Traditional Pohela Boishak meal with Illish
Prawn curry cooked with coconut milk
Bangladeshi version of Samosa
Fuchka is a popular street food.

Bangladeshi cuisine (Bengali: বাংলাদেশের রান্না) is the national cuisine of Bangladesh. Bangladeshi cuisine has been shaped by the diverse history and river-line geography of Bangladesh. The country has a tropical monsoon climate. The staple of Bangladesh is rice and fish.[1] The majority of Bangladeshi people are ethnic Bengali, who follow Bengali cuisine, with a minority of non-Bengalis with their own unique cuisine.[2][3][4] Bangladeshi food has more meat, especially beef, compared to West Bengal.[5][6]

History

Bangladeshi cuisine has over time been largely influenced by the Mughlai cuisine left behind by the Mughal rulers. This has led Bangladeshi cuisine to include many rich aromatic dishes such as biriyani and korma that require the use of a large array of spices along with an great deal of ghee. Dhaka being the Mughal capital of the Bengal Subah (which includes the modern Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal) was a major trading center in South Asia, so many culinary styles from around the world influenced the city's cuisine. After Dhaka became the capital of East Bengal, the Bangladeshi populace began to adopt the cuisine of the city with many unknown Persian, Turkish and Arabic-influenced dishes becoming popular.[7]

The food used to be spiced with black pepper and chui jhal before the arrival of green chili form the Americas.[8]

Bangaliketa (etiquette)

Bangladeshi people follow certain rules and regulations while eating. It includes warm hospitality and particular ways of serving as well. This is known as Bangaliketa (Bengali: বাঙালি কেতা). The culture also defines the way to invite people to weddings and for dinner. Gifts are given on certain occasions. Bangaliketa also includes presentation of serving utensils in a proper manner.[9][better source needed]

Culinary style and influences

Rice is the staple food of Bangladesh.[1] While fish is the most common source of protein in Bangladesh.[1] There are 250 plant based ingredient in Bangladeshi cooking.[1] The use of mustard oil is common.[5]

Specialties by region

Dhaka

Bakarkhani in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Bakarkhani in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Dhakaiya food is one of the most notable regional cuisines. The rich culinary customs are influenced by Mughlai, Central Asian, Armenian, Hindustani and native Bengali cuisines. However, it also has dishes unique to Dhaka.[10] The Nawabs of Dhaka had brought Mughlai cuisine to Bengal, that were wholly retained by Dhaka's culinary community. Due to the high costs of producing Mughlai food, the recipes were limited to the elite classes in colonial India, and slowly expanded as Bangladesh's economy grew. The main focus on lamb, mutton, beef, yoghurt, and mild spices define the taste of the style. Such dishes as kebab; stuffed breads; kacchi biriyani; roast lamb, duck, and chicken; patisapta; Kashmiri tea; and korma are still served at special occasions like Eid and weddings.[11][12] Due to the high class of the food, using an excess amount of expensive ingredients like ghee, and making the food melt in one's mouth were essential to the feel of the food.[13]

Chowk Bazaar was one of the most famous business and social meeting centres of Dhaka in the Mughal period. During Ramadan Chowk Bazaar is famous for its Iftar items which include Moghul cuisine and other traditional items. Almost 500 different types of Iftar are prepared for Holy Ramadan.[14][15][16] Dhakaiya paratha, a multi layered version, is popular in Dhaka and taken in Kolkata by refugees after the partition.[17]

Plate of Haji Biriyani
Plate of Haji Biriyani

Haji Biriyani (also known as Hajir biriyani) is the Chevon biryani dish made with highly seasoned rice and goat's meat. The recipe includes highly seasoned rice, chevon, mustard oil, garlic, onion, black pepper, saffron, clove, cardamom, cinnamon, salt, lemon, doi (yogurt), peanuts, cream, raisin and small amount of cheese (either cow or buffalo). The recipe has been handed over the founder of the restaurant to his next generation.[18]

Bakarkhani or BaqarKhani, also known as bakar khani roti, is a thick, spiced flat-bread that is part of the Mughlai cuisine of the Indian subcontinent. Dhakai Bakarkhani, the traditional food/snack of the people of old Dhaka is famous for its quality and taste. Bakarkhani is mainly dished up with tea.[19][20]

Morog pulao, is a special dish of chicken cooked with aromatic rice.[21][22] This type of pulao is a signature dish of Dhakaiya cuisine.[23]

Traditional meal: mustard seed Ilish curry, Dhakai biryani and pitha
Traditional meal: mustard seed Ilish curry, Dhakai biryani and pitha

Chittagong Division

The Chittagong region is famous for spicy and hot curries – mainly of beef.[24] Mejbani Gosht is very popular and famous. Mezban is a Persian word literally meaning a host.[25] The word now means 'community feasting', a tradition that originated in Dhaka region. Mezban (locally known as Mejjan) is the Bengali word for special occasion feasts in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh.[26] Historically Mezbani is a traditional regional feast where people are invited to enjoy a meal with white rice and beef, besides other dishes rich in animal fat and dairy.[27] It is held on the occasions such as death anniversary, birth anniversary, celebrating successes, launching of a new business, entry into a new house, the birth of a child, marriage, aqiqah and circumcision, ear piercing of girls and naming of the newborn.[26][27] The invitation of the Mezban ceremony generally remains open for all and various people to different places and neighbourhoods convey the invitation for the feast. In urban areas, attending a mezban is by invitation only. Usually, the consumption of food at Mezbani takes place from morning to afternoon.[26]

Mezban preparations
Mezban preparations

Beef-based dishes are preferred by Bengali Muslims and are a symbol of social prestige for a Mezban feast.[27] The rich and the poor arrange feasts on various occasions as much as circumstances allow them. It has a distinct style of cooking and proper Mezban meat demands a certain skill;[27] for example: The unique beef curry served in this feast is known as Mezbani gosht, that carries a distinctive recipe, knowledge of which is essentially confined within the Chittagonian cooks.[28][26]

Fish is used instead of beef while cooking Mezban in Hindu tradition. The Hindu community of Chittagong organises Mezbani each year under the banner of "Chittagong Parishad", with curries made from fish, vegetable and dried fish.[26]

Blackened Beef/kala bhuna is one of the famous beef recipe from the Chittagong in Bangladesh.[29] The specialty of the recipe is its spices and the blacken beef.[29][30] Beef shoulder pieces are cooked with traditional spices till become dark and tender.[31] Kala buna and mejbani mangsho preparations are signature dishes of the port city Chittagong.[32]

Among other dishes, durus kura or duroos is a popular chicken dish. A whole chicken is cooked in thick broth & then served with rice-based dishes like polao, khichuri.

Akhni, also commonly known as Orosher Biriyani is a biriyani variant made with chinigura rice (an aromatic, short-grained rice). It contains beef/chevon cut in small cubes, potatoes, raisins, dried apricots etc.

Chittagong being a coastal region is also known for its marine fish.[33] Rupchanda (silver pomfret) fish and Loita (Bombay duck) fish are two of the most well known fish in the region.[33] Loita is often sold and consumed as dry fish, shutki.[33] Churi fish (Ribbon fish) is often consumed as dry fish cooked with chili and onions.[33] Koral fish/bhetki (Barramundi) is a popuar type of fish found in the Bay of Bengal and consumed in the coastal regions.[33][34] Giant tiger prawn is also consumed in the coast regions of Bangladesh.[33]

Chittagong Hill Tracts

The Chittagong Hill Tracts are home to various non-Bengali tribes who have their own culture and cuisine.[35][36] Chakma cuisine uses sidol, a paste made from fermented shrimps' and fish, and suguni, dry shrimp or fish, in their cooking.[37] Their dishes use more fresh herbs from the hills than spices which are more common in Bengali dishes.[37] Flowers from ginger and turmeric plants and wild mushrooms are important seasonal ingredients.[37] Sumoh gorang is cooking a dish in bamboo and Hebaang is cooking a dish covered in banana leaf in a mud oven.[37] The Marma cuisine uses a dry fish paste called nappi.[4] Rice beer is popular drink.[4]

Tribal food in Chittagong hill tracts
Tribal food in Chittagong hill tracts

Greater Mymensingh

Mymensigh cuisine is different from rest of Bangladesh in its preference for spicy food.[38] Muri (puffed rice) or Chira (flattened rice) is also used consumed with Doi.[38]

Monda ,also known as Muktagachhar monda, is a traditional sweetmeat. The sweet, first made in 1824 by Gopal Pal in Muktagacha Upazila,[39][40] is reputed in Bangladesh for its originality, taste and flavor.[39][41] Gopal was originally from Murshidabad but moved to Rajshahi and from there to Muktagacha after the death of the Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah.[41]

The Garo people are an ethnic and religious minority in Mymensingh region with their own unique culture and cuisine.[3][42] Their cuisine is notable for the use of pork, eel, and turtle meat.[3] Garo also produce home brewed liquor.[3] Cooking using soda and in bamboo is a traditional practice.[43]

Northern Bangladesh

In Northern Bangladesh, there were numerous dairy farms which produced doi or yougurt.[44] The farmers of the region made their doi with reduced milk which made it taste more like kheer compared to doi from other regions.[44] Biral Upazila is well known for large Koi fish.[44] koi fish paturi is where the fish is cooked in banana leaf.[45]

In Bangladesh the most famous variation of Mishti Doi is in Bogra.[46] Bogurar Doi was invented by Ghetu Ghosh of Sherpur in Bogra District and Gaur Gopal Ghosh invented the creamed version.[47][48][49] The Gosh family continue to make the curd in Bogra District.[50] Doi is also used to cook fish in Northern Bangladesh such as Catla fish.[44]

Bograr Doi (curd)
Bograr Doi (curd)

The Rangpur region has a beef dish cooked with pumpkin.[30]

Santal live in the Rajshahi region and are non-Bengali ethnic minority.[51] They eat crab, pork, squirrel, and fish.[51] Santals also use less spices in their cooking.[52] They produce an alcoholic drink from rice called hadia.[51] They also make liquor using palm tree resin which is also used for ritual ceremonies.[51]

Southern Bangladesh

Piper chaba[53] is called চুই ঝাল (Chui jhal) or চই ঝাল (Choi Jhal) in the South Bengal region of Bangladesh.[29][54] People in Bangladesh's south-western districts like Khulna, Jessore, Bagerhat, Satkhira and Narail cut down the stem, roots, peel the skin and chop it into small pieces - and cook them with meat and fish, especially with mutton.[55] It is a relatively expensive spice in Bangladesh, and the roots are usually more expensive than the stems because of their stronger aroma. The taste is similar to horseradish. It was use to make a dish hot before chili was imported from the Americas in the 16th century.[8]

Barisal, a coastal region, uses coconut in cooking.[56]

Sylhet Division

Seven colour tea
Seven colour tea

Shatkora: In Bangladesh, the thick fleshy rind of the Citrus macroptera, known as shatkora, is eaten as a vegetable.[57] It has a unique taste and aroma.[58] The thick rind is cut into small pieces and cooked (either green or ripe) in beef, mutton, and fish curries.[32][59] Curries cooked with shatkora and beef or mutton is now served in many Bangladeshi/Indian restaurants in the UK.[60][61] A beef shatkora dish cooked by local chefs in Sylhet, Bangladesh (where the shatkora originates from) is featured in the British celebrity chef Rick Stein's cookery programme Rick Stein's Far Eastern Odyssey (Episode 6), which was broadcast by the BBC on 20 August 2009.[62]

Seven-colour tea or seven-layer tea is a well-known hot beverage in Bangladesh.[63][64] Romesh Ram Gour invented the seven-layer tea after discovering that different tea leaves have different densities.[65][64] Each layer contrasts in colour and distinct taste, from syrupy sweet to spicy cloves. The result is an alternating dark/light band pattern throughout the drink giving the tea its name.

Biroin Bhat is one type of glutinous rice popular in Sylhet region. There is a special type of red-and-white sticky aromatic Biroin Rice is found only in the Sylhet region.[66] This aromatic biroin chaul is cooked and eaten with fried fish, meat or kebab, khirshah rasmalai, date molasses etc.[67][68] Biroin Chal is an organic rice cultivated in the highland of Sylhet and Chottogram.[69] It is the main ingredients for Chunga Pitha, a traditional rice cake in the Sylhet region.[70]

Hutki,: Different types of fish curries is available in Sylheti cuisine. Fish is eaten both curry and fried. Dried and fermented fish called Hutki, and Hatkora, a bitter and fragrant citrus fruit are used for cooking curries. Even the extremely hot Naga Morich is used with broths.[71] The most savored local cuisines include Hidol or fermented fish chutney, Hutki Shira or dried fish curry, and various freshwater fish indigenous to this region.[72][73] It is thought by the locals that excessive spicy hotness of Hidol Chutney is a remedy for colds and headaches.[74]

Bangladesh-British restaurants

In the early 20th century sailors from Sylhet, known as Lascars, settled in England and from there spread to the rest of the country.[75] The bought fish and chip restaurants and developed them into full service Indian restaurants.[75] The cuisine was based on already established Anglo-Indian restaurants and Mughal Cuisine.[75] The restaurants were initially identified as either Indian or Pakistani restaurants.[75] There are 8000 "Indian restaurants" in Britain owned by Bangladeshis.[32]

n the United Kingdom, more than 8 out of 10 Indian restaurants are owned by Bangladeshis,[76] 95% of which come from Sylhet.[77] Sylhet is not known for its cuisine, though 80% to 90% British curry-house trace their roots directly to Sylhet.[78][79] Chefs from Sylhet region developed the British curry to a greater extent since the 1960s.[80] Chicken tikka masala, invented by the Sylhetis is regarded as Britain's National dish since 2001, by Britain's foreign secretary Robin Cook.[81][82] The birthday celebration of the British Prime Minister Tony Blair's daughter at a Bangladeshi restaurant proves the popularity of Sylheti cuisine.[83] Historian Lizzie Collingham, in her 2005 book Curry: A Biography, coined that the Sylheti curry cooks converted “unadventurous British palates” to a new flavour spectrum.[84]

Sweets

Various tradition Bengali sweets
Various tradition Bengali sweets

Amriti

Amriti is a type of sweet made using deep fried flower soaked in sugary syrup.[85] It is popular Dhaka and Tangail District.[86][87]

Chomchom

Chomchom, cham cham, or chum chum (Bengali: চমচম) is a traditional Bengali sweet originated from Porabari, Tangail, Bangladesh.[88][89] It is a very popular dessert in Bangladesh and India. The sweet is oval and brownish. Nirmol’s chomchom, sold at Nirmol Mistanno Bhandar established in 1953, is popular in Rajbari District.[90]

Boondi

Boondi is popular during Ramadan.[91]

Balish Mishti

Balish Mishti (lit. pillow sweet), called because of its pillow-like shape and huge size, has a history of almost hundred years in Natore District.[92]

Jilapi

Jilapi is pretzel typed fried item dipped in sugar syrup.[93] Shahi jilapi is originally from Chowkbazar of Old Dhaka.[94]

Kachagolla

Kachagolla is a type of sweet from Natore District in the Rajshahi Division.[95] According to legend this item was made by Modhusudan Das for Rani Bhabani.[95] Though it is called golla (means small ball in native Bengali languages) but it has no common shape like other sweetmeat items.[96] It is made of raw (kahca) chhena or paneer (which is made by curdling the milk and separating the whey from it) and sugar.[95]

Dessert made with the fruit of Palmyra palm
Dessert made with the fruit of Palmyra palm

Ledikeni

Ledikeni (Bengali: লেডিকেনি) is a type of sweet consumed in Bangladesh. It is a light fried reddish-brown sweet ball made of Chhena and flour, soaked in sugar syrup originating in the 19th century.[97] Ledikeni is named after Lady Canning, the wife of Charles Canning, the Governor General of India during 1856–62.[98][99]

Pantua

Pantua is the Bengali version of gulab jamun.[100]

Rasmalai

Ras malai or rossomalai is a dessert originating from the Indian subcontinent. Ras malai consists of sugary white cream, or yellow-coloured (flattened) balls of chhana soaked in malai (clotted cream) flavoured with cardamom. Rasmalai of Comilla created by "Matree Bhandar" is the best and oldest in Bangladesh. It is very popular sweet all over the country.[101][102]

Taal

The fruit of Palmyra palm is called taal and it is used to make a variety of desserts.[103] Taler malpua and laddu are popular items.[103]

Beverages

Alcoholic

Hunter Beer brewed in Bangladesh
Hunter Beer brewed in Bangladesh

Non-Alcoholic

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Food Product - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  2. ^ Roy, Pinaki; Deshwara, Mintu (9 August 2022). "Ethnic population in 2022 census: Real picture not reflected". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d "Garo, The - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  4. ^ a b c "Marma, The - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  5. ^ a b Pearce, Melissa (10 July 2013). "Defining Bengali Cuisine: The Culinary Differences of West Bengal and Bangladesh". Culture Trip. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  6. ^ Banerjee, Soity (25 November 2016). "The other Bengal". mint. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  7. ^ "Bangladesh cuisine part I - delectable and diverse". The Daily Star. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  8. ^ a b Sen, Pritha (25 August 2017). "Choi: The forgotten fire in Indian food". mint. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  9. ^ "Country Guides & Profiles - Business - Kwintessential UK".
  10. ^ Ray, Utsa (5 January 2015). Culinary Culture in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 210–215.
  11. ^ "Historical Sketch | Bengal Cuisine". bengalcuisine.in. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  12. ^ "The Nawabs of Dhaka And Their Regal Cuisine". KIXP. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  13. ^ Anand, Shilpa Nair (7 May 2018). "Food of the Nawabs". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Eyewitness: Chak Bazar iftar market in old Dhaka". The Guardian.
  15. ^ Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (2016). BANGLADESH 2017 Petit Futé. Petit Futé. pp. 133–. ISBN 979-10-331-4296-6.
  16. ^ "Dhaka Chawk Bazar Meetup". 1 June 2017.
  17. ^ Service, Tribune News. "Undivided Kitchens: Refugees brought back techniques and dishes left behind during Partition". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  18. ^ Mydans, Seth (8 July 1987). "For a secret stew recipe, time is running out". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  19. ^ "Old Dhaka Bakarkhani – A Legendary Bread". 19 October 2013.
  20. ^ "Bakarkhani: delight in every bite". Daily Sun. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  21. ^ "Jhunu Polao Ghor: Serving aromatic 'morog polao' for 51 years". The Business Standard. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  22. ^ Mahmud, Faisal. "Heritage, history, and Dhakaiya food in Bangladesh". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  23. ^ সংবাদদাতা, নিজস্ব. "Recipe | Bangladeshi Recipe: শীতকালে পোলাও খেতে মন চাইছে? বানিয়ে নিন ওপার বাংলার বিখ্যাত মোরগ পোলাও". www.anandabazar.com (in Bengali). Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  24. ^ [1][dead link]
  25. ^ "MAJESTIC MEZBAN". 11 October 2013.
  26. ^ a b c d e Ahmad Mamtaz (2012). "Mezban". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
  27. ^ a b c d Fayeka Zabeen Siddiqua (10 October 2013). "Majestic Mezban". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  28. ^ "Palate from the port". The Daily Star. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  29. ^ a b c "Famous regional dishes at Utshob offer authentic tastes of Bangladeshi cuisine". The Business Standard. 15 October 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  30. ^ a b Ranjana, Shahana Huda (4 July 2022). "Make simple but traditional beef dishes this Eid". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  31. ^ "How to make Kalabhuna". The Business Standard. 10 July 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  32. ^ a b c Akbar, Ahsan (21 March 2021). "From kala bhuna to shatkora curry – let's all get a taste for Bangladesh". the Guardian. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  33. ^ a b c d e f "Coastal cuisines of Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  34. ^ "Coastal Food of Bangladesh (Part 1)". Dhaka Tribune. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  35. ^ "Chittagong Hill Tracts - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  36. ^ Khaing, Myat Moe (9 August 2022). "Navigating a world without Indigenous representation". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  37. ^ a b c d Lena, Chiangmi Talukder (16 February 2021). "Flavours from the hills". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  38. ^ a b "Top 4 Reasons Why I Love Mymensingh - Bproperty". A blog about homes, trends, tips & life | Bproperty. 23 March 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  39. ^ a b "Sweetmeat Monda: A rich tradition". The Daily Star. 8 July 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  40. ^ "Six sweetmeats which branding Bangladesh". Daily Sun. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  41. ^ a b Express, The Financial. "The interesting history behind sweetmeat 'Monda'". The Financial Express. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  42. ^ AsiaNews.it. "Mymensingh bids farewell to Fr Rabanal who taught the Garo how to grow rice". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  43. ^ "Indigenous Cuisines – Meghalaya Tourism". Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  44. ^ a b c d "Delicious Cuisine of Northern Bangladesh – Part III". Dhaka Tribune. 13 May 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  45. ^ "Delicious Cuisine Northern Bangladesh - Part I". Dhaka Tribune. 29 April 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  46. ^ Hossain, Md. Rakib (14 August 2014). "Yogurt of Bogra (Bograr Doi)".
  47. ^ "বগুড়ার দই কেন এত বিখ্যাত". Dhaka Tribune (in Bengali). 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  48. ^ "গৌর গোপালের বগুড়ার দই". risingbd.com (in Bengali). 13 April 2016. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  49. ^ Shafiq, Saleh (29 January 2022). "বগুড়ার দই: ইংল্যান্ডের রানীও খেয়েছেন!". The Business Standard (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  50. ^ "যেভাবে এলো বগুড়ার দই". দৈনিক ইত্তেফাক (in Bengali). Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  51. ^ a b c d "Santals, The - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  52. ^ E-disom, bySanthal. "Santali Food : A taste of Nature by Santals". www.santhaledisom.com. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  53. ^ Roy, S. Dilip (16 November 2021). "Piper chaba bringing extra earnings for farmers in north". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  54. ^ Express, The Financial. "2 game changers in regular meat curry". The Financial Express. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  55. ^ Correspondent, Staff. "Chui Jhal, the special spice of southern Bangladesh". Prothomalo. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  56. ^ "The 'chalk and cheese' cuisine of East and West Bengal". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  57. ^ Chowdhury, Dwoha (9 September 2022). "Sylhet's citrus getting popular at home and abroad". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  58. ^ Kabir, Ihtisham (5 July 2014). "Citrus Story". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  59. ^ "Sylhet's Shatkora ranks high in cooking flavourful dishes". Dhaka Tribune. 29 December 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  60. ^ "Head chef of Northampton restaurant takes home East Midlands 'Chef of the Year' award". www.northamptonchron.co.uk. 1 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  61. ^ "Popular Indian restaurant reveals secret to 43 years of success in Shoebury". Echo. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  62. ^ "BBC Two - Rick Stein's Far Eastern Odyssey, Episode 6". BBC. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  63. ^ সিলেটের সাতরঙা চা এর রহস্য ভেদ, জানুন তৈরির নিয়ম. The Daily Prothom Alo (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  64. ^ a b "Making rainbows in a glass – seven-layer tea in Bangladesh". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  65. ^ "One Glass, Seven Layers of Tea - Scene Asia". Wall Street Journal Blog. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  66. ^ সিলেটী বিরইন চালের ইতিহাস. jalalabadbarta.com (in Bengali). 26 April 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  67. ^ চুঙ্গা পিঠা : বাঁশ দিয়ে প্রাতঃরাশ. Sylheter Dak (in Bengali). 26 April 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  68. ^ "Cooking could be interesting!". The Daily Star. 26 April 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
  69. ^ "Biroin Chal (Binni)". bangladeshiweus.com. 9 December 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  70. ^ বাংলার ঐতিহ্যবাহী পিঠা. Sylheter Dak (in Bengali). 2 January 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  71. ^ "The 6 Seasons of Bangladeshi Cuisine". Great British Chefs. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  72. ^ "The Beckoning Beauty of Barak". BIT MESRAr. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  73. ^ "The fiery flavours of East Bengal's dried and fermented fish are all the notes of life". The Indian Express. 23 December 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  74. ^ "Shidol Chutney". Atlas Obscura. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  75. ^ a b c d Colás, Alejandro; Edwards, Jason; Levi, Jane; Zubaida, Sami (2018). Food, Politics, and Society: Social Theory and the Modern Food System (1 ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-29195-9.
  76. ^ "BBC World Service". London: BBC World. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  77. ^ "From Bangladesh to Brick Lane". The Guardian. 21 June 2002. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  78. ^ "The great British curry crisis". Financial Times. 8 January 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  79. ^ "What's The Difference Between A Curry House And An Indian Restaurant?". npr.org. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  80. ^ "British taste for curry has changed, but appetite remains strong". Al Jazeera. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  81. ^ Mason, Laura (2004). Food Culture in Great Britain. Laura Mason. p. 164. ISBN 9780313327988. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  82. ^ "The British Curry". www.historic-uk.com. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  83. ^ "Bangladeshis: Moving with the times". The Daily Star. June 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  84. ^ "Who killed the great British curry house?". The Guardian. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  85. ^ "Make Amriti at home". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  86. ^ Habib, Ahsan. "Sweets: A must have on Eid". The Daily Star. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  87. ^ Shakil, Mirza (4 October 2013). "The falling business". The Daily Star. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  88. ^ "Porabarir Chomchom goes international, puts Tangail on the map". Dhaka Tribune. 19 December 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  89. ^ "Tracing the history of Bengal's famous sweet Chom Chom!". Get Bengal. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  90. ^ "Vadu Saha: The 60-year-old sweet maker deeply intertwined with the history of Rajbari". The Business Standard. 2 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  91. ^ Parvin, Salina (20 April 2021). "Iftar recipes using sunflower oil". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  92. ^ "Top Ten Famous Sweets of Bangladesh". #Foodiez. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  93. ^ Express, The Financial. "Jalebi's zigzag journey to modern day fusions". The Financial Express. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  94. ^ "মচমচে জিলাপির কদরই আলাদা". www.jugantor.com. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  95. ^ a b c "Natore's Kachagolla, a taste fit for royalties". Dhaka Tribune. 21 December 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  96. ^ "Indian Cooking Tips: How To Make Kachagolla, The Softest Bengali Sweet (Recipe Inside)". NDTV Food. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  97. ^ Krondl, Michael; Rath, Eric; Mason, Laura; Quinzio, Geraldine; Heinzelmann, Ursula (1 April 2015). The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199313624. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  98. ^ Krondl, Michael (2011). Sweet Invention: A History of Dessert. Chicago Review Press. pp. 67–70. ISBN 9781556529542. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  99. ^ Bose, Shib Chunder (1883). The Hindoos as they are: A description of the manners, customs, and inner life of Hindoo Society in Bengal (2 ed.). Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co. p. 51.
  100. ^ Roy, Madhushree Basu (25 October 2019). "Pantua- The Bengali Gulab Jamun but it's Different". Pikturenama. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  101. ^ "- Rasmalai in Matri Bhandar". offroadbangladesh.com.
  102. ^ "Succulent Rasmalai of Comilla". Daily Sun. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  103. ^ a b Parvin, Salina (12 September 2022). "Palm Fruit recipes: 6 ways to enjoy taal". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  104. ^ a b c d "Bangladesh booze makers toast new liquor laws". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  105. ^ "Carew and Co mulling introduction of beer". www.dhakatribune.com. 29 December 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  106. ^ Dhruba, Golam Mujtaba. "Carew ramps up alcohol production. Not enough, sellers say". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  107. ^ "Tribal Culture - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  108. ^ "Bangladesh cuisine part 2-- delectable and diverse". The Daily Star. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  109. ^ Jyoti Prakash, Tamang (2016). Ethnic Fermented Foods and Alcoholic Beverages of Asia. Springer. pp. 77–89. ISBN 9788132228004.
  110. ^ "Mint and herbs help bring solvency". The Daily Star. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  111. ^ "10 Dishes From South Asia That You Must Try at Least Once". India.com. 6 June 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  112. ^ Clark, Melissa (16 May 2014). "Yogurt Drinks, Not Too Smooth". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  113. ^ "Review: Nobanno's new outpost brings Bengali flavours westside". Stuff. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  114. ^ "Local Knowledge: Haji's Biryani House". Broadsheet. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  115. ^ Parvin, Salina (22 September 2020). "The versatile palm juice". The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  116. ^ Mashal, Mujib (7 July 2021). "Across Borders and Divides, One 'Heavenly' Refresher Cools Summer Heat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  117. ^ a b Topu, Ahmed Humayun Kabir (12 September 2022). "Solop buttermilk, a brand in and of itself". The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  118. ^ The Indian Journal of Medical Research. Indian Research Fund Association. 1938.
  119. ^ Express, The Financial. "Making lassi at home is easier than you thought". The Financial Express. Retrieved 4 November 2022.