Krishna district
Location of Krishna district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Krishna district in Andhra Pradesh
Map
Coordinates (Machilipatnam): 16°10′55″N 81°08′02″E / 16.182°N 81.134°E / 16.182; 81.134
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
RegionKosta Andhra
HeadquartersMachilipatnam
Administrative divisions
Government
 • District collector and magistrateP Raja Babu IAS
 • Superintendent of PoliceP. Joshua IPS
 • Lok Sabha constituencies01 constituency
 • Assembly constituencies07 constituencies
Area
 • Total3,773 km2 (1,457 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1][2]
 • Total1,735,079
 • Density460/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Literacy73.74%
 • Sex ratio996
Vehicle registrationAP-16 (former)
AP–39, AP–40 (from 30 January 2019)[3]
Major highwaysNH-216
Websitekrishna.ap.gov.in

Krishna district is a district in the coastal Andhra Region in Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, with Machilipatnam as its administrative headquarters. It is surrounded on the East by Bay of Bengal, West by Guntur, Bapatla and North by Eluru and NTR districts and South again by Bay of Bengal.[4]

Etymology

Krishna district, with its district headquarters at Machilipatnam was formerly called Machilipatnam district. Later it was renamed as Krishna district, by adding certain taluks of the Guntur district of united Andhra Pradesh in 1859. It was named after the Krishna River (also known as Krishnaveni in literature) the third longest river in India. The river flows through the district before it empties itself into Bay of Bengal, near Hamsaladevi village.[5]

History

A view of the famous Jaggayyapeta Buddhist stupa

The history of this region dates back to the 2nd century BCE. The area was ruled by the Satavahanas (230 BC – AD 227); Pallavas (AD 340 – AD 500), Chalukyas (AD 615 – 1070 AD) and later by Cholas, Kakatiyas, Musunuri Nayaks, Reddy dynasty and Gajapati kings of Odisha.[6]

Satavahana period (230 BC – AD 227): The Satavahanas ruled this region with headquarters at Srikakulam, at present a village in Ghantasala mandal of the district. Prominent rulers during this period were Srimukha (founder), Gotamiputra Satakarni and Yajnasri Satakarni (last Satavahana king). The Satavahanas imparted more stability and security to the life of the people of the region for more than four centuries.

Pallava Kingdom (AD 340 – AD 500), spread over from Krishna river to Tungabhadra, including Amaravati in the East, Bellary in the West and Kancheepuram in the South with capital cities at Venginagar near Eluru and Pithapuram, both in Vengidesa. Bruhitpalayanas, the contemporaries of Pallavas ruled the district with Koduru as their capital. Vishnukundinas (AD 6th century) rulers created cave temples at Mogalrajapuram (now in Vijayawada) and Undavalli.

Eastern chalukyas (AD 615 – AD 1070), the entire Andhra country was under the control of a single ruler under their reign. The Eastern Chalukyas were credited with the excavations of the cave temple at Undavalli, rock cut shrines, and Shiva temples.[6]

Cholas ruled this region with their capital located at Rajamahendri. It was during Rajaraja Narendra's reign that Nannayya Bhattu translated the Mahabharata into Telugu. Kakatiyas ruled this region up to the early 14th century with Orugallu as their capital. They are followed by Musunuri Nayaks who rebelled against Delhi sultanate and won. Musunuri Nayaks constructed various forts in South India including Hampi and ruled many states of India independently. Reddy dynasty a subordinate of Musunuri Kapaya Naidu established himself in the hill fort of Kondaveedu. The Kondaveedu Reddis were great patrons of Telugu literature. The poet Srinadha and his brother-in-law Bammera Pothana flourished at his court. [6]

Gajapathis of Odisha: Kapileswarapuram named in honour of Kapileswara Gajapathi now in Pamidimukkala mandal exists to this day. He was succeeded by Vidyadhara Gajapathi who built Vidyadharapuram (now in Vijayawada) and constructed a reservoir at Kondapalli. Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara empire conquered this region in the early 16th century. Then this region became part of the Kingdom of Golconda in 1550 which was founded by Sultan Quli Qutub Shah as part of the Qutb Shahis in 1512. Abu-l-Hussain Shah known as Tanisha was the last ruler of Qutab Shahi dynasty.[6][7]

Medieval period

Aurangazeb ruled this region as part of the province of Golconda. Asaf jah who was appointed as subedar or viceroy of the Deccan in AD 1713 with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk. The province of Golconda comprised five Nawabs’ charges viz. Arcot, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Rajahmundry and Chicacole (Srikakulam). This region was part of the Nawab of Rajahmundry.[6]

The British: In the year 1611 the English founded their settlement at Masulipatnam which remained their headquarters until they finally moved to Madras in 1641. The Dutch and French also had settlements at Masulipatnam. Upon the death of the old Nizam-ul-Mulk in June 1748, his heirs strove for the succession with the support of the English and the French. When Nizam Ali Khan was proclaimed ruler of Golconda in 1761, the British secured at first the divisions of Masulipatnam, Nizampatnam and part of Kondaveedu and later the entire Circars. At first the district was administered by a chief and council at Masulipatnam but in 1794 Collectors, directly responsible to the Board of Revenue, were appointed at Masulipatnam.[6]

The Krishna District was formed from the district of Rajahmundry in 1859, when it also included Guntur and West Godavari districts of united Andhra Pradesh. Guntur district was created from Krishna district in 1904. Similarly West Godavari district was created from Krishna district in 1925.[8][9]

After 1947

Krishna District had 10 Talukas in 1971. In 1978 they were increased to 21 Talukas. In 1985, Mandal system was created and 50 mandals were formed in the district. In 2022 Krishna district was divided into Krishna and NTR districts.[10]

Historical demographics

As of 2011 census of India, the district had a population of 4,517,398 with a density of 518 persons per km2. The total population constitute, 2,267,375 males and 2,250,023 females –a ratio of 992 females per 1000 males. The total urban population is 1,843,660 (40.81%).[11]: 20  There are 3,009,718 literates with a literacy rate of 73.74%.[11]: 21 

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901861,068—    
1911993,086+1.44%
19211,059,731+0.65%
19311,229,176+1.49%
19411,413,516+1.41%
19511,736,429+2.08%
19612,076,956+1.81%
19712,493,574+1.84%
19813,048,463+2.03%
19913,698,833+1.95%
20014,187,841+1.25%
20114,517,398+0.76%
source:[12]

Geography

Krishna district is surrounded on the east by Bay of Bengal, west by Guntur and Bapatla districts and north by Eluru and NTR districts and south by Bay of Bengal. The Krishna district occupies an area of 3,775 square kilometres (1,458 sq mi).[1] It has a total coastline of 88 km (55 mi).[13]

Flora and fauna

The forest occupies only 9 percent of the total undivided district area. However, it contains Reserved Forest areas in Nandigama, Vijayawada, Tiruvuru, Nuzvid, Gannavaram, Machilipatnam and Divi Seema Talukas. A type of light wood known as ‘Ponuku’ (Gyrocapus Jacquini) is found in the Kondapalli hills. The wood is used for the manufacture of the well known Kondpalli toys. The most noticeable trees are pterocarpus, Terminalia, Anogeissus and Logustroeinai and Casuarina.[14]

Panthers, hyenas, jungle cats, foxes, bears and other carnivorous mammalian fauna are found here. Deer, spotted deer sambar, blackbuck and other herbivorous animals are found in the inland forests. The district has a large number of Murrah buffaloes and cows.[14]

Climate

The climatic conditions of the district consist of extremely hot summers and moderately hot winters and may be classified as tropical. The period starting from April to June is the hottest. The annual rainfall in the region is about 1047.68 mm and 66% of it is contributed to by the Southwest monsoon.[15]

Black Cotton (57.6 percent), Sand clay loams (22.3 percent), Red loams (19.4 percent), and sandy soils account for balance 0.7% in the district. [15]

Demographics

Religions in Krishna district based on the 2011 Census[16]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
89.72%
Islam
6.49%
Christianity
3.18%
Other or not stated
0.61%
Distribution of religions

After reorganization the district had a population of 17,35,079, of which 482,513 (27.81%) live in urban areas. Krishna district has a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males and a literacy rate of 73.75%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 346,989 (20.00%) and 37,716 (2.17%) of the population respectively.[1]

Languages of Krishna district based on the 2011 Census[17]

  Telugu (93.30%)
  Urdu (5.97%)
  Others (0.73%)

Based on the 2011 census, 93.30% of the population spoke Telugu and 5.97% Urdu as their first language.[17]

Administrative divisions

Krishna District
Satellite view of Krishna district

Politics

The parliamentary constituency is Machilipatnam Lok Sabha constituency

It comprises the following legislative assembly segments:[18]

Constituency number Name Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliament
71 Gannavaram None Machilipatnam
72 Gudivada None
74 Pedana None
75 Machilipatnam Nona
76 Avanigadda None
77 Pamarru SC
78 Penamaluru None

The district is divided into 3 revenue divisions: Gudivada, Machilipatnam and Vuyyuru, which are further subdivided into a total of 26 mandals, each headed by a sub-collector.[19]

Mandals

The list of 26 mandals in Krishna district, divided into 3 revenue divisions, is given below.[20]

  1. Gudivada revenue division
    1. Bapulapadu
    2. Gannavaram
    3. Gudivada
    4. Gudlavalleru
    5. Nandivada
    6. Pedaparupudi
    7. Unguturu
  2. Machilipatnam revenue division
    1. Avanigadda
    2. Bantumilli
    3. Challapalli
    4. Ghantasala
    5. Guduru
    6. Koduru
    7. Kruthivennu
    8. Machilipatnam North
    9. Machilipatnam South
    10. Mopidevi
    11. Nagayalanka
    12. Pedana
  3. Vuyyuru revenue division
    1. Kankipadu
    2. Movva
    3. Pamarru
    4. Pamidimukkala
    5. Penamaluru
    6. Thotlavalluru
    7. Vuyyuru

Cities and Towns

There are one municipal corporation and four municipalities in the district.[21][22]

Municipal Bodies in Krishna District
Ciy/Town Civil status Revenue Division Population
Machilipatnam Municipal Corporation Machilipatnam 169,892
Gudivada Municipality Grade – Special Gudivada 118,167
YSR-Tadigadapa Municipality Grade – Special Vuyyuru 126,190
Vuyyuru Nagar Panchayat Vuyyuru 49,521
Pedana Municipality Grade – 3 Machilipatnam 30,721

Source: Assembly segments of Parliamentary constituencies[18]

Villages

Economy

Agriculture is the main stay of economy. paddy, is the main food crop cutivated. Based on 2019–20 data, the gross cropped area of the district was 3.76 Lakh Hectares of which gross irrigated area was 2.42 lakh Hectares.[25] Other products produced include sugarcane, mango, tomato, milk, meat and fisheries.

Transport

Road

NH 65 from Pune to Machilipatnam, NH165 from Pamarru to Palakollu, NH216 from Ongole to Kathipudi pass through the district.

Rail

There exists 97 km (60 mi) of rail network in the district. Gudivada Junction railway station and Machilipatnam railway station are prominent railway stations in the district. Nearest major railway station is Vijayawada Junction railway station at a distance of 80Km from Machilipatnam by train.[26]

Water

The Machilipatnam Port is currently under construction.[27]

Air

Krishna district is served by Vijayawada International airport located in Gannavaram at a distance of 67.9 km from Machilipatnam.[28][26]

Education

Dr.Gururaju Government Homoeo Medical college and Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy are located in Gudivada. Krishna University is located in Machilipatnam.

Culture

A Kuchipudi dancer performing on stage

The culture of Krishna district is mostly traditional in rural places and moderately modern in Gudivada and Machilipatnam. It is also famous as the birthplace for Indian classical dance named Kuchipudi. The dialect of Telugu spoken in Krishna is widely considered to be the standard form of Telugu.[29]


Sports

Kabbadi is the most popular sport, followed by cricket, volleyball, badminton, basketball and tennis.

NTR Stadium is the main sports venue in Gudivada. It is used for several sports, like athletics, volleyball, cricket practice, kho kho, kabaddi, badminton, tennis and basketball.[30] It is also the stadium for Krishna District Cricket Association.

Tourism

There are several places of tourist interest in the district. Some of them are given below.[31]

Srikakulandhra Maha Vishnu Temple

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d CPO 2022, p. VII.
  2. ^ "District Census Hand Book – Krishna" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  3. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. ^ "NEW_District Profile | Krishna District, Government of Andhra Pradesh | India". Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  5. ^ CPO 2022, p. V.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "History". Krishna district website. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  7. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Circar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 380.
  8. ^ "Rank of Districts in Andhra Pradesh according to Composite Index" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  9. ^ "District Census Handbook – Guntur" (PDF). Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  10. ^ "Andhra Pradesh's 13 New Districts: Here's All About Them – From Planning to Formation | Explained". News18. 5 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  11. ^ a b "District Census Hand Book – Krishna" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  12. ^ Decadal Variation In Population 1901–2011
  13. ^ CPO 2022, p. 1.
  14. ^ a b "Flora and Fauna of Krishna district". AP forest department. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  15. ^ a b CPO 2022, p. II.
  16. ^ "Population by Religion – Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  17. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  18. ^ a b "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 31.
  19. ^ "District profile" (PDF). Krishna District Official Website. Retrieved 13 March 2023.
  20. ^ "Krishna district profile – AP Government – 4 April 2022" (PDF).
  21. ^ CPO 2022, p. XII.
  22. ^ "Andhra government notifies five new nagar panchayats, rejigs 13 civic bodies". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  23. ^ "District Census Handbook - Krishna" (PDF). Census of India. p. 16,406. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  24. ^ "Vadali Pin Code on NativePlanet".
  25. ^ CPO 2022, p. III.
  26. ^ a b "How to reach". Krishna district. Retrieved 23 April 2023.
  27. ^ "Andhra CM Jagan Reddy launches construction work of Rs 5,156 crore Machilipatnam port". The Indian Express. 22 May 2023. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  28. ^ "NTR Amaravati International Airport | Airports Authority of India".
  29. ^ "District profile". Krishna District. National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  30. ^ "NTR Stadium all set to become more sporty". The Hindu. 2 June 2007. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021.
  31. ^ CPO 2022, p. IV-V.

Books

CPO (2022). District Hand Book of Statistics – 2020 Krishna district (PDF).