuzaffarnagri
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
 • Additional officialUrdu
 • Literacy rate85.16
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
251001
PIN
251002
Telephone code0131
Vehicle registrationUP-12
First newspaperDainik Dehat (est. 1936)
Websitemuzaffarnagar.nic.in

Muzaffarnagar is a city under Muzaffarnagar district in the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated midway on the Delhi - Haridwar/Dehradun National Highway (NH 58) and is also well connected with the national railway network. It is known as the sugarbowl of Uttar Pradesh.

The city previously called Sarwat and is located in the middle of the highly fertile upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab region and is very near to New Delhi and Saharanpur, making it one of the most developed and prosperous cities of Uttar Pradesh. It comes under the Saharanpur division. This city is part of Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) and Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor (ADKIC). It shares its border with the state of Uttarakhand and it is the principal commercial, industrial and educational hub of Western Uttar Pradesh.

History

Khan-i Jahan Muzaffar Barha (right) and Sayyid Mian Barha I (left)

The town was established in 1633 by the son of a Mughal Commander Sayyid Muzaffar Khan Barha, otherwise known as Khan-i-Jahan,[4] during the reign of Shah Jahan. At the time Muzaffarnagar was part of the Barah country as it was intimately connected with the Indian Muslim kinship group called the Barah Sayyids,[5][6] who controlled the upper Doab.[7] From Muzaffarnagar, the influential Sayyid brothers became de-facto rulers of the Mughal empire in the 1710s. The Indian Muslim inhabitants of Barha especially from near the town of Jansath were heavily recruited in the Mughal army and in the personal cavalry of the Sayyid Brothers.[8]

In 1901, during the British Raj, it was a district in the Meerut Division in United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[9] In 1947, when the country got independence Indian flag was hoisted for the first time in the Muzaffarnagar City.[10]

On 18 October 1976, during "The Emergency, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's suspension of democracy in India, between 25 and 30 people protesting against compulsory sterilisation were killed when Uttar Pradesh police fired into the crowd.[11]

2013 Muzaffarnagar riots

The 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots between Hindus and Muslims resulted in 62 deaths.[12]

According to a May 2015 report in India Today:

Shamli and adjoining Muzaffarnagar districts are considered sensitive ever since large-scale communal violence erupted in August and September 2013. More than 50 people had died and over 50,000 were rendered homeless ... The riot that ensued had engulfed many districts of western UP.[13]

Some politicians have demanded that the city name be changed from Muzaffarnagar to Lakshminagar.[14]

Geography

See also: List of cities in Uttar Pradesh

Topography

Muzaffarnagar is 272 meters above sea level[15] in the Doab region of Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is 125 kilometres north east of the national capital, New Delhi, and 200 kilometres south east of Chandigarh, and near to Roorkee, Saharanpur, Meerut & Bijnor.

Climate

Main article: Climate of Uttar Pradesh

Muzaffarnagar has a monsoon influenced humid subtropical climate characterised by much hot summers and cooler winters. Summers last from early April to late June and are extremely hot. The monsoon arrives in late June and continues until the middle of September. Temperatures drop slightly, with plenty of cloud cover but with higher humidity. Temperatures rise again in October and the city then has a mild, dry winter season from late October to the middle of March. June is the warmest month of the year.[citation needed]

The temperature in June averages 30.2 °C. In January, the average temperature goes to as low as 7 °C. It is the lowest average temperature of the whole year. The average annual temperature in Muzaffarnagar is 24.2 °C. The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in Muzaffarnagar are 45 °C (113 °F) on 29 May 1994 and −2.6 °C (27.3 °F) on 23 December 1990 respectively. The rainfall averages 929 mm. The driest month is November, with 8 mm of rain. Highest precipitation falls in July, with an average of 261.4 mm.[citation needed]

Climate data for Muzaffarnagar (1981–2010, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.9
(84.0)
31.5
(88.7)
37.4
(99.3)
42.6
(108.7)
45.0
(113.0)
44.4
(111.9)
42.0
(107.6)
39.0
(102.2)
37.0
(98.6)
42.0
(107.6)
33.1
(91.6)
28.7
(83.7)
45.0
(113.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
22.7
(72.9)
27.9
(82.2)
34.6
(94.3)
37.4
(99.3)
36.3
(97.3)
33.2
(91.8)
32.2
(90.0)
32.2
(90.0)
30.7
(87.3)
26.3
(79.3)
21.4
(70.5)
29.5
(85.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
8.4
(47.1)
12.4
(54.3)
17.6
(63.7)
22.2
(72.0)
24.1
(75.4)
24.9
(76.8)
24.5
(76.1)
22.3
(72.1)
15.8
(60.4)
10.0
(50.0)
6.3
(43.3)
16.2
(61.2)
Record low °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
1.5
(34.7)
0.0
(32.0)
6.2
(43.2)
11.0
(51.8)
15.4
(59.7)
18.4
(65.1)
17.4
(63.3)
12.6
(54.7)
7.0
(44.6)
2.6
(36.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 25.1
(0.99)
32.7
(1.29)
23.5
(0.93)
10.5
(0.41)
25.6
(1.01)
94.4
(3.72)
261.4
(10.29)
254.6
(10.02)
162.2
(6.39)
19.0
(0.75)
8.0
(0.31)
11.9
(0.47)
929.0
(36.57)
Average rainy days 1.9 2.5 2.2 1.2 2.1 4.4 9.5 9.9 5.5 1.1 0.5 1.1 42.0
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 58 51 45 31 34 48 69 72 65 54 54 58 53
Source: India Meteorological Department[16]

Demographics

As of the 2011 census, Muzaffar Nagar municipality had a population of 351,838[2] The municipality had a sex ratio of 897 females per 1,000 males and 12.01% of the population were under six years old.[2] Effective literacy was 85.16%; male literacy was 88.83% and female literacy was 81.05%.[2] The urban/metropolitan population is 494,792, of which 261,338 are males and 233,454 are females.[3]

Religion

Religion in Muzaffarnagar City (2011)[17]

  Hinduism (55.79%)
  Islam (41.39%)
  Jainism (1.76%)
  Other (2%)

The city has 55.79% Hindus, 41.39% Muslims, 1.7% Jains, 0.67% Sikhs, 0.67% Buddhists and 0.17% Christians[17]

Language

The Khariboli dialect is the native tongue of the city which resembles the Haryanvi dialect of adjoining Haryana. The official languages of Hindi, Urdu and English are also widely understood.

Economy

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Muzaffarnagar" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Sugar and jaggery production are important industries in the district. As a result of the farming activities around, the city is an important hub of jaggery trading business.[18]

Muzaffarnagar is an industrial city with sugar, steel and paper being the major industries. District Muzaffarnagar has 8 sugar mills. More than 40% of the region's population is engaged in agriculture. According to Economic Research firm Indicus Analytics, Muzaffarnagar has the highest agricultural GDP in Uttar Pradesh, as well as UP's largest granary.[citation needed]

Healthcare

Muzaffaranagar has both public and private healthcare system. The District hospital is the major government hospital in the city along with several general practitioners in the city. The city is also catered by a private medical college (Muzaffarnagar Medical College) on the outskirts of the city.

Transportation

Bada Darwaza in vill. Kakrauli Front Gate
Shiv Chowk
St. John's Church
Railway Station
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Muzaffarnagar connected by road and railway networks. The Ghaziabad - Saharanpur line passes through the city. Indian Railways provides connections to New Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, South India, and other parts of the country. Dehradun Shatabdi Express and Dehradun Jan Shatabdi Express trains pass through and halt at the Muzaffarnagar station.[citation needed]

NH-58 passing through Muzaffarnagar
NH-58 passing through M.Nagar

The National Highway - 58 (NH-58) passes through Muzaffarnagar city. This highway provides connections towards Delhi on the southern direction and upper reaches of the Himalayas in the Uttarakhand state in the northern direction. The highway is the backbone of road transportation for the Muzaffarnagar city as well as the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. Cities and areas of Hardwar, Rishikesh, Dehradun as well as Badrinath and Kedarnath are served by this highway.[citation needed]

City transportation mostly consists of tricycles and 3-wheeled vehicles, rickshaws. An international airport, Muzaffarnagar International Airport, was proposed in the city in order to reduce the traffic at the Indira Gandhi International Airport, however, the same was transferred to the Jewar Airport.[citation needed]

Environmental concerns

Muzaffarnagar lies approximately halfway on the road from Delhi to Uttarakhand Rishikesh (the NH-58). As a result, many roadside resorts and eateries have sprung up on the highway near the city. Especially, the town of Khatauli is famed for its canal side forest park named "Cheetal". Once visited for the sight of deer and rabbits and other wild animals, the Cheetal is now encroached by privately owned dhabas and resorts thus sidelining the animals.[citation needed]

Notable people

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References

  1. ^ "Who's Who". muzaffarnagar.nic.in. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  4. ^ Cadell, Alan (1873). Settlement Report of the District of Muzaffarnagar: Including a Report on the Permanent Settlement of the Western Parganas of the District, and Also a Report on the Settlement of the Ganges Canal Tract. North-Western Provinces and Oudh Government Press. p. 31.
  5. ^ Marmaduke William Pickthall, Muhammad Asad (1933). Islamic Culture:Volume 7. p. 439.
  6. ^ David Ross (1883). The Land of the Five Rivers and Sindh. p. 266.
  7. ^ William Wilson Hunter (1885). The Imperial Gazetteer of India: Volume 10. the University of California. p. 68.
  8. ^ Abdul Aziz (1964). Discovery of Pakistan. the University of Michigan. p. 136.
  9. ^ Muzaffarnagar District The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 18, p. 83.
  10. ^ "Muzaffarnagar City". Imperial Gazetteer of India, Digital South Asia Library, Volume 18. 1909. p. 93. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  11. ^ Emergency excesses still haunt Khalapar, by Mohammad Ali, The Hindu (Chennai, Tamil Nadu), 1 July 2015
  12. ^ "Government releases data of riot victims identifying religion". The Times of India. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  13. ^ "Western Uttar Pradesh tense after communal violence in Shamli". India Today. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  14. ^ Rashid, Omar (10 November 2018). "U.P. cities renaming: Muzaffarnagar, Agra, Sultanpur likely in list". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  15. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Muzaffarnagar, India". www.fallingrain.com. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  16. ^ "Station: Muzaffarnagar Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 515–516. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  17. ^ a b "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  18. ^ "Muzaffarnagar clashes sour its famed jaggery business". indiatimes.com. India Times. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  19. ^ "Elections: Uttar Pradesh Assembly". Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  20. ^ "Vishnu Prabhakar".