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Doti
सुदुर पश्चिमाञ्चल - Sudura Paścimāñcala
Region
Seti River valley with Dipayal to the left
Seti River valley with Dipayal to the left
Location of the Far-Western Region
Location of the Far-Western Region
CountryNepal
HeadquartersDipayal Silgadhi
Area
 • Total19,539 km2 (7,544 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total2,552,517
 • Density130/km2 (340/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5:45 (NPT)
ISO 3166 codeNP-5

Doti (Nepali: डोटी), also known as Doti region, Dotigarh (डोटीगढ़) as used in the Jagar (folk tales; जागर), in the Farwestern region of Nepal (Sudurpashchim Province), is a region situated between River Kali bordering Kumaon division of Uttarakhand in the west and the Karnali river on the east.[2] Doti was one of eight different princely states of the Katyuri Kingdom.

Districts

Doti division covers the nine districts of Sudurpashchim Province. They are:

Kailali and Kanchanpur District are Terai districts and rest are hilly districts.

Etymology

The name Doti is believed to have originated from the word Doab which means the land area between the confluence of two rivers.

Other view is that the original name of Doti was devatavi = dev + aatavi or aalaya (dev meaning Hindu God and aatavi meaning the place of re-creation or the place of attaining a meditation in Sanskrit).[3]

History

Doti was an ancient kingdom in far western region of Kumaon which was formed after the disintegration of the Katyuri Kingdom of Kumaon around the 13th century.[4]

Doti was one of eight different princely states Katyuri Kingdom was divided into Eight for their eight Prince and became different independent Kingdom.

Later on, the whole land between Ramganga on the west (Kumaon) and the Karnali on the east (which divides the far western region from other parts Nepal), came under the Raikas after the origin of Raikas of Katyuris in Doti.[5]

"Brahma Dev Mandi" at Kanchanpur District of Mahakali Zone was established by Katyuri king Brahma Dev.[6]

Raikas of Doti

Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi at Saka Era 1612 (शाके १६१२) (or 1747 Bikram Samvat) in old Malla language using Devanagari script
Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi at Saka Era 1612 (शाके १६१२) (or 1747 Bikram Samvat) in old Malla language using Devanagari script

Niranjan Malla Dev was the founder of Doti Kingdom around the 13th century after the fall of the Katyuri Kingdom. He was the son of Last Katyuris of united Katyuris kingdom.[7]

Kings of Doti were called Raikas (also Rainka Maharaj).[8] Later on Raikas, after defeating the Khas Malla of Karnali Zone, were able to establish a strong Raika Kingdom in Far Western Region and Kumaun which was Doti. So far, the historical evidences[9] of following Raikas have been discovered:

Mogul invasion on Far-Western Nepal

During the period of Akbar's rule in the 16th century, the Moguls had attacked the Raikas of Doti. They invaded Ajemeru, capital of the Raika Kingdom. Ajemeru is now in Dadeldhura District of far western region of Nepal. Hussain Khan, army chief of Akbar residing in Lucknow had led the attack. According to `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni (c. 1540 - 1615), Indo-Persian historian during Mughal Empire, Mughal Army chief of Lucknow, Hussain Khan, lured by the wealth and treasures of the kingdom of the Raikas, wanted to plunder the state, this being the motive behind the assault; he managed to capture some cities and after his successful campaign he returned to Lucknow.

Gorkha Invasion

The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Nepal (Gorkha Kingdom) during the period of Gorkha Expansion in 1790, according to the history of Nepal, is Nari-Dang which lies on the bank of the Seti River and Dumrakot was the base of the Doti Kingdom during the fighting against the Gorkhalis. In the war with the Gorkhalis, the Doti kingdom was defeated and Doteli King fled to Pilibhit.[15]

Khairgarh-Singhai State

Raja Deep Shahi was expelled from Nepal in 1790 A.D and on arriving to Terai of Oudh (now Lakhimpur Kheri District of Uttar Pradesh of India) he established Khairgarh-Singhai State in Khairigarh under British India.[16] Kanchanpur Praganna (now the District of Kaillali and Kanchanpur of Nepal) was also the parts of his State or Zamindari. He succeeded in defeating the Banjaras rulers of Khairigarh and establishing himself not only in that Pargana but also in parts of Bhur

Geography

The Far-Western Development Region has the Mid-Western Development Region to the east, Uttar Pradesh (India) to the south, Kumaon (India) to the west and the Tibet Autonomous Region (People's Republic of China) to the north.

The highest mountain in the region is the Api Peak, with 7,132 m (23,399 ft) high; it is in the Darchula district. Other high mountain is Saipal, 7,031 m (23,068 ft) high, in the Bajhang district.

The most important rivers in the Far-Western Development Region are the Seti and the Mahakali ( Kali or Sharda in India) rivers; both rivers are tributaries of the Ghaghara or Karnali river.

Demographics

It is the smallest Development Region of Nepal with an area of 19,539 km2 (7,544 sq mi) and also with the lowest population with 2,552,517 people living there;[1] its population density is the second lowest of all the regions, with 130.6 persons/km2. Main ethnic group are Khas/Chhetri making total population of 76%.

Language and culture

The major local languages are Dotiyali and Kumauni, each spoken respectively by 273,000 and 788,000 people according to the 2011 census.

Inhabitants of two terai districts Kailali District and Kanchanpur District speak different languages. Rana-tharu and Dangaura-tharu speaks their own language. Language spoken by Rana-tharus is Hindi Dialect and Dangaura-tharu speaks Tharu Language.

Traditional dance and songs Chholiya, Bhada, Jhora Chapeli, Rung Culture of Rung people (Sauka), Baira song, Deuda, Chait and Jagar are part of the culture. Jagara and Chait tales of bravery is most important culture in Doti since Katyuri period. Chait tales about bravery of Senapati Piri Bohara( Doti) is singing in Gaura parva . Jhusia Damai of Baskot of Baitadi District (stayed in Dharchula India) was famous Jagar singer. The major festivals of Doti are mainly Gora (Gamra), Kumauni holi, Bishpati, Harela, Raksha Bandhab (Rakhi) Dashin, Diwali, Makar Sankranti, and others.

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b "National Population and Housing Census 2011" (pdf). Central Bureau of Statistics. Kathmandu, Nepal. November 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  2. ^ Prof.Dr. Jay Raj pant wrote "Far-Western region of Nepal is called Doti Culturally "  : In History of Doti Kingdom (2013)
  3. ^ R.D Prabhas Chataut (2001) ; Dotyali Dictionary
  4. ^ Dr.Y.S Kathoch, A New History of Uttarakhand; On Katyuri Dynasty "Around,13th Century Katyuri Dynasty established in Ranachulihat was broken into many sections" Doti was among them
  5. ^ Advin T. Atkinson; Gazetteer Hindi Edition (2003); He wrote (Page 274) Whole territory to the east of Ram gang was belongs to Raikas during the late 16th century.
  6. ^ Dr. Madam Chandra Bhatt; A New History of Uttarakhand (2006): " Champawat ke Chand Raja.
  7. ^ Dr. Y.S Kathoch; A New History of Uttarakhand(2006).Founder of Doti was Niranjan Mall Dev..
  8. ^ Badri Datt Pandey ; History of Kumaun (1937)
  9. ^ ..Sources of these historical evidence are taken from the books mentioned in the references.
  10. ^ Prof. Maheshwor Prasad Joshi; "The Raikas of Kumaon and Western Nepal : The apigraphical survey", JOURNAL OF INDOLOGICAL STUDY, Haryana Sahitya Academy (1998);.page 68..Nirai Pal of Askot had captured Sira because of political vacuum in Sira...
  11. ^ Advin T. Atkinson ; Himalayan Gazetteer; ( Translated by Ramesh Thapaliyal ) Hindi Edition (2003) ISBN 8190100130;..Page 267..An old stone has found on the hills of Almora in which name Niraipal and 1348 written.
  12. ^ a b Dr. Ram Singh; A New History of Uttarakhand(2006).Mall Raikas of Sira..
  13. ^ Advin T. Atkinson ; Himalayan Gazetteer; ( Translated by Ramesh Thapaliyal ) Hindi Edition (2003) ISBN 8190100130;..Page 285..Rudra Chand had captured whole territory east of kaliriver in 1581 along with Sira..
  14. ^ Advin T Atkinson ; Himalayan Gazetteer Hindi Edition translated by Ramesh Thapaliyal (2003);ISBN 8190100130;..Ousted King of Doti Prithivipati Shah offered his help in war with Nepal which seemed very significant
  15. ^ "History of Nepal". T.R.Vaidya Publications. Archived from the original on 2005-02-09. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  16. ^ http://members.iinet.net.au/~royalty/ips/k/khairigarh[permanent dead link].