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Cutlet "Valluna"

Colombian cuisine is a compound of the culinary traditions of the six main regions within Colombia (Pacific, Amazonian, Andean, Orinoco, Caribbean, and Insular). Colombian cuisine varies regionally and is particularly influenced by Indigenous Colombian, Spanish,[1] and African cuisines,[2] with slight Arab influence in some regions.[3] As one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, Colombia has one of the widest varieties of available ingredients depending on the region.

History of Colombian food

Colombian food is a unique blend of indigenous and European traditions with Afro-Caribbean influences. The two largest indigenous groups prior to European conquest were the Tairona, who lived along the Caribbean coast, and the Muisca, who lived in the highlands to the South.[4] Arepas, made from ground corn, are one of the oldest cooked dishes in Colombian cuisine. It is believed that the name derives from the word for corn in the Chibcha languages.[4] Arepas are a popular modern Colombian dish.

Regional cuisines

Ternera a la llanera (mamona)

Colombian dishes and ingredients vary widely by region. Some of the most common ingredients are cereals such as rice and maize; tubers such as potato and cassava; assorted legumes; meats, including beef, chicken, pork and goat; and fish and other seafood. Colombian cuisine also features a wide variety of tropical fruits such as uchuva, feijoa, arazá, nispero, pitaya, cherimoya, mamoncillo, guanabana, pineapple, mangostino, maracuya, zapote, granadilla, papaya, guava, mora (blackberry), and lulo, among many more.[5][6]

Bandeja paisa from Peñol de Guatapé in Antioquia, Colombia

Among the most representative appetizers and soups are patacones (fried green plantains), sancocho de gallina (chicken soup with root vegetables), ajiaco (potato and corn soup), and buñuelos (Christmas season deep fried dough balls).

Representative snacks and breads are pandebono, arepas (corn cakes), aborrajados (fried sweet plantains with cheese), torta de choclo, empanadas, almojábanas and mogollas.

Representative main courses are bandeja paisa, lechona tolimense, tamales, and fish dishes such as arroz de lisa, especially in coastal regions where suero, costeño cheese, kibbeh and carimañolas are also eaten.

Representative side dishes are papas criollas al horno (roasted Andean potatoes), papas chorreadas (potatoes with messy cheese), and arroz con coco (coconut rice). Organic food is a current trend in big cities, although in general the country's fruits and vegetables are very natural and fresh.[7]

Representative desserts are natillas, torta Maria Luisa, bocadillo made of guayaba (guava jelly), cocadas (coconut balls), casquitos de guayaba (candied guava peels), torta de natas, obleas, flan de arequipe, roscón, milhoja, brevas(preserved in syrup) con arequipe, and tres leches cake (sponge cake soaked in 3 types of milk).

Ají sauce from Bogotá, Colombia

Typical sauces are hogao, a tomato onion sauce, and ají, a spicy raw cilantro-based sauce used as a condiment for many dishes and sides and that can be used for most foods. Ají sauce comes in many different varieties based on region and ranges from a sweet flavor to very spicy, Ají picante ranges from 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville.

Some representative beverages are coffee (Tinto), champús, aromáticas, cholado, lulada, avena colombiana, sugarcane juice, aguapanela, chocolate caliente, and fresh fruit juices (often made with sugar and water or milk as batidos).[8]

There are a large variety of dishes that take into account the differences in regional climates. For example:

Piqueteaderos are rustic eateries that serve a variety of fried foods and specialties in platters to share. Offerings can even include huesos cerdos (pig bones) and tarta de seso (brain pie), as well as fried dishes, morcilla, corn on the cob, and other foods common to Colombia.

Dishes and foods

Appetizers and side dishes

Patacones and hogao
Name Image Description
Arepas ground maize dough divided into balls and pan-fried or grilled corn cakes
Aborrajado deep-fried plantains stuffed with cheese
Arroz con coco rice with coconut and raisins
Hormigas culonas large roasted ants, a santandereanas food from Colombia's Santander Department
Butifarras soledeñas sausage from Soledad, Atlántico
Carimañola yuca fritter stuffed with ground meat, onion and seasonings
Chunchullo pig, lamb, cow small intestine
Hogao Criollo sauce
Queso blanco white cheese also referred to as queso fresco
Suero a topping similar to sour cream
Patacones Green plantain fried or deep fried squished and fried
Empanadas small fritters, made with a mixture of shredded meat, pork, beef, or chicken'.
Chicharron deep fried pork rind.
Lentejas (lentil soup) a standard meal in many Colombian kitchens . The basic method is to soak the lentils for a few hours before adding chopped onion, garlic, and sometimes diced or grated carrots. It is then served with avocado, rice, tomato, and sweet plantain. [9]

Pastries and baked goods

Almojábana
Carimañola

Varieties of arepa

Arepas and chorizo on the grill
Arepa de huevo

Fruit

Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus)

Fruit and juice stands are found across Colombia, particularly on the Caribbean coast. Being a tropical country, Colombia produces a large variety of fruits, such as:

Native fruit

Lulo

Colombia is home to numerous tropical fruits that are rarely found elsewhere. Several varieties of banana include a very small, sweet version. Other Colombian fruits include zapote (Quararibea cordata), nispero (Manilkara zapota) lulo (Solanum quitoense), uchuva (Physalis peruviana), papayuela (Vasconcellea pubescens), passion fruit, borojó (Borojoa patinoi), curuba (Passiflora tarminiana), mamoncillo (Melicoccus bijugatus), guanábana (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), tomate de arbol (tamarillo), noni (Morinda citrifolia). More widespread fruit varieties grown in Colombia include mango, apple, pear, blackberry, and strawberry.

Main courses

Soups

Desserts and sweets

Milhoja
Tres leches cake

Beverages

Lulada[10]

On a per capita basis, Colombia is one of the world's largest consumers of fruit juices, consuming on average more than three quarters of a serving each day.[11]

Alcoholic beverages

See also

References

  1. ^ "Colombia". EveryCulture.com. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  2. ^ "The lasting influence of Colombia's African heritage". Colombia.co. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  3. ^ "A Cheat Sheet to Colombian Food". Eater. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
  4. ^ a b Foss, Richard (2011). "Colombia". In Albala, Ken (ed.). Food cultures of the world encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. pp. 75. ISBN 9781785394126. OCLC 915350255.
  5. ^ "Typical Colombian Food". Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  6. ^ "Colombian Food: Variety, Tradition and Nature Fruits". going2colombia.com. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  7. ^ "Colombian Food; A List of Traditional and Modern Colombian Recipes". southamericanfood.about.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  8. ^ "10 Colombian Drinks You Must Try Before You Leave". Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  9. ^ a b c "15 Traditional Coffee Zone Dishes | BnB Colombia Tours". 2021-05-27. Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  10. ^ Colombia Travel. "Jugos naturales" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  11. ^ Singh, Gitanjali M., et al. "Global, regional, and national consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, and milk: a systematic assessment of beverage intake in 187 countries." PLoS ONE 10.8 (2015): e0124845.
  12. ^ Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia, UNESCO, unesco.org
  13. ^ Erica Dinho (2009-02-17). "Fruit Cocktail (Salpicón De Frutas)". My Colombian Recipes. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
  14. ^ "Chicha". Colombia.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  15. ^ "Masato". Colombia.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  16. ^ "El refajo". www.semana.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  17. ^ "Colombian Drinks: Traditional, Popular, Unique, Tasty, and Crazy". The Unconventional Route. 2018-07-24. Archived from the original on 2018-08-25. Retrieved 2022-01-03.