Natural stone arch in Tirumala.

National Geological Monuments are geographical areas of national importance and heritage, as notified by the Government of India's Geological Survey of India (GSI), for their maintenance, protection, promotion and enhancement of geotourism.[1][2][3]

List of National Geological Monuments

There are 34 notified National Geological Heritage Monument Sites of India. GSI or the respective State governments are responsible for taking necessary measures to protect these sites.[2][3]

List of Geological Heritage Sites / National Geological Monuments of India
No. Image Geo-Heritage site Location District State Geotourism Category Reference
1 Volcanogenic bedded Barytes Mangampeta Kadapa district Andhra Pradesh EcoGeo Monuments [2]
2 Tirupati Eparchaean Unconformity in the steep natural slopes, road scars and ravines on the Tirupati-Tirumala Ghat road Chittoor district Andhra Pradesh Stratigraphy Monuments [2]
Tirumala Natural Geological Arch Tirumala Hills Chittoor district Andhra Pradesh Geological Marvels [2]
4 Erra Matti Dibbalu the dissected and stabilized coastal red sediment mounds located between Vishakhapatnam and Bheemunipatnam Visakhapatnam district Andhra Pradesh Geological Marvels [2]
5 Angadipuram Laterite near Angadipuram PWD rest house premises Malappuram district Kerala EcoGeo Monuments [2]
6 Varkala Cliff Section Varkala Thiruvananthapuram district Kerala Geological Marvels [2]
7 National Fossil Wood Park, Tiruvakkarai near Thiruvakkarai village, Vanur taluk Viluppuram district Tamil nadu Fossil Park [2]
8 National Fossil Wood Park, Sathanur Sathanur Perambalur district, Tamil nadu Fossil Park [2]
9 St. Thomas Charnockite St. Thomas Mount, Chennai Chennai district Tamil nadu Rock Monuments [2]
10 Karai Badlands Formation Fossil Park Badlands of Karai Formation with Cretaceous fossils along Karai – Kulakkalnattam Section Perambalur district Tamil nadu Fossil Park [2]
11 Eddy Current Marking - Sedimentary Structures Kadana Dam Mahisagar district Gujarat Geological Marvels [2]
12 Sendra Granite Pali district Rajasthan Geological Marvels [2]
13 Barr Conglomerate Pali district Rajasthan Rock Monuments [2]
14 Stromatolite Fossil Park Jharmar Kotra Rock Phosphate deposit Udaipur district Rajasthan Stromatolite Park [2]
15 Gossan in Rajpura-Dariba Mineralised belt Udaipur district Rajasthan EcoGeo Monuments [2]
16 Bhojunda Stromatolite Park Chittaurgarh district Rajasthan Stromatolite Park [2]
17 Akal Wood Fossil Park Jaisalmer district Rajasthan Fossil Park [2]
18 Kishangarh Nepheline Syenite Kishangarh Ajmer district Rajasthan Rock Monuments [2]
19 Jodhpur Welded Tuff Jodhpur district Rajasthan Rock Monuments [2]
20 Jodhpur Group – Malani Igneous Suite Contact Jodhpur district Rajasthan Stratigraphy Monuments [2]
21 Great Boundary Fault at Satur Bundi district Rajasthan Stratigraphy Monuments [2]
22 Lonar Lake Buldhana district Maharashtra Geological Marvels [2]
23 Lower Permian Marine bed at Manendragarh (Marine Gondwana Fossil Park) Surguja district Chhattisgarh Fossil Park [2]
24 Columnar Basaltic Lava of Coconut Island (St. Mary Island) St. Mary's Islands Udupi district Karnataka Rock Monuments [2]
25 Pillow lavas near Mardihalli Chitradurga district Karnataka Rock Monuments [2]
26 Peninsular Gneiss of Lalbagh Bangalore Bangalore Urban district Karnataka Rock Monuments [2]
27 Pyroclastics & Pillow lavas of Kolar Gold fields Peddapalli Kolar district Karnataka Rock Monuments [2]
28 Shivalik Fossil Park Suketi Sirmaur district Himachal Pradesh Fossil Park [2]
29 Pillow Lava in lron ore belt at Nomira Keonjhar district Odisha Rock Monuments [2]
30 Plant Fossil bearing Inter-trappean beds of Rajmahal Formation upper Gondwana sequence around Mandro Sahibganj district Jharkhand Fossil Park [2]
31 Nagahill Ophiolite Site near Pungro Nagaland Rock Monuments [2]
32 Stromatolite bearing Dolomite / Limestone of Buxa Formation at Mamley Namchi South Sikkim district Sikkim Stromatolite Park [2]
33 Ramgarh crater Ramgarh Baran district Rajasthan Geological Marvels [4]
34 Zawar lead-zinc mine Zawar Udaipur district Rajasthan [4]

Geo-tourism sites in Northeast India

There are 12 geo-tourism sites in Northeast India notified by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) for promotion of geo-tourism.[5][6][7]

List of Geotourism Sites in Northeast India
No. Image Geo-Heritage site Location District State Geotourism Category and reference
1 Mawmluh Cave Cherrapunji East Khasi Hills district Meghalaya Geo-tourism: Cave belongs to Meghalayan Age, which is a major abrupt climatic event with critical drought and cooling 4,200 years ago which was determined from a stalagmite from Mawmluh cave.[8] In the geologic time scale, the Meghalayan is the latest age or uppermost stage of the Quaternary.[9]
2 Mawblei God’s Rock East Khasi Hills district Meghalaya Geo-tourism: A megalith, Mahadek sandstone of Khasi group of cretaceous period, inclined at 45 degrees on a slope of a hill of Wahrashi River valley is a sacred site for Khasi people.[8]
3 Therriaghat East Khasi Hills district Meghalaya Geo-tourism: Best-preserved and most complete Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in India. Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous period caused sudden extinction of the large vertebrates, plankton and many tropical invertebrates.[8]
4 Majuli Majuli island Majuli district Assam Geo-tourism: World's largest river island in Brahmaputra river has sacred Hindu Vaishnavite sampradaya's satra (kshetra or monasteries) set up by in 15th-16th century Srimanta Sankaradeva. The eco-region is conserved by the Srimanta Sankaradeva Sangha.[8]
5 Umananda Island Brahmaputra river Guwahati Assam Geo-tourism: islet is an inselberg made of rocks of Assam-Meghalaya gneissic complex.[8]
6 Chabimura Gomati district Tripura Geo-tourism: 15th-16th century sacred Hindu site with rock carvings on a cliff of Gomti River with massive rock cut images of Shiva, Vishnu, Karthikeya, Durga and other Hindu deities highest of which is 20 ft.[8]
7 Unakoti Unakoti district Tripura Geo-tourism: 7th-9th centuries rock-cut sculptures and Shaiva temples. Unakotiswara Kal Bhairava shiva statue is 30 feet tall.[8]
8 Sangestar Tso Tawang district Arunachal Pradesh Geo-tourism: Also called as Madhuri Lake, created by damming of river due to earthquake in 1950, is nestled in a lush valley midst of snowy mountain peaks and freezes in winter.[8]
9 Loktak Lake Bishnupur district Manipur Geo-tourism: It is a phumdi (floating biomass) with phumsangs (tribal huts of fishermen) which is also the Keibul Lamjao National Park - world's only floating wildlife habitat on the southwestern part of lake.[8]
10 Reiek Tlang Aizawl Mizoram Geo-tourism: It is a cuesta (a hill with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other) created by erosion of the tertiary sand shale alterations.[8]
11 Nagahill Ophiolite Site Pungro Kiphire district Nagaland Geo-tourism:[8]
12 Mamley Stromatolite Park Namchi South Sikkim district Sikkim Geo-tourism: Also called "Buxa Formation of Mamley", is Algal mat#StromatolitesStromatolite Algal mat with circular structures in the limestone of Proterozoic Buxa Formation microbiota microfossils of Ranjit Window is rare examples of early life on Earth in the Sikkim Himalayas.[8]

See also


  1. ^ "National Geological Monument, from Geological Survey of India website". Archived from the original on 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah "Geo-Heritage Sites". Press Information Bureau. 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  3. ^ a b national geo-heritage of India, INTACH
  4. ^ a b "Ramgarh, Zawar accepted as geo-heritage sites in Rajasthan". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  5. ^ Karmakar, Rahul (2021-08-20). "GSI lists geo-tourism sites in NE to visit after 'unlock'". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
  6. ^ "GSI lists geo-tourism spots in the Northeast to explore post-pandemic". Deccan Herald. 2021-07-10. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
  7. ^ "GSI lists geo-tourism sites in North east - JournalsOfIndia". 2021-08-24. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l GSI lists geo-tourism sites in North east, Journals of India, August 24, 2021.
  9. ^ Cohen, K. M.; Finney, S. C.; Gibbard, P. L.; Fan, J-X. (January 2020). "International Chronostratigraphic Chart" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 8 January 2021.