Tripura State (Hill Tipperah)
Princely State of British Indian Empire
Flag of Tripura
Flag
Coat of arms of Tripura
Coat of arms
Bengalpresidency 1858.jpg

1858 map of the Bengal Presidency and 'Independent Tipperah' in the far right
CapitalAgartala
Area 
• 1941
10,660 km2 (4,120 sq mi)
Population 
• 1941
513,000
History
History 
1809
13 August 1947
15 October 1949
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twipra Kingdom
Dominion of India
'Hill Tipperah' in the Bengal Gazetteer, 1907
'Hill Tipperah' in the Bengal Gazetteer, 1907
Ujjayanta Palace.
Neermahal Palace.
Neermahal Palace.
Maharaja Bir Chandra Manikya with Queen Manamohini
Maharaja Bir Chandra Manikya with Queen Manamohini
Tagore with Maharaja Radha Kishore in 1900
Queen Kanchan Prabha Devi who signed the instrument of accession as president of the Council of Regency
Queen Kanchan Prabha Devi who signed the instrument of accession as president of the Council of Regency
Kingdom of Tripura
Part of History of Tripura
Maha Manikyac. 1400–1431
Dharma Manikya I1431–1462
Ratna Manikya I1462–1487
Pratap Manikya1487
Vijaya Manikya I1488
Mukut Manikya1489
Dhanya Manikya1490–1515
Dhwaja Manikya1515–1520
Deva Manikya1520–1530
Indra Manikya I1530–1532
Vijaya Manikya II1532–1563
Ananta Manikya1563–1567
Udai Manikya I1567–1573
Joy Manikya I1573–1577
Amar Manikya1577–1585
Rajdhar Manikya I1586–1600
Ishwar Manikya1600
Yashodhar Manikya1600–1623
Interregnum1623–1626
Kalyan Manikya1626–1660
Govinda Manikya1660–1661
Chhatra Manikya1661–1667
Govinda Manikya1661–1673
Rama Manikya1673–1685
Ratna Manikya II1685–1693
Narendra Manikya1693–1695
Ratna Manikya II1695–1712
Mahendra Manikya1712–1714
Dharma Manikya II1714–1725
Jagat Manikya1725–1729
Dharma Manikya II1729
Mukunda Manikya1729–1739
Joy Manikya IIc. 1739–1744
Indra Manikya IIc. 1744–1746
Udai Manikya IIc. 1744
Joy Manikya II1746
Vijaya Manikya III1746–1748
Lakshman Manikya1740s/1750s
Interregnum1750s–1760
Krishna Manikya1760–1783
Rajdhar Manikya II1785–1806
Rama Ganga Manikya1806–1809
Durga Manikya1809–1813
Rama Ganga Manikya1813–1826
Kashi Chandra Manikya1826–1829
Krishna Kishore Manikya1829–1849
Ishan Chandra Manikya1849–1862
Bir Chandra Manikya1862–1896
Birendra Kishore Manikya1909–1923
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya1947–1949
1949–1978 (titular)
Kirit Pradyot Manikya1978–present (titular)
Tripura monarchy data
Manikya dynasty (Royal family)
Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)
Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)
Neermahal (Royal residence)
Rajmala (Royal chronicle)
Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)
Chaturdasa Devata (Family deities)

Tripura State, also known as Hill Tipperah,[1] was a princely state in India during the period of the British Raj and for some two years after the departure of the British. Its rulers belonged to the Manikya dynasty and until August 1947 the state was in a subsidiary alliance, from which it was released by the Indian Independence Act 1947. The state acceded to the newly independent Indian Union on 13 August 1947, and subsequently merged into the Indian Union in October 1949.[2]

The princely state was located in the present-day Indian state of Tripura. The state included one town, Agartala, as well as a total of 1,463 villages. It had an area of 10,660 km2 and a population of 513,000 inhabitants in 1941.

History

See also: Twipra Kingdom

The predecessor state of Tripura was founded about 100 AD. According to legend the Manikya dynasty derived its name from a jewel ('Mani' in Sanskrit) that had been obtained from a frog. The first king who ruled the state under the royal title of Manikya was Maharaja Maha Manikya, who ascended the throne in 1400. The kingdom is mentioned in Ming Shilu as Di-wu-la. It is further stated that it was occupied by Da-Gu-la, a unidentified state in what is Northern Myanmar or Assam.[3] The Rajmala, a chronicle of the Kings of Tripura, was written in Bengali verse in the 15th century under Dharma Manikya I.[4] The kingdom of Tripura reached its maximum expansion in the 16th century.[citation needed]

In 1764, when the British East India Company took control of Bengal, the parts of Bengal that had been under the Mughal Empire were taken over by the British administration. In 1809, Tripura became a British protectorate, and in 1838 the Rajas of Tripura were recognised by the British as sovereigns.

Between 1826 and 1862 the eastern part was subject to the ravages caused by Kuki invaders that plundered and destroyed villages and massacred their inhabitants.

There were troubles in every succession among the Tripura royal family members when the aspiring princes often resorted to use the services of the Kukis to cause disturbances. Thus in 1904, the British enacted a sanad that regulated permanently the succession of the royal family. Thenceforward the succession would have to be recognised by the Viceroy of India representing the British Crown.

Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the foundation of the Agartala Municipal Corporation.

In 1905, Tripura became part of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam and was designated as 'Hill Tippera'.[5] In addition to the Hill Tippera area, which corresponds to Tripura State, the kings retained a fertile estate known as Chakla Roshnabad with an area of 1476 km2, located in the flatland of Noakhali, Sylhet and Tipperah districts; the latter is now mostly included in the Comilla District of Bangladesh.

King Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarma died in May 1947, shortly before Indian Independence. His son Kirit Bikram Kishore was a minor at that time, and, so, Maharani Kanchan Prava Devi presided over the Council of Regency formed to govern the state. On 13 August 1947, the Maharani signed the Instrument of Accession, joining the Indian Union. There was turmoil in the state in the succeeding months and several changes in the administrative structure took place in quick succession. Finally, on 9 September 1949, the Maharani signed the Merger Agreement with the Dominion of India, which became effective on 15 October, and Tripura became a centrally administered Part C State (Chief Commissioner's Province) of India.[2][6]

Kirit Pradyot Deb Barman (b. 1978) was the son of the last King - and is the current titular monarch.

Rulers

The head of the royal family of Tripura held the title of 'Maharaja' from 1919 onwards. Since 1897 the rulers were entitled to a 13 gun salute by the British authorities.[citation needed]

Rajas

See also: Kings of Tripura

Maharajas

Dewans (chief ministers)

British political agents

Symbols

Flag

The flag features the coat of arms, on a background of saffron and red.

Coat of Arms

The motto is "Bir ta Saramekam" (Courage is the one thing most needed or nothing is better than a warrior).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Tripura".
  2. ^ a b Nag, Sajal (2007), Making of the Indian Union: Merger of princely states and excluded areas, Akansha Pub. House, p. 321, ISBN 978-81-8370-110-5
  3. ^ "The MSL records that the territory of this polity was in the early 15th century occupied by Da Gu-la (Tai-zong 269.3a-b), which suggests an area near Assam, There seems little doubt that it refers to Tripura, which lies south of the Brahmaputra and north of Bengal"(Wade 1994:253)
  4. ^ Hill Tippera – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 13, p. 118.
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hill Tippera" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 469.
  6. ^ Das, J. K. (2001), Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples, APH Publishing, pp. 224–225, ISBN 978-81-7648-243-1

References

Coordinates: 23°50′N 91°17′E / 23.833°N 91.283°E / 23.833; 91.283