Mustard seed, yellow
Mustard.png
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,126 kJ (508 kcal)
28.09 g
Sugars6.79 g
Dietary fiber12.2 g
36.24 g
Saturated1.989 g
Monounsaturated22.518 g
Polyunsaturated10.088 g
26.08 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
2 μg
Thiamine (B1)
70%
0.805 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
22%
0.261 mg
Niacin (B3)
32%
4.733 mg
Vitamin B6
31%
0.397 mg
Folate (B9)
41%
162 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0 μg
Vitamin C
9%
7.1 mg
Vitamin E
34%
5.07 mg
Vitamin K
5%
5.4 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
27%
266 mg
Iron
71%
9.21 mg
Magnesium
104%
370 mg
Phosphorus
120%
841 mg
Potassium
18%
828 mg
Sodium
1%
13 mg
Zinc
64%
6.08 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water5.27 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 to 2 millimetres (0.039 to 0.079 in) in diameter and may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are an important spice in many regional foods and may come from one of three different plants: black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (B. juncea), or white/yellow mustard (B. hirta/Sinapis alba).

Grinding and mixing the seeds with water, vinegar or other liquids creates the yellow condiment known as prepared mustard.

Regional use

Mustard seeds are used as a spice in the Indian subcontinent. The seeds are usually fried until they pop. The leaves are also stir-fried and eaten as a vegetable. In Maharashtra, mustard oil is used for body massage during extreme winters, as it is thought to keep the body warm. In Bengali cuisine mustard oil or shorsher tel is the predominant cooking medium. Mustard seeds are also essential ingredients in spicy fish dishes like jhaal and paturi. A variety of Indian pickles consisting mainly of mangoes, red chili powder, and powdered mustard seed preserved in mustard oil are popular in southern India.

In North America, mustard seeds are used in spices and condiments.[1] Yellow mustard is popular in the United States and is often used as a condiment in sandwiches and other dishes. Mustard seeds are first ground into a powder and then mixed with other ingredients to create this condiment. Roughly 1,000 seeds are used in manufacturing just 8oz of mustard.[2]

Cultivation

Mustard seeds generally take eight to ten days to germinate if placed under the proper conditions, which include a cold atmosphere and relatively moist soil. Mature mustard plants grow into shrubs.

Yellow mustard has a plant maturity of 85 to 90 days; whereas, brown and oriental mustard have a plant maturity of 90 to 95 days. If the temperature conditions are conducive to growth, a mustard plant will begin to bud five weeks after the seedlings have appeared. The plant will reach full bloom 7 to 10 days later. Brown or oriental varieties of mustard tend to have higher yields compared to yellow mustard.[3] Seed yield is also related to the bloom period. In other words, the longer the bloom period, the greater the seed yield.[4]

Mustard grows well in temperate regions. Major producers of mustard seeds include India, Pakistan, Canada, Nepal, Hungary, Great Britain and the United States. Brown and black mustard seeds return higher yields than their yellow counterparts.[5]

In Pakistan, rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of oil, after cotton. It is cultivated over an area of 307,000 hectares with an annual production of 233,000 tonnes and contributes about 17% to the domestic production of edible oil.

Mustard seeds are a rich source of oil and protein. The seed has oil as high as 46-48%, and whole seed meal has 43.6% protein.

Production

Top 12 mustard seed producers in 2015
Country Production (tonnes) Footnote
 Pakistan 233,000
 India 200,000+
 Canada 154,500
   Nepal 142,920
 Myanmar 91,000 *
 Russia 54,682
 Ukraine 30,170
 China 17,000 F
 United States 16,660
 France 14,000 F
 Czech Republic 13,378
 Germany 10,500 F
World 571,880 A
* = Unofficial figure | [ ] = Official data | A = May include official, semi-official or estimated data
F = FAO estimate | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available
Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)[6]

In India, mustard seed is primarily produced in the Northwest region of the country, specifically Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Based on data collected from 2001 to 2015, roughly 48% of total production from the state of Rajasthan comes from the Bharatpur district.[7]

In North America, mustard is produced as a specialty crop. Majority of the production is found in upper Midwest United States and Canada. In 2020, the total production of mustard in the United States was 81.8 million pounds (37.1 kt).[8]

Other uses

Ground mustard seed meal is used as a natural soil amendment for soil borne disease management in other crops.[9]: 413–433 [10]

Diseases

Mustard seeds carry seed borne pathogens which affect germination rate, as any other seed.[11] Latif et al., 2006 isolate Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Rhizopus in Bangladesh.[11]: 78 

Religious significance

In the Bible, Jesus tells the Parable of the Mustard Seed referring to faith and the Kingdom of God. There, Jesus says, “The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which is the smallest of all seeds on earth. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds can perch in its shade."[12]

There are references to mustard seeds in India from a story of Gautama Buddha in the fifth century BC. Gautama Buddha told the story of the grieving mother (Kisa Gotami) and the mustard seed. When a mother loses her only son, she takes his body to the Buddha to find a cure. The Buddha asks her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a family that has never lost a child, husband, parent, or friend. When the mother is unable to find such a house in her village, she realizes death is common to all, and she cannot be selfish in her grief.[13][14] In Hinduism, the reference of a mustard seed is given in ancient texts called Upanishads to explain the duality of a person's self and the relationship of self with the universe.[15] It is stated that if an individual were to pick a single mustard seed every hundred years from a seven-mile cube worth of mustard seeds, then by the time the last seed is picked, the age of the world cycle would still continue. (If a mustard seed is 3 mm (0.12 in) in diameter, then taking one seed every 100 years from a seven-mile cube of seeds would take 936 quintillion years, 68 billion times the age of the universe.)[original research?]

Jewish texts compare the knowable universe to the size of a mustard seed to demonstrate the world's insignificance and to teach humility.[16] The Jewish philosopher Nachmanides mentions the universe expanded from the time of its creation, in which it was the size of a mustard seed.[17]

According to the Hadith, Muhammad said that he who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride would not enter Paradise.[18]

The mustard seed is mentioned in the Quran: "And We place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly at all. And if there is [even] the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it forth. And sufficient are We as accountant (21:47)" [19] and also "[And Luqman said], "O my son, indeed if wrong should be the weight of a mustard seed and should be within a rock or [anywhere] in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Indeed, Allah is Subtle and Acquainted (31:16)."

Mustard seed is mentioned several times in the writings of the Báb, where it signifies a thing of insignificance. In the Persian Bayán, he states: "There is no paradise, in the estimation of the believers in the Divine Unity, more exalted than to obey God’s commandments, and there is no fire in the eyes of those who have known God and His signs, fiercer than to transgress His laws and to oppress another soul, even to the extent of a mustard seed."[20] In one of his prayers, he makes mention of a tiny fraction of a mustard seed to signify the importance of the object in the statement: "All that I beg of Thee, O my God, is to enable me, ere my soul departeth from my body, to attain Thy good-pleasure, even were it granted to me for a moment tinier than the infinitesimal fraction of a mustard seed."[21] Several more mentions are made in other places.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mustard". hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  2. ^ "What Is Mustard Made Of? | Wonderopolis". www.wonderopolis.org. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  3. ^ "Tame Mustard Production — Publications". www.ag.ndsu.edu. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  4. ^ Wysocki, D (July 2002). "Edible Mustard" (PDF). Oregon State University Extension – via Oregon State University Extension.
  5. ^ "Pulses and Special Crops > Pulses and Special Crops > Producers". Agr.gc.ca. 20 March 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  6. ^ "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers - Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  7. ^ "Trends in Area, Production, and Yield of Mustard crop in Bharatpur Region of Rajasthan" (PDF). International Journal of Engineering Development and Research. 6. 2018.
  8. ^ "Mustard". www.agmrc.org. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  9. ^ Meghvansi, Mukesh K.; Varma, Ajit (2015). Organic Amendments and Soil Suppressiveness in Plant Disease Management. Cham, Switzerland. pp. xi–531. ISBN 978-3-319-23075-7. OCLC 928384780. ISBN 978-3-319-23074-0. ISBN 978-3-319-36379-0.
  10. ^ Rosskopf, Erin; Di Gioia, Francesco; Hong, Jason C.; Pisani, Cristina; Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy (25 August 2020). "Organic Amendments for Pathogen and Nematode Control". Annual Review of Phytopathology. Annual Reviews. 58 (1): 277–311. doi:10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035608. ISSN 0066-4286.
  11. ^ a b Singh Saharan, Govind; Mehta, Naresh; Meena, Prabhu Dayal (2016). Alternaria Diseases of Crucifers: Biology, Ecology and Disease Management. Singapore: Springer Singapore. pp. xxxvii+299. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-0021-8. ISBN 978-981-10-0019-5. ISBN 978-981-10-0021-8.
  12. ^ "Mark 4 - The Parable of the Sower". The Parable of the Sower. New International Version of the Bible. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  13. ^ Sharman, Shreshtha; Neeta Sharma. Together with English Language & Literature (Term II). p. 222. ISBN 9788181374653. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  14. ^ Buddhaghosa - Buddhist legends, Volume 28 (published 1921)
  15. ^ "Chandogya Upanishad".
  16. ^ Michaelson, Jay. "The meaning of God". Learnkabbalah.com.
  17. ^ Dr. Gerald Schroeder. "Your Life, Your Judaism". © 2011 Aish.com.
  18. ^ Muslim, Sahih. "The Forbiddance of Pride". The Only Quran. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  19. ^ "The Quranic Arabic Corpus - Translation". corpus.quran.com.
  20. ^ Báb. "Excerpts from the Persian Bayán". Selections from the Writings of the Báb. Bahá’í Reference Library.
  21. ^ Báb. "Prayers and Meditations". Selections from the Writings of the Báb. Bahá’í Reference Library.