Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita
Parliament of India
  • An Act to consolidate and amend the provisions relating to offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
CitationAct No. 45 of 2023
Territorial extent India
Passed byLok Sabha
Passed20 December 2023
Passed byRajya Sabha
Passed21 December 2023
Assented to byPresident of India
Assented to25 December 2023
Legislative history
First chamber: Lok Sabha
Bill titleThe Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita Bill, 2023
Bill citationBill No. 173 of 2023
Introduced byHome Minister, Amit Shah
Introduced12 December 2023
Committee responsibleParliamentary Standing Committee
Passed20 December 2023
Voting summary
  • Majority Voice voted for
  • Minority Voice voted against
Second chamber: Rajya Sabha
Bill titleThe Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita Bill, 2023
Received from the Lok Sabha20 December 2023
Member in ChargeHome Minister, Amit Shah
Passed21 December 2023
Voting summary
  • Majority Voice voted for
  • Minority Voice voted against
Final stages
Finally passed both chambers21 December 2023
Indian Penal Code
Related legislation
Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita and Bharatiya Sakshya Act, 2023
The bill seeks to replace the entire Indian Penal Code and to provide a new approach for penalties and punishments for crimes defined under a new pattern.
Status: Not yet in force

The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (IAST: Bhāratīya Nyāya Saṃhitā; lit.'Indian Justice Code'), is the criminal code of the Republic of India.[1] It replaced the Indian Penal Code, which was enacted in 1860. BNS covers all aspects of criminal law, including offenses, punishments, defenses, and procedures.[2]

Background and timeline


The following are some of the features that the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita has made to the Indian legal system:

In BNS, 20 new offences have been added to and 19 provisions in the repealed IPC have been dropped. The punishment of imprisonment has been increased for 33 offences, and fines have been increased for 83 offences. A mandatory minimum punishment has been introduced for 23 offences. Punishment of community service has been introduced in six offences.[6]


The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita is subdivided into 20 chapters consisting of 358 clauses. The structure of the code is similar to the Indian Penal Code. The outline of the Sanhita is as follows:[7]

The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, 2023
Chapters Clauses Classification of Offences
Chapter 1 Clauses 1 to 3 Preliminary
Chapter 2 Clauses 4 to 13 Of Punishments
Chapter 3 Clauses 14 to 44 General Exceptions  

of the Right to Private Defence (sections 34 to 44)

Chapter 4 Clauses 45 to 62 Of Abetment, Criminal Conspiracy and Attempt
Chapter 5 Clauses 63 to 97 Of Offences against Women and Children
  • Of Sexual Offences (63 to 72)
  • Of Criminal Force and Assault against Women (73 to 78)
  • Of Offences relating to Marriage (79 to 85)
  • Of the Causing of Miscarriage, etc. (86 to 97)
Chapter 6 Clauses 98 to 144 Of Offences Affecting the Human Body
  • Of Offences Affecting Life (98 to 111)
  • Of Hurt (112 to 125)
  • Of Criminal Force and Assault (126 to 134)
  • Of Kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery and Forced Labour (135 to 144)
Chapter 7 Clauses 145 to 156 Of Offences Against the State
Chapter 8 Clauses 157 to 166 Of Offences Relating to the Army, Navy and Air Force
Chapter 9 Clauses 167 to 175 Of Offences Relating to Elections
Chapter 10 Clauses 176 to 186 Of Offences Relating to Coins, Bank Notes, Currency Notes and Government Stamps
Chapter 11 Clauses 187 to 195 Of Offences Against the Public Tranquility
Chapter 12 Clauses 196 to 203 Of Offences by Or Relating to Public Servants
Chapter 13 Clauses 204 to 224 Of Contempt of Lawful Authority of Public Servants
Chapter 14 Clauses 225 to 267 Of False Evidence and Offences against Public Justice.
Chapter 15 Clauses 268 to 295 Of Offences affecting the Public Health, Safety, Convince, Decency and Morals
Chapter 16 Clauses 296 to 300 Of Offences Relating to Religion
Chapter 17 Clauses 301 to 332 Of Offences against Property
  • Of Theft (301 to 305)
  • Of Extortion (306)
  • Of Robbery and Dacoity (307 to 311)
  • Of Criminal Misappropriation of Property (312 and 313)
  • Of Criminal Breach of Trust (314)
  • Of the Receiving of Stolen Property (315)
  • Of Cheating (316 and 317)
  • Of Fundamental Deeds and Disposition of Property (318 to 321)
  • Of Mischief (322 to 326)
  • Of Criminal Trespass (326 to 332)
Chapter 18 Clauses 333 to 348 Of Offences Relating to Documents and to Property Marks
  • Of Documents (333 to 343)
  • Of Property Marks (344 to 348)
Chapter 19 Clauses 349 to 356 Of Criminal Intimidation, Insult, Annoyance, Defamation, Etc
  • Intimidation, Insult and Annoyance (349 to 353)
  • Of Defamation (354)
  • Of breach of contract to attend on and supply wants of the helpless person (355)
  • Repeal and Savings (356)

See also


  1. ^ "3 new Bills introduced in Lok Sabha to replace criminal laws; sedition law to be scrapped". The Hindu. 11 August 2023.
  2. ^ Trend, Law (31 December 2023). "India's Historical Legal Reform: The Introduction of Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita- Major Changes". Law Trend.
  3. ^ "The Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023". PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  4. ^ "LS passes Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita Bill; Amit Shah says it focuses on justice rather than punishment". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 20 December 2023.
  5. ^ Desk, DH Web. "Bills to replace criminal codes enacted into law as President Murmu gives nod". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 25 December 2023.
  6. ^ News Desk, India. "Explained: Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, the new IPC, and the concerns around it". Financial Express. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  7. ^ The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, 2023, PSR India, 10 August 2023