Jabalpur
Jubbulpore
Jabalpur is located in Madhya Pradesh
Jabalpur
Jabalpur
Location of Jabalpur in India
Jabalpur is located in India
Jabalpur
Jabalpur
Jabalpur (India)
Coordinates: 23°10′N 79°56′E / 23.167°N 79.933°E / 23.167; 79.933
Country India
State Madhya Pradesh
DistrictJabalpur
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyJabalpur Municipal Corporation
 • MayorJagat Bahadur Singh[1]
 • District MagistrateShri S.K. Suman (IAS).[2]
 • Municipal commissionerSwapnil Wankhade IAS
 • MPRakesh Singh
Area
 • Metropolis263.49 km2 (101.73 sq mi)
Elevation
412 m (1,352 ft)
Population
 (2011)[4][5][6]
 • Metropolis1,055,525
 • Rank40th
 • Density4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
 • Metro1,267,564
 • Metro rank
38th
DemonymsJabalpurians, Jabalpuriya, Jabalpurites
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
482001 to 482011
Telephone code0761
ISO 3166 codeIN-MP
Vehicle registrationMP-20
Sex ratio929 / 1000
Average Literacy Rate82.13%
Official languageHindi[8]
Websitejabalpur.nic.in

Jabalpur, formerly Jubbulpore, is a city situated on the banks of Narmada River in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. According to the 2011 census, it is the third-largest urban agglomeration in Madhya Pradesh and the country's 38th-largest urban agglomeration. Jabalpur is an important administrative, industrial and business center of Madhya Pradesh. It is the judicial capital of Madhya Pradesh as The Madhya Pradesh High Court along with other important administrative headquarters of India and Madhya Pradesh are located in Jabalpur. It is generally accepted that the game of snooker originated in Jabalpur.[9] Jabalpur is the administrative headquarters of Jabalpur district (the second-most-populous district in Madhya Pradesh) and the Jabalpur division. It also is a major education centre in India. The city is known for the marble rocks on the river Narmada at Bhedaghat.

Etymology

According to a prevalent theory, Jabalpur was named after a sage named Jabali, who meditated on the banks of the Narmada river. Another theory suggests an Arabic origin of the word since jabal in Arabic means granite boulders or huge boulders, which were common in the region. According to a fringe theory, the name refers to Jauli Pattala, a sub-divisional unit, mentioned in Kalachuri inscriptions. Jauli also refers to the Huna queen of the Kalachuri king, Karna. It was spelled as 'Jubbulpore' during British rule[10]

In 2006, the Jabalpur Municipal Corporation renamed the city to Jabalpur.[11]

History

Mythology describes three Asuras (evil spirits) in the Jabalpur region, who were defeated by the Hindu god Shiva. Tripurasura being the main asura, gave the city its puranic name Tripur Tirth.[12] Tripuri region corresponds to the ancient Chedi Kingdom of Mahabharata times, to which king Shishupala belongs.

Ashokan relics dating to 300 BCE have been found in Rupnath, 84 kilometres (52 mi) north of the city, indicating the presence of the Mauryan Empire (322 to 185 BCE) in the region.[12] When the empire fell, Jabalpur became a city-state before coming under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE). After their reign, the region was ruled locally by the Bodhis and the Senas, following which it became a vassal state of the Gupta Empire (320 to 550).[12]

The region was conquered by the Kalachuri Dynasty in 875 CE. The best known Kalachuri ruler was Yuvaraja-Deva I (r. 915–945), who married Nohla Devi (a princess of the Chalukya dynasty).[13] One of the Kalachuri ministers, Golok Simha Kayastha, was instrumental in founding the Chausath Yogini Temple near Bhedaghat. His descendants include Bhoj Simha, who was the Dewan to the Gond king Sangram Shah (1491–1543); Dewan Aadhar Singh Kayastha, who was the prime minister to Rani Durgavati (r. 1550–1564),[14] and Beohar Raghuvir Sinha, the last Jagirdar of Jabalpur who reigned until 1947.[citation needed]

Gondwana rule

Rani Durgavati preparing for the battle of Narrai; fresco by Beohar Rammanohar Sinha in Jabalpur's Shaheed-Smarak

Jabalpur was an important centre of power during the rule of the Gond kings of Garha-Mandla.[15] The ruler of Garha-Mandla, Madan Shah, (1138–1157) built a watchtower and a small hilltop fort at Madan Mahal, an area in Jabalpur. In the 1500s, the Gond king, Sangram Shah held Singorgarh fort. Rani Durgawati was a princess of the Chandela Dynastywho was married to Dalpat Shah of the Gond dynasty. She was well aware of the importance of water conservation, and hence she built more than 85 ponds in Jabalpur, mainly in Ranital, Haathital, Madhatal and Hanumantal.[16]

The Gond king, Hriday Shah (1634-1668), moved his court to the Mandla fort. He secured water sources and built irrigation structures. The kingdom was invaded in 1742 by the Maratha peshwa (prime minister), Balaji Baji Rao along with Visaji Chandorkar, the Maratha governor of Sagar, and made a tributary state of the Maratha Empire.[17][18]

Maratha rule

The Maratha rulers of Sagar finally annexed the weakened Garha Kingdom in 1781.[19] Around 1798, the Maratha Peshwa gave the Nerbuddah valley to the Bhonsle kings of Nagpur, who ruled the area until 1818, when it was seized by the British East India Company after the Battle of Sitabuldi.[20]

British rule

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Under British rule, and among others in the works of Kipling, the city name was spelled Jubbulpore.

Climate

Jabalpur
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
19
 
 
24
8
 
 
16
 
 
28
11
 
 
16
 
 
34
16
 
 
5
 
 
39
21
 
 
11
 
 
42
26
 
 
169
 
 
38
26
 
 
382
 
 
31
24
 
 
458
 
 
29
23
 
 
188
 
 
31
23
 
 
39
 
 
32
19
 
 
12
 
 
29
12
 
 
11
 
 
25
9
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
75
46
 
 
0.6
 
 
82
52
 
 
0.6
 
 
93
61
 
 
0.2
 
 
102
70
 
 
0.4
 
 
108
79
 
 
6.7
 
 
100
79
 
 
15
 
 
88
75
 
 
18
 
 
84
73
 
 
7.4
 
 
88
73
 
 
1.5
 
 
90
66
 
 
0.5
 
 
84
54
 
 
0.4
 
 
77
48
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Jabalpur has a humid subtropical climate typical of north-central India (Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh). Summer begins in late March, lasting until June. May is the hottest month, with an average temperature exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). Summer is followed by the southwest monsoon, which lasts until early October and produces 889 mm (35 in) of rain from July to September. The average annual precipitation is nearly 1,386 mm (54.6 in). The Winter begins in late November and lasts until early March. January is the coldest month, with an average daily temperature near 15 °C (59 °F).

Climate data for Jabalpur Airport (1991–2020, extremes 1901–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.4
(92.1)
37.6
(99.7)
41.2
(106.2)
45.4
(113.7)
46.7
(116.1)
46.8
(116.2)
41.7
(107.1)
37.8
(100.0)
37.4
(99.3)
37.9
(100.2)
35.8
(96.4)
33.2
(91.8)
46.7
(116.1)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 24.3
(75.7)
27.9
(82.2)
33.3
(91.9)
38.5
(101.3)
41.3
(106.3)
37.6
(99.7)
31.3
(88.3)
29.9
(85.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.8
(89.2)
29.1
(84.4)
25.8
(78.4)
31.8
(89.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
20.7
(69.3)
25.9
(78.6)
31.0
(87.8)
34.6
(94.3)
31.8
(89.2)
27.4
(81.3)
26.6
(79.9)
27.3
(81.1)
25.9
(78.6)
21.9
(71.4)
18.0
(64.4)
25.7
(78.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
13.6
(56.5)
18.2
(64.8)
23.3
(73.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.0
(80.6)
24.7
(76.5)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
20.3
(68.5)
15.0
(59.0)
11.0
(51.8)
19.9
(67.8)
Record low °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
0.0
(32.0)
3.3
(37.9)
10.6
(51.1)
17.2
(63.0)
19.0
(66.2)
20.6
(69.1)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
10.5
(50.9)
3.9
(39.0)
0.6
(33.1)
0.0
(32.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.6
(0.69)
19.7
(0.78)
18.2
(0.72)
6.8
(0.27)
11.9
(0.47)
164.2
(6.46)
429.8
(16.92)
443.0
(17.44)
213.7
(8.41)
30.0
(1.18)
10.0
(0.39)
2.9
(0.11)
1,367.8
(53.85)
Average rainy days 1.4 1.7 1.6 0.8 1.1 7.5 15.6 15.5 9.5 2.0 0.7 0.4 57.7
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 47 38 27 21 21 49 73 79 69 52 51 49 48
Source 1: India Meteorological Department[21][22]
Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1991–2020)[23]

Demographics

Religions in Jabalpur city[24]
Religion Percent
Hindu
79.39%
Muslim
15.03%
Jain
2.26%
Christian
1.59%
Sikh
1.05%
No religion stated
0.31%
Buddhist
0.34%
Others†
0.03%
Distribution of religions
Population Growth Since 2011 Census[25]
Year Population
2011
1,268,848
2012
1,295,000
2013
1,320,000
2014
1,360,000
2015
1,385,000
2016
1,400,000
2017
1,440,000
2018
1,450,000

In the 2011 India census, the Jabalpur city (the area covered by the municipal corporation) recorded a population of 1,081,677.[5] The Jabalpur metropolitan area (urban agglomeration) recorded a population of 1,268,848.[6]

Bada Fuhara and Kamania Gate in the heart of old Jabalpur city

Economy

Vehicle Factory Jabalpur (VFJ)'s Matang truck

The Narmada river bringing in freshwater from the Vindyachal Ranges has developed Jabalpur district into an agrarian economy. The land of the Narmada basin with its fertile alluvial soil gives good yields of sorghum, wheat, rice, and millet in the villages around Jabalpur. Important among commercial crops are pulses, oilseeds, cotton, sugar cane, and medicinal crops. The state is poised for a breakthrough in soybean cultivation.[citation needed] In Kharif crops occupy 60% and Rabi crops 40% area with 71.4% area under food grain production. Nearly 59% of landholders are marginal whereas small farmed share 18% of farmland.

Jabalpur has a variety of industries largely based in mineral substances of economic value found in the district, although the ready-made garments industry is a substantial portion of production in Jabalpur.

Defence establishments started in the early 20th century. Jabalpur has Vehicle Factory Jabalpur, Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory Jabalpur and Ordnance Factory Khamaria which belong to the Ordnance Factories Board manufacturing various products for the Indian Armed Forces. The Gun Carriage Factory was started in the year 1904 is well equipped and manufacture gun parts, mounting, shells, and a variety of the other product for war purposes. Vehicle Factory Jabalpur (VFJ) was started as a manufacturer of trucks and other defence vehicles. The other two are Grey Iron Foundry (GIF) and Ordnance Factory Khamaria (OFK).

Armed forces make up a large portion of the city and economy in this city. The city has three regimental centres: Grenadiers, Jammu and Kashmir rifles and the Signals regiment. Jabalpur is also the army headquarters of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Orissa. Jabalpur is an important divisional headquarters, having eight districts: Jabalpur, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindwara, Narsimhapur, Katni, Dindori, Balaghat. The Jabalpur District has been reconstituted on 25 May 1998. It now has four tehsils Jabalpur, Sihora, Patan, and Kundam. Jabalpur also has the headquarters of the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board, Homeguards, and many other state and central government offices. There are seven blocks in the district with 1449 inhabited villages, 60 uninhabited, 1209 revenue villages, and 4 forest villages. The presence of several industries in Jabalpur bolstered the industrial scenario of the city. However, the industrial growth of the area owes much to the defense establishments and the four ordnance factories.

The presence of the military base and the ordnance factories have improved the infrastructure of the city. This has boosted the industrial development of Jabalpur. The important industries in Jabalpur are:

The nominal GDP of Jabalpur District was estimated at Rs. 42,518 crores for the year 2020–21.[26]

Information technology and park

M.P. State Electronics Development Corporation Ltd. has set up an I.T. park (Techno Park)[27] in Bargi Hills having total area of 60 acres, 22 km from the Jabalpur airport. Paytm started their operations at Jabalpur in 2018.[28]

Government and public services

Main article: Jabalpur Municipal Corporation

Civic administration

Jabalpur covers an area of 263 square kilometres (102 sq mi).[3] The Jabalpur Municipal Corporation (JMC), is charged with governance of the city's civic and infrastructural assets. The corporation has two wings: deliberative and executive. The head of the executive wing is a municipal commissioner who is responsible for the corporation's day-to-day operation and assists the deliberative wing in the decision-making process. The JMC council has one elected representative (corporate) from each ward. Council elections, by popular vote, are held every five years. A corporate from the majority party is selected as mayor.

Jabalpur contributes one member to the Lok Sabha. Rakesh Singh of Bharatiya Janata Party had been elected as the Member of Parliament in the 2019 Lok Sabha election.[29] The city sends eight members to the State Legislative Assembly: four from the city (Jabalpur Purba, Jabalpur Uttar, Jabalpur Cantonment and Jabalpur Paschim) and four from rural areas of the district. Jabalpur is divided into eight zones, each consisting of several wards.

Division headquarters

Jabalpur is the divisional headquarters for eight districts: Jabalpur, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindwara, Narsinghpur, Katni, Dindori and Balaghat. The district, which was reconstituted on 25 May 1998, has seven tehsils: Jabalpur, Sihora, Patan, Majhouli, Shahpura, Panagar and Kundam. The city is the headquarters of the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board, the Home-guards and other state and central-government offices.

Military establishments

The Jabalpur Cantonment is one of the largest cantonments in India.[30] In addition to the ordnance factories, other organisations present in the city include HQ Madhya Bharat Area, the Jammu & Kashmir Rifles Regimental Centre, the Grenadiers Regimental Centre, 1 Signal Training Centre, College of Material Management, Central Ordnance Depot, 506 Army Base Workshop, Military Hospital, HQ Chief Engineer Jabalpur Zone, Military Dairy Farm, and HQ Recruiting Zone. Civilian organisations which are part of the Ministry of Defence are the Cantonment Board, Controller of Defence Accounts, Defence Standardisation Cell and the Canteen Stores Department.

Culture

Cuisine

Sweets in Jabalpur's local delicacy include Doodh ka Halwa, Kalakand, Bhaji Wada, Dal Mangode, Aloo Bonda, Khoye ki Jalebi,[31][32] Mawa-Bati, Khoprapak, Shrikhand, Malpua, Imarti and Makkhanvada.[33] Khoye ki Jalebi, which is quite popular in Madhya Pradesh,[33] was invented by Harprasad Badkul in 1889 at his shop, Badkul Halwai.[34][35][36]

Tourism

Main article: List of tourist attractions in Jabalpur

Marble-art

Jabalpur is an important tourism city in Madhya Pradesh and central India. Notable sites in Jabalpur include Hanumantal Bada Jain Mandir, Jabalpur Madan Mahal, Dhuandhar Falls, Chausta-Yogini, Gwarighat and Marble Rocks in Bhedaghat, Balancing rock near Madan Mahal Fort and the Shiv Statue at Kachnar City. The world-renowned tiger reserves like Kanha National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park, and Pench National Park can be easily visited via Jabalpur. The largest Wildlife Sanctuary in terms of area of the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary is very close to Jabalpur and can be easily visited. The recently notified Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve which is the seventh tiger reserve in Madhya Pradesh also lies in close vicinity to Jabalpur and can be easily visited via Jabalpur.

Hanumantal Bada Jain Mandir is a 17th-century Jain temple that appears like a fortress with numerous shikharas. The temple has 22 shrines (vedis), making it the largest independent Jain temple in India. Madan Mahal is a fort built by the Gondi king Madansahi in 1116 which is situated atop a hill in Jabalpur. Kachnar city in Jabalpur is known for a 23-metre-high (76 ft) Shiva statue housing a cavern with replicas of Shiva lingas from 12 shrines nationwide.[37] The city also houses the Rani Durgawati Museum which was built in 1964 to commemorate Rani Durgavati. The museum hosts ancient relics, sculptures and a collection of items related to Mahatma Gandhi. Dumna Nature Reserve Park is an ecotourism site open to the public which is located in the Jabalpur district. It houses the Khandari Dam, which is a source of drinking water to the city and has many crocodiles. The Bargi Dam Reservoir near Jabalpur is known for boat rides.

Tourist attractions in Jabalpur also include the boat rides on the Narmada river, which is 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) away from the city, specially in moonlight. The journey through Narmada reveals the Marble Rocks, where the river has carved the soft marble, creating a gorge of about 8 km in length, and the Dhuandhar falls, which is one of the most visited tourist destinations in Jabalpur.[citation needed] Lamheta Ghaat[38] and Tilwara Ghaat[39] are well-knownGhats on the banks of Narmada River.[citation needed] The Tilwadeshwar temple is located near the Tilwara Ghat and it is also the place where Gandhi's ashes were immersed.

Other tourist destinations near the city include Chausath Yogini Temple, Bhedaghat Fall,[40] Bhadbhada fall,[41] Gughra Fall,[42] Osho Amritdham,[43] Pisanhari Ki Madiya which is a historic Jain pilgrimage near Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College,[44] and Nandishwardeep Jain temple.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's ashram in Karondi village is located around 90 kms from Jabalpur city. Lying on the Tropic of Cancer, the location is claimed to be the geographical central point of India by Yogi.[45]

Transport

Air

Long, low building with cars parked outside
Jabalpur Airport Terminal Building

The Jabalpur Airport (JLR), also known as Dumna Airport, is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) away from the city center. It is located near the Dumna Nature Reserve. Jabalpur Airport serves as the single airport in the entire eastern Madhya Pradesh. Apart from Jabalpur, it also serves the districts of Narsinghpur, Sagar, Damoh, Katni, Mandla, Balaghat, Seoni, Umaria, Anuppur, Shahdol, Satna, Rewa etc. It is also the most convenient airport for visiting Natural Parks and Wild life Sanctuaries which surround the city of Jabalpur. Jabalpur airport has direct connectivity with major cities of New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Indore and Bilaspur. Air India, Alliance Air, Indigo and SpiceJet operate from here.

Rail

Railway Station

Jabalpur Junction railway station, is one of the five major railway stations located in the city. Madan Mahal Railway station is located in the heart of Jabalpur City.

Office of the General Manager, West Central Railway, Jabalpur

Jabalpur city homes the Zonal Headquarters of West Central Railways (WCR). Jabalpur is also one of the three divisional headquarters in WCR. The boundaries of divisional headquarters extend up to Itarsi Junction in the south-west, Bina Junction station in the north, Manikpur Junction and Rewa station in the North East and Singrauli station in the east. All these railway lines are broad gauge lines. A narrow-gauge line existed between Jabalpur to Gondia station which has presently been converted to broad gauge. Now this line provides direct connectivity to Nagpur Junction railway station and Raipur Junction railway station, via Gondia Junction.

Jabalpur Junction is well connected with Rail and has dedicated trains to New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, SVDK Katra, Ajmer, Somnath, Pune, Bangalore, Coimbatore etc.

Road

Jabalpur has excellent road connectivity. A network of National Highways meet at Jabalpur. 4-lane NH 45 connects it to Bhopal, 4-lane NH 34 connects it to Nagpur, 4-lane NH 30 connects it to Varanasi and Mandla, NH 34 connects it to Damoh. Apart from this, Jabalpur also has good network of state highways.

114 Kms Ring Road is under construction around Jabalpur which will be second longest ring road in India after Hyderabad's ORR. Longest elevated corridor of Madhya Pradesh is also present in Jabalpur City which is nearing completion. This will be one of the longest elevated roads in India.

Education

LNCT Jabalpur
St. Aloysius Senior Secondary School, established in the year 1868, is among the oldest schools in India

Main article: List of educational institutions in Jabalpur

Jabalpur became a centre of higher education by the end of the 19th century, with institutions such as the Hitkarini Sabha, established by local citizens in 1868,[46] and Robertson College (now bifurcated into the Government Science College, Jabalpur, and Mahakoshal Arts & Commerce College) was established in Sagar in 1836 and moved to Jabalpur in 1873.[47] Government Engineering College, Jabalpur was the first technical institution in Central India to be established by the British. IIITDM Jabalpur was founded in 2005. Scholars, authors and politicians such as Ravishankar Shukla, Rajneesh, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh had been in Jabalpur for some time in their life.

Jabalpur is known for many universities such as Rani Durgavati University (also called the University of Jabalpur), Madhya Pradesh Medical Science University, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University, Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University and Dharmashastra National Law University, Jabalpur, Indian Council of Medical Research-NIRTH. Other institutions like Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur and MP State Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur are very important forest research centers based in Jabalpur.

Jabalpur also hosts a Government Medical College named Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College. The largest Government Cancer Institute in Madhya Pradesh, the Madhya Pradesh State Cancer Institute will soon become functional in Jabalpur at the adjoining premises of the NSCB Medical College. The School of Excellence in Pulmonary Medicine is also a Government center of excellence in pulmonary medicine located in the premises of NSCB Medical College.

Media

Several television news channels have branches in the city. Various cable operators operate digital cable TV system in city.[48]

Newspapers

National and local newspapers are published in Jabalpur in Hindi and English:

Newspaper Language Founded
Naiduniya Hindi 1947
Patrika 2009
Nava Bharat 1934
Deshbandhu 1959
Hari Bhoomi 1996
The Times of India English 1838
Hindustan Times 1924
Hindustan Hindi
The Hitavada English 1911
Business Standard English, Hindi 1975
Dainik Bhaskar Hindi 1958
Yash Bharat 2006

Radio

Radio stations in Jabalpur include:

Name Frequency (MHz) Tagline
Red FM 93.5 Bajaate raho
MY FM 94.3 Jiyo Dil Se!
Radio Mirchi 98.3 It's Hot!
Radio Orange 106.4 Kuch Khatta Kuch Meetha
Akashvani 102.9

Akashvani Jabalpur broadcasts on 801 kHz AM with a 200 kW transmitter.

Sports

The city has two stadiums: Ravishankar Shukla Stadium and Rani Tal Stadium. It is generally accepted that while serving at Jabalpur in 1875, Colonel Sir Neville Chamberlain developed a new variation of black pool by introducing coloured balls into the game in the British Army officer's mess. This game was later dubbed snooker.[9]

Notable people and residents

Historical personalities

Movie and TV personalities

Armed forces officers

Civil servants and people holding high public office

Politicians

Business

Spiritual gurus

Journalists

Engineers

Doctors

Authors and poets

Sportspersons

See also

References

  1. ^ "Jabalpur Nagar Nigam Result: कांग्रेस ने भेदा बीजेपी का किला, महापौर चुनाव में जगत बहादुर सिंह अन्नू की जीत". Zee News (in Hindi). 17 July 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  2. ^ "Who's Who | District Administration Jabalpur, Government of Madhya Pradesh | India". Who's Who. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Jabalpur City" (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  4. ^ "District Census Handbook, Indore" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Jabalpur district" (PDF). 2011 Census of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  7. ^ "Presentation on Towns and Urban Agglomerations". Census of India 2011. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  8. ^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  9. ^ a b "The History of Snooker". Titansports.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 December 2002. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  10. ^ Chibber, Nanditta (27 November 2018). "MP Trail: When two Britishers disagreed on the name of Jabalpur". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  11. ^ "Now, Indore to become Indur, Bhopal Bhojpal". The Times of India. 18 December 2006. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
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