This is a list of rulers of Bengal. For much of its history, Bengal was split up into several independent kingdoms, completely unifying only several times. In ancient times, Bengal consisted of the kingdoms of Pundra, Suhma, Vanga, Samatata and Harikela.

In the 4th century BCE, during the reign of the Nanda Empire, the powerful rulers of Gangaridai sent their forces with the war elephants which led the withdrawal of Alexander the Great from the Indian subcontinent.[1]

As a province of the Mauryan Empire, much of Bengal was part of it except for the far eastern Bengali kingdoms which maintained friendly relationships with Ashoka. The kingdoms of Bengal continued to exist as tributary states before succumbing to the Guptas. With the fall of the Gupta Empire, Bengal was united under a single local ruler, King Shashanka, for the first time. With the collapse of his kingdom, Bengal split up into petty kingdoms once more.

With the rise of Gopala in 750 AD, Bengal was united once more under the Hindu Buddhist Pala Empire until the 12th century than being succeeded by the Hindu Chandra dynasty, Sena dynasty and deva dynasty. After them, Bengal was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of kingdoms such as Chandradwip and Cooch Behar.

In the early 13th century, Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji conquered Western and part of Northern Bengal,[2] and established the first Muslim kingdom in Bengal.[3] The Islamic Mamluk Sultanate, the Khalji dynasty, the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and the Lodi dynasty ruled Bengal for over 320 years.[4] Notable was Malik Altunia's reign with his wife Razia Sultana, the only female sovereign ruler.

Following Delhi Sultanate's reign, the Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world,[5] was founded by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, and ruled by the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, succeeded by the Hussain Shahi dynasty founded by Alauddin Husain Shah, which saw the extension of the sultanate to the port of Chittagong, witnessing the arrival of the earliest Portuguese merchants.

After being absorbed to the Bengal Subah by Babur in the 16th century during the defeat of Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah in the Battle of Ghaghra, Bengal became the most economically advanced region in the world,[6][7][8] and started to be ruled by the Subahdars of the Mughal Empire. Emperor Akbar began to preach the newly invented religion of Din-i Ilahi, which was declared by the Qadi of Bengal to be a blasphemy. Islam Khan I declared Dhaka as the capital of Bengal, which was then known as Jahangir Nagar, renamed after emperor Jahangir. The reign of prince Shah Shuja under emperor Shah Jahan's orders represented the height of Mughal architecture. During the period of proto-industrialization, when Bengal was ruled by emperor Aurangzeb's relatives such as Subedar Shaista Khan, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Azim-ush-Shan, the region was fully ruled through Fatwa Alamgiri, a hybrid body of Hanafi law based on sharia and was controversially described as the Paradise of the Nations.[9]

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad ruled over Bengal and Odisha. Nawab Alivardi Khan came victorious against the Maratha Empire in the Battle of Burdwan. Following the Battle of Plassey and the execution of Siraj ud-Daulah, the East India Company formally established control over Bengal, and the Bengal Presidency was established by Robert Clive, with the subdivision remaining the economic, cultural and educational hub of the Company and the Raj.

The position of the Prime Minister of Bengal was established in 1937, being held by A. K. Fazlul Huq and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. After the Indian independence movement and Partition of Bengal (1947), the West Bengal became a major state of the Republic of India, while the Muslim majority East Bengal became known as East Pakistan. In 1971 East Bengal became an independent nation, Bangladesh, following the Bangladesh Liberation War, governed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Ziaur Rahman and Hussain Muhammad Ershad.

Ancient Bengal

Main article: History of Bengal

Ancient Geopolitical divisions

Ancient Political Divisions
Ancient Political Divisions
Ancient region Modern region
Pundravardhana Rajshahi Division and Rangpur Division in Bangladesh; Malda division of West Bengal in India
Vanga Khulna Division and Barisal Division in Bangladesh; Presidency division and Medinipur division of West Bengal in India
Tirabhukti Mithila area of India and Nepal
Suhma Burdwan division, Medinipur division and Presidency division of West Bengal in India
Rarh Location unclear; probable location in West Bengal of India
Samatata Dhaka Division, Barisal Division and Chittagong Division in Bangladesh
Harikela Sylhet Division, Chittagong Division, Dhaka Division and Barisal Division in Bangladesh
Pragjyotisa Karimganj district of Barak Valley region of Assam in India; Sylhet Division and Dhaka Division in Bangladesh

The founders of Angas, Vangas, Kalingas, Pundras, Odras and Suhmas shared a common ancestry. They were all adopted sons of a king named Bali, born by a sage named Gautama Dirghatamas, who lived in Magadha close to the city of Girivraja.[10]

Bengal from c. 1100 to c. 600 BCE
Bengal and kingdoms in Late Vedic Period c. 1100–600 BCE
Bengal and kingdoms in Late Vedic Period c. 1100–600 BCE
Bengal from c. 600 to c. 350 BCE
Bengal and kingdoms in Mahajanapada Period c. 600–350 BCE
Bengal and kingdoms in Mahajanapada Period c. 600–350 BCE
Bengal in c. 350 BCE
Firstly entire Bengal conquered by Mahapadma Nanda in 350 BCE
Firstly entire Bengal conquered by Mahapadma Nanda in 350 BCE

Anga kingdom (c. 1100 – 530 BCE)

Main article: Anga

See also: Magadha-Anga war

The earliest mention occurs in the Atharvaveda (V.22.14) where they are listed alongside the Magadhas, Gandharis and the Mujavatas.[11] Anga was annexed by Magadha in the time of Bimbisara. This was the one and only conquest of Bimbisara.[12]

Known Anga rulers are-

Vanga kingdom (c. 1100 – 340 BCE)

Main article: Vanga Kingdom

Vanga was an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta. It was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southwestern Bangladesh and southern West Bengal (India).[13]

Known Vanga rulers are:

Pundra kingdom (c. 1100 – 340 BCE)

Main article: Pundravardhana

Pundravardhana or Pundra Kingdom, was an ancient kingdom, that included parts of present-day Rajshahi and Rangpur Divisions of Bangladesh as well as the West Dinajpur district of West Bengal in India.[14][15]

Known Pundra rulers are:

Suhma kingdom (c. 1100 – 340 BCE)

Main article: Suhma Kingdom

Suhma Kingdom was an ancient state during the Vedic period on the eastern part of the Bengal.This kingdom was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata along with its neighbouring kingdom Prasuhma.[16]

Videha dynasty of Mithila (Tirabhukti) (c. 1100 – 700 BCE)

Main articles: Videha and Mithila (region)

See also: History of Mithila Region

Tirabhukti or Mithila region is bounded by the Mahananda River in the east, the Ganges in the south, the Gandaki River in the west and by the foothills of the Himalayas in the north.[17]

Mithila region firstly ruled by Videha dynasty. There were 52 Janaka (kings) ruled Videha dynasty of Mithila-[18]

  1. Mithi - (founder of Mithila and the first Janaka)[19]
  2. Udavasu
  3. Nandivardhana
  4. Suketu
  5. Devarata
  6. Brihadvrata
  7. Mahavira
  8. Sudhriti
  9. Dristaketu
  10. Haryasva
  11. Maru
  12. Pratindhaka
  13. Kritiratha
  14. Devamidha
  15. Vibhuta
  16. Mahidhrata
  17. Kirtirata
  18. Mahorama
  19. Swarnorama
  20. Hrisvaroma
  21. Seeradhwaja
  22. Bhaanumaan
  23. Shatadyumn
  24. Shuchi
  25. Oorjnaamaa
  26. Kriti
  27. Anjan
  28. Kurujit
  29. Arishtnemi
  30. Shrutaayu
  31. Supaarshwa
  32. Srinjaya
  33. Kshemaavee
  34. Anenaa
  35. Bhaumarath
  36. Satyarath
  37. Upagu
  38. Upagupt
  39. Swaagat
  40. Swaanand
  41. Suvarchaa
  42. Supaarshwa
  43. Subhaash
  44. Sushrut
  45. Jaya
  46. Vijaya
  47. Rit
  48. Sunaya
  49. Veetahavya
  50. Dhriti
  51. Bahulaashwa
  52. Kriti - (last King of Videha or Janaka dynasty, Kirti Janak was atrocious ruler who lost control over his subjects. He was dethroned by public under leadership of Acharyas (Learned Men).

During this period of fall of Videha dynasty, the famous republic of Licchavi was rising in Vaishali and Mithila region came under control of Licchavi clan of Vajji confederacy in around eight century BCE.[20]

Gangaridai kingdom (c. 350 – 100 BCE)

Main article: Gangaridai

Gangaridae is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman writers to describe a people or a geographical region of the ancient Indian subcontinent. Some of these writers state that Alexander the Great withdrew from the Indian subcontinent because of the strong war elephant force of the Gangaridai. However, the geographical region was annexed and governed by the Nanda Empire at the time.

A number of modern scholars locate Gangaridai in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region, although alternative theories also exist. Gange or Ganges, the capital of the Gangaridai (according to Ptolemy), has been identified with several sites in the region, including Chandraketugarh and Wari-Bateshwar.[21]

Magadha dynasties of Bengal

Main article: Magadha

Expansion of Magadha dynesties and Empires
Expansion of Magadha dynesties and Empires

Brihadratha dynasty (c. 1700 – 682 BCE)

Main article: Brihadratha dynasty

Rulers-
List of Brihadratha dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Brihadratha - BCE
Jarasandha - BCE
Sahadeva of Magadha - BCE
Somadhi 1661–1603 BCE
Srutasravas 1603–1539 BCE
Ayutayus 1539–1503 BCE
Niramitra 1503–1463 BCE
Sukshatra 1463–1405 BCE
Brihatkarman 1405–1382 BCE
Senajit 1382–1332 BCE
Srutanjaya 1332–1292 BCE
Vipra 1292–1257 BCE
Suchi 1257–1199 BCE
Kshemya 1199–1171 BCE
Subrata 1171–1107 BCE
Dharma 1107–1043 BCE
Susuma 1043–970 BCE
Dridhasena 970–912 BCE
Sumati 912–879 BCE
Subala 879–857 BCE
Sunita 857–817 BCE
Satyajit 817–767 BCE
Viswajit 767–732 BCE
Ripunjaya 732–682 BCE

(Ripunjaya was the last ruler of dynasty, dethorned by Pradyota in 682 BCE)

Pradyota dynasty (c. 682 – 544 BCE)

Main article: Pradyota dynasty

Rulers-
List of Pradyota dynasty Rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE) Period
Pradyota Mahasena 682–659 BCE 23
Palaka 659–635 BCE 24
Visakhayupa 635–585 BCE 50
Ajaka 585–564 BCE 21
Varttivarddhana 564–544 BCE 20

(Varttivarddhana was last ruler of dynasty dethroned by Bimbisara in 544 BCE)

Haryanka dynasty (c. 544 – 413 BCE)

Main article: Haryanka dynasty

Rulers-
List of Haryanka dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Bimbisara 544–491 BCE
Ajatashatru 491–461 BCE
Udayin 461–428 BCE
Anirudha 428–419 BCE
Munda 419–417 BCE
Darshaka 417–415 BCE
Nāgadāsaka 415–413 BCE

(Nāgadāsaka was last ruler of dynasty overthrowed by Shishunaga in 413 BCE)

Shishunaga dynasty (c. 413 – 345 BCE)

Main article: Shaishunaga dynasty

Rulers-
List of Shishunga dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Shishunaga 413–395 BCE
Kalashoka 395–377 BCE
Kshemadharman 377–365 BCE
Kshatraujas 365–355 BCE
Nandivardhana 355–349 BCE
Mahanandin 349–345 BCE

(Mahanandin lost his empire by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE)

Nanda Empire (c. 345 – 322 BCE)

Main article: Nanda Empire

See also: Conquest of the Nanda Empire

Rulers-
List of Nanda dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Mahapadma Nanda 345–340 BCE
Pandhukananda 340–339 BCE
Panghupatinanda 339–338 BCE
Bhutapalananda 338–337 BCE
Rashtrapalananada 337–336 BCE
Govishanakananda 336–335 BCE
Dashasidkhakananda 335–334 BCE
Kaivartananda 334–333 BCE
Karvinathanand 333–330 BCE
Dhana Nanda 330–322 BCE

(Dhana Nanda lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him in 322 BCE)

Maurya Empire (c. 322 – 184 BCE)

Main article: Maurya Empire

Rulers-
Ruler Reign Notes
Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya and Bhadrabahu.png
322–297 BCE Founder of first Indian united empire.
Bindusara Amitraghata
I42 1karshapana Maurya Bindusara MACW4165 1ar (8486583162).jpg
297–273 BCE Known for his foreign diplomacy and crushed of Vidarbh revolt.
Ashoka
Ashoka
268–232 BCE Greatest emperor of dynasty. His son Kunala was blinded and died before his father. Ashoka was succeeded by his grandson. Also known for Kalinga war victory.
Dasharatha Maurya
Dasaratha Maurya inscription on entrance of Vadathika cave.jpg
232–224 BCE Grandson of Ashoka.
Samprati 224–215 BCE Brother of Dasharatha.
Shalishuka
Mauryan Empire. temp. Salisuka or later. Circa 207-194 BC.jpg
215–202 BCE
Devavarman 202–195 BCE
Shatadhanvan 195–187 BCE Mauryan Empire had shrunk by the time of his reign
Brihadratha 187–184 BCE Assassinated by his Commander-in-chief Pushyamitra Shunga in 185 BCE.

(Brihadratha was the last ruler of dynasty, dethroned by Pushyamitra Shunga in 185 BCE)

Shunga Empire (c. 185 – 73 BCE)

Main article: Shunga Empire

Rulers-
List of Shunga dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Pushyamitra Shunga 185–149 BCE
Agnimitra 149–141 BCE
Vasujyeshtha 141–131 BCE
Vasumitra 131–124 BCE
Bhadraka 124–122 BCE
Pulindaka 122–119 BCE
Ghosha 119–108 BCE
Vajramitra 108–94 BCE
Bhagabhadra 94–83 BCE
Devabhuti 83–73 BCE

(Devabhuti was the last ruler of dynasty dethroned by, dethroned Vasudeva Kanva in 73 BCE)

Kanva dynasty (c. 73 – 28 BCE)

Main article: Kanva dynasty

Rulers-
List of Kanava dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign Period
Vasudeva Kanva 73–64 BCE 9
Bhumimitra 64–50 BCE 14
Narayana 50–38 BCE 12
Susarman 38–28 BCE 10

(Susarman was the last ruler of dynasty, dethroned by Simuka of Satavahana Empire)

Classical Era

Chandra dynasty (c. 202 – 1050 CE)

Main articles: Chandra dynasty and Harikela

The Chandra Kingdom was a Kayastha kingdom, which ruled the Samatata region of Bengal, as well as northern Arakan. Later it was a neighbor to the Pala Empire to the north. Rulers of Chandra kingdom were followers of Hinduism.[22][23]

Rulers-
List of Chandra dynasty Rulers
# King Period Reign (CE)
1 Chandrodaya 27 202–229
2 Annaveta 5 229–234
3 Chandranveta 77 234–311
4 Rimbhiappa 23 311–334
5 Kuverami (Queen) 7 334–341
6 Umavira (Queen) 20 341–361
7 Jugna 7 361–368
8 Lanki 2 368–370
9 Dvenchandra 55 370–425
10 Rajachandra 20 425–445
11 Kalachandra 9 445–454
12 Devachandra 22 454–476
13 Yajnachandra 7 476–483
14 Chandrabandu 6 483–489
15 Bhumichandra 7 489–496
16 Bhutichandra 24 496–520
17 Nitichandra (Queen) 55 520–575
18 Virachandra 3 575–578
19 Pritichandra (Queen) 12 578–590
20 Prithvichandra 7 590–597
21 Dhirtichandra 3 597–600
22 Mahavira 12 600–612
23 Virayajap 12 612–624
24 Sevinren 12 624–636
25 Dharmasura 13 636–649
26 Vajrashakti 16 649–665
27 Dharmavijaya 36 665–701
28 Narendravijaya 2 yr 9 months 701–703
29 Dharmachandra 16 703–720
30 Anandachandra 9+ 720–729+
Harikela dynasty
1 Traillokyachandra 30 900–930
2 Srichandra 45 930–975
3 Kalyanachandra 25 975–1000
4 Ladahachandra 20 1000–1020
5 Govindachandra 30 1020–1050

Gupta Empire (c. 240 – 550 CE)

Main article: Gupta Empire

Rulers-

Jaintia kingdom (c. 525 – 1835 CE)

Main article: Jaintia Kingdom

Old dynasty rulers

Partitioned Jaintia rulers

Brahmin dynasty rulers

New dynasty rulers

Gauda kingdom (c. 550 – 626 CE)

Main article: Gauda Kingdom

Rulers-

Pushyabhuti (Vardhana) Empire (c. 606 – 647 CE)

Main article: Pushyabhuti dynasty

Rulers of Bengal-

Khadga dynasty (c. 625 – 730 CE)

Main article: Khadga dynasty

Rulers-
Titular Name Reign Notes
Khadgodyama 625-640 Father of Jatakhadga
Jatakhadga 640-658 Father of Devakhadga
Devakhadga 658-673 Queen Prabhavati
Rajabhatta 673-707 Son of Devakhadga
Balabhata 707-716 Son of Devakhadga
Udirnakhadga ??

Bhadra dynasty (6th to 7th century)

Main article: Bhadra dynasty

The Bhadra dynasty was a Bengali Hindu royal house of Brahmin origin, their rule flourished during the first half of the 7th century, though little is known about their history. The kings of the dynasty bore names with the suffix "Bhadra".

Known rulers are-

Mallabhum kingdom (c. 694 – 1947 CE)

Main article: Mallabhum

Rulers-
Name of the king[26][27] Reign Notes
Adi Malla 694–710
Jay Malla 710–720
Benu Malla 720–733
Kinu Malla 733–742
Indra Malla 742–757
Kanu Malla 757–764
Dha (Jhau) Malla 764–775
Shur Malla 775–795
Kanak Malla 795–807
Kandarpa Malla 807–828
Sanatan Malla 828–841
Kharga Malla 841–862
Durjan (Durjay) Malla 862–906
Yadav Malla 906–919
Jagannath Malla 919–931
Birat Malla 931–946
Mahadev Malla 946–977
Durgadas Malla 977–994
Jagat Malla 994–1007
Ananta Malla 1007–1015
Rup Malla 1015–1029
Sundar Malla 1029–1053
Kumud Malla 1053–1074
Krishna Malla 1074–1084
Rup II (Jhap) Malla 1084–1097
Prakash Malla 1097–1102
Pratap Malla 1102–1113
Sindur Malla 1113–1129
Sukhomoy(Shuk) Malla 1129–1142
Banamali Malla 1142–1156
Yadu/Jadu Malla 1156–1167
Jiban Malla 1167–1185
Ram Malla 1185–1209
Gobinda Malla 1209–1240
Bhim Malla 1240–1263
Katar(Khattar) Malla 1263–1295
Prithwi Malla 1295 -1319
Tapa Malla 1319–1334
Dinabandhu Malla 1334–1345
Kinu/Kanu II Malla 1345–1358
Shur Malla II 1358–1370
Shiv Singh Malla 1370–1407
Madan Malla 1407–1420
Durjan II (Durjay) Malla 1420–1437
Uday Malla 1437–1460
Chandra Malla 1460–1501
Bir Malla 1501–1554
Dhari Malla 1554–1565
Hambir Malla Dev (Bir Hambir) 1565–1620
Dhari Hambir Malla Dev 1620–1626
Raghunath Singha Dev 1626–1656
Bir Singha Dev 1656–1682
Durjan Singha Dev 1682–1702
Raghunath Singha Dev II 1702–1712
Gopal Singha Dev 1712–1748
Chaitanya Singha Dev 1748–1801
Madhav Singha Dev 1801–1809
Gopal Singha Dev II 1809–1876
Ramkrishna Singha Dev 1876–1885
Dwhaja Moni Devi 1885–1889
Nilmoni Singha Dev 1889–1903
Churamoni Devi (Regency) 1903–1930
Kalipada Singha Thakur 1930–1947

Post-Classical era

Pala Empire (c. 750 – 1161 CE)

Main article: Pala Empire

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[28] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[29]

RC Majumdar (1971)[30] AM Chowdhury (1967)[31] BP Sinha (1977)[32][failed verification] DC Sircar (1975–76)[33] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[28]
Gopala I 750–770 756–781 755–783 750–775 750–774
Dharmapala 770–810 781–821 783–820 775–812 774–806
Devapala 810–c. 850 821–861 820–860 812–850 806–845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845–860
Shurapala I Deemed to be alternate name of Vigrahapala I 850–858 860–872
Gopala II NA (copper-plate charter discovered in 1995. Text of inscription published in 2009.)
Vigrahapala I 850–853 861–866 860–865 858–60 872–873
Narayanapala 854–908 866–920 865–920 860–917 873–927
Rajyapala 908–940 920–952 920–952 917–952 927–959
Gopala III 940–957 952–969 952–967 952–972 959–976
Vigrahapala II 960–c. 986 969–995 967–980 972–977 976–977
Mahipala I 988–c. 1036 995–1043 980–1035 977–1027 977–1027
Nayapala 1038–1053 1043–1058 1035–1050 1027–1043 1027–1043
Vigrahapala III 1054–1072 1058–1075 1050–1076 1043–1070 1043–1070
Mahipala II 1072–1075 1075–1080 1076–1078/9 1070–1071 1070–1071
Shurapala II 1075–1077 1080–1082 1071–1072 1071–1072
Ramapala 1077–1130 1082–1124 1078/9–1132 1072–1126 1072–1126
Kumarapala 1130–1140 1124–1129 1132–1136 1126–1128 1126–1128
Gopala IV 1140–1144 1129–1143 1136–1144 1128–1143 1128–1143
Madanapala 1144–1162 1143–1162 1144–1161/62 1143–1161 1143–1161
Govindapala 1158–1162 NA 1162–1176 or 1158–1162 1161–1165 1161–1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165–1199 1165–1200

Chola Empire (ruled part of southwestern Bengal from 1019 – 1070 CE)

Main article: Chola Empire

See also: Chola expedition to North India

Chola rulers of Bengal are-

Sena dynasty (c. 1070 – 1230 CE)

Main article: Sena dynasty

Sena dynasty ruled southwestern Bengal from 1070 and ruled East Bengal until 1230. Vijaya Sena conquered entire Bengal by 1154 CE.

Rulers-

Deva dynasty (c. 1150 – 1294 CE)

Main article: Deva dynasty

List of rulers is disputed-

Delhi Sultanate era

The Khalji dynasty of Bengal (c.1203–27) were at times independent, and at times subordinate to the Delhi Sultanate.

Name Reign Notes
Khalji rulers of Bengal (1203–1227)
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji c.1203–1206 Began the Khalji dynasty in Bengal
Muhammad Shiran Khalji 1206–1208
Husamuddin Iwaz Khalji 1208–1210
Ali Mardan Khalji 1210–1212
Ghiyasuddin Iwaz Shah 1212–1227 Second term, killed for gaining independence from Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish
Governors of Bengal under Mamluk dynasty (1227–1229)
Nasiruddin Mahmud 1227–1229 Not from the Khalji tribe, appointed by his father Iltutmish
Khalji rulers of Bengal (1229–1231)
Alauddin Daulat Shah Khalji 1229–1230[34]
Balka Khalji 1230–1231 Last Khalji ruler
Governors of Bengal under Mamluk dynasty (1231–1287)
Alauddin Jani 1232–1233
Saifuddin Aibak 1233–1236
Awar Khan Aibak 1236 Usurper
Tughral Tughan Khan 1236–1246 Restored Mamluk governor
Tughlaq Tamar Khan 1246–1247
Jalaluddin Masud Jani 1247–1251
Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak 1251–1257 Claimed independence.
Ijjauddin Balban Iuzbaki 1257–1259
Tatar Khan 1259–1268 Claimed independence.
Sher Khan 1268–1272
Amin Khan 1272–1272
Tughral Tughan Khan 1272–1281 Second term as Mughisuddin Tughral
Nasiruddin Bughra Khan 1281–1287 Governor of Lakhnauti
Independent Balban dynasty of Lakhnauti (1287–1324)
Nasiruddin Bughra Khan 1287–1291 Declared independence
Rukunuddin Kaikaus 1291–1300 First Muslim ruler to conquer Satgaon kingdom, expanding Lakhnauti.
Shamsuddin Firoz Shah 1300–1322 First Muslim ruler to conquer Sonargaon, Mymensingh and Srihatta. Completed Kaikaus' Conquest of Satgaon.
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah 1322–1324 Lost independence of Bengal to Delhi Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

Governors of Bengal under Tughlaq dynasty (1324–1338)

Name Region Reign Notes
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah Sonargaon 1324–1328 Appointed as governor by Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq, but later declared independence
Bahram Khan Sonargaon 1328–1338
Qadar Khan Lakhnauti 1328–1336
Mukhlis Lakhnauti 1336–1339
Azam Khan Satgaon 1324–1328
Izzuddin Yahya Satgaon 1328–1338

Bengal Sultanate era

Independent Sultans of Bengal during Tughlaq dynasty (1338–1352)

Name Region Reign Notes
Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah Sonargaon 1338–1349 First independent ruler of Sonargaon
Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah Sonargaon 1349–1352
Ilyas Shah Satgaon 1339–1342
Alauddin Ali Shah Lakhnauti 1339–1342
Ilyas Shah Lakhnauti and Satgaon 1342–1352

Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1352–1414)

Main article: Ilyas Shahi dynasty

Name Reign Notes
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1352–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal comprising Sonargaon, Satgaon and Lakhnauti.
Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Killed in battle with his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411
Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1412
Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1412–1414

House of Raja Ganesha (1414–1435)

Name Reign Notes
Raja Ganesha 1414–1415
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha and converted into Islam
Raja Ganesha 1416–1418 Second Phase
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase
Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435–1487)

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah 1435–1459
Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474 Son of Mahmud Shah
Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481 Son of Barbak Shah
Nuruddin Sikandar Shah 1481 Son of Mahmud Shah
Jalaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487 Son of Mahmud Shah

Habshi rule (1487–1494)

Name Reign Notes
Shahzada Barbak 1487
Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489
Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490
Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494–1538)

Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518 considered greatest of all sultans of Bengal for bringing cultural renaissance during his reign.
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533
Alauddin Firuz Shah 1533
Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

Governors of Bengal under Sur Empire (1532–1556)

Name Reign Notes
Sher Shah Suri 1532–1538 Defeated Mughals and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.
Khidr Khan 1538–1541
Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545
Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554
Shahbaz Khan 1555

Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554–1564)

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah
Khizr Khan Suri 1555–1561
Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1563
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah III 1563–1564[35]

Karrani dynasty (1564–1576)

Name Reign Notes
Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566
Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572
Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572
Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

Mughal Subahdars of Bengal Subah (1574–1717)

During the reign of Akbar

Name Reign Notes
Munim Khan 1574–1575 Khan-i-Khanan
Hussain Quli Khan 1575–1578
Muzaffar Khan Turbati 1579–1580
Mirza Aziz Koka 1582–1583
Wazir Khan Tajik 1583–1583
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh 1583–1585
Sadiq Khan 1585–1586
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh 1586–1587
Sa'id Khan 1587–1594
Raja Man Singh I 1597 – 1606

During the reign of Jahangir

Name Reign Notes
Qutubuddin Koka 2 Sep 1606 – 1607 killed in a battle against Sher Afghan. (Local history of Burdwan, West Bengal, India says that Qutub-ud-din Kokah died in a battle against Ali Quli Istajlu alias Sher Afgan in 1610 CE. The tomb where both of them were buried is presently under the surveillance of Archaeological Survey of India.)
Jahangir Quli Beg 1607–1608 In early life, a slave of Akbar's brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim
Islam Khan Chishti 1608–1613 first governor to transfer the Bengal capital to Dhaka in April 1612
Qasim Khan Chishti 1613–1617 younger brother of Islam Khan Chishti
Ibrahim Khan Fath-i-Jang 1617–1624 died in an attack by Prince Shahjahan
Darab Khan 1624–1625 while Shahjahan occupied Bengal. Killed by Mahabbat Khan.[36]
Mahabat Khan 1625–1626
Mukarram Khan 1626–1627
Fidai Khan 1627–1628

During the reign of Shah Jahan

Name Reign Notes
Qasim Khan Juvayni 1628–1632
Mir Muhammad Baqir 1632–1635 Known as Azam Khan
Mir Abdus Salam 1635–1639 Known as Islam Khan Mashadi
Prince Shah Shuja 1639–1647 again 1652–1660

During the reign of Aurangzeb

Name Reign Notes
Mir Jumla II 1660–1663
Shaista Khan 1664–1678
Azam Khan Koka 1678–1678 Known as Fidai Khan II
Prince Muhammad Azam 20 July 1678 – 6 October 1679[37]
Shaista Khan 1680–1688
Ibrahim Khan II 1689–1697
Prince Azim-us-Shan 1697–1712

Medieval Hindu dynasties of Bengal

See also: List of Hindu empires and dynasties

Koch dynasty (c. 1515 – 1949 CE)

Main article: Koch dynasty

Rulers of undivided Koch dynasty (c. 1515 – 1586 CE)

Rulers of Koch Bihar (c. 1586 – 1949)

Further information: Cooch Behar State

Kingdom of Bhurshut (c. 16th–18th century)

Main article: Bhurshut

Nadia dynasty

Main article: Nadia Raj

Kingdom of Chandradwip

Many illustrious Maharajas ruled much of East Bengal and the Sundarbans and conquered Jessore. Their surname was Basu – they came to Bengal during the Sena dynasty to conquer the Palas and take over from them.

Maharajas of Jessore region

Known rulers are-

Maharaja of Lower Bengal region

Known rulers are

Maharaja of Bhawal region

Main article: Bhawal Estate

Rulers of Gazipur and Madhupur forest are in central Bangladesh.

Nawabs of Bengal

Independent Nawabs of Bengal (1717–1757 CE)

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Nasiri Dynasty
Murshid Quli Jafar Khan.jpg
Ala ud-Daula Murshid Quli Jafar Khan 1665 1717– 1727 30 June 1727
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg
Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 1727–1727 April 1740
Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.jpg
Shuja ud-Daula Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan 1670 July 1727 – 26 August 1739 26 August 1739
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg
Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 13 March 1739 – April 1740 April 1740
Afshar Dynasty
Allavardi Xán.jpg
Husam ud-Daula Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur 10 May 1671 29 April 1740 – 16 April 1756 16 April 1756
Siraj ud-Daulah.jpg
Siraj ud-Daulah Mîrzâ Muhammad Sirâj-ud-Daulah 1733 April 1756 – 2 June 1757 June 1757

Nawabs of Bengal under East India Company (1757–1838 CE)

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg
Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 June 1757 – October 1760 17 January 1765
Mir Qasim.jpg
Itimad ud-Daulah Mir Kasim Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1760–1763 1777
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg
Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 25 July 1763 – 17 January 1765 17 January 1765
Nazam ud-Daulah.jpg
Nazam-ud-Daulah Najimuddin Ali Khan 1750 5 February 1765 – 8 May 1766 8 May 1766
Saif ud-Daulah.jpg
Saif ud-Daulah Najabut Ali Khan 1749 22 May 1766 – 10 March 1770 10 March 1770
TombAshrafAliKhan.jpg
Ashraf Ali Khan Before 1759 10 March 1770 – 24 March 1770 24 March 1770
Mubaraq ud-Daulah.jpg
Mubarak ud-Daulah Mubarak Ali Khan 1759 21 March 1770 – 6 September 1793 6 September 1793
Babar Ali.jpg
Azud ud-Daulah Babar Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1793 – 28 April 1810 28 April 1810
Ali Jah.jpg
Ali Jah Zain-ud-Din Ali Khan ? 5 June 1810 – 6 August 1821 6 August 1821
Walla Jah.jpg
Walla Jah Ahmad Ali Khan ? 1810 – 30 October 1824 30 October 1824
Nawab Nazim Humayun Jah.jpg
Humayun Jah Mubarak Ali Khan II 29 September 1810 1824 – 3 October 1838 3 October 1838
Feradun Jah.jpg
Feradun Jah Mansur Ali Khan 29 October 1830 29 October 1838 –1881 (abdicated) 5 November 1884

Nawabs of Murshidabad

Picture Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
Young Hassan Ali.jpg
Ali Kadir Syed Hassan Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 25 August 1846 17 February 1882 – 25 December 1906 25 December 1906[39]
Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur.jpg
Amir ul-Omrah Syed Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 7 January 1875 December 1906 – 23 October 1959 23 October 1959[40]
Waris Ali.jpg
Raes ud-Daulah Syed Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 14 November 1901 23 October 1959 – 20 November 1969 20 November 1969[41]
Disputed/In abeyance[42][43] 20 November 1969 – 13 August 2014
Coat of Arms of the Nawab of Murshidabad.png
Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur Circa 1942 13 August 2014 – Incumbent (titular)[42][43]

East India Company governors in Bengal

Governors of British East India Company in Bengal (1757–1793)

As per the treaty of Allahabad in 1765, the British East India Company (BEIC) was given the right to collect revenue (Diwani right). From 1769, the company collected revenue from Bengal.

Governors-General of British East India Company in Bengal – Dual government (1773–1774)

Following the Regulating Act of 1773, the Governor of Bengal was officially called Governor-General of Fort William.

Governors-General of British East India Company in Bengal (1793–1854)

In 1793, the British East India Company abolished Nizamat, i.e. local rule by Mughal emperor- appointed Nawabs and annexed Bengal.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company (1833–1858)

As per Charter Act of 1833, the Governor-General of Bengal would be called Governor-General of India

British Raj era

1855 British Bengal missions
1855 British Bengal missions
1880 British Bengal province
1880 British Bengal province

With the establishment of the Empire of India in 1858, the position of Governor-General was replaced with Governor-General and Viceroy of India. Calcutta, the capital of Bengal also became the capital of India. As a result, the position of Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal was established to look after provincial matters.

Lieutenant-Governors (1858–1912)

Governors (1912–1947)

In late 1911, the Indian Government decided to move the capital to New Delhi. As a result, the Governorship of Bengal Presidency was now necessary.

Name Took office Left office
Thomas Gibson-Carmichael, 1st Baron Carmichael 1912 1917
Lawrence Dundas, Earl of Ronaldshay 1917 1922
Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton 1922 1927
Sir Stanley Jackson 1927 1932
Sir John Anderson 1932 1937
Michael Knatchbull, 5th Baron Brabourne 1937 1938
Sir John Arthur Herbert 1939 1943
Richard Casey 1944 1946
Sir Frederick Burrows 1946 1947

Prime Minister of Bengal (1937–1947)

Main article: Prime Minister of Bengal

The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy in India and the position of Chief Minister or Premier of Bengal became very prominent.

Office holders

Writer's Building in Kolkata, the former seat of the Government of undivided Bengal
Writer's Building in Kolkata, the former seat of the Government of undivided Bengal
The mausoleum of Huq, Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy in Dhaka
The mausoleum of Huq, Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy in Dhaka
No Name Image Term(s)[44] Party Governor Viceroy
1 Sher-e-Bangla
A. K. Fazlul Huq
A k fazlul hoque.jpg
1 April 1937 – 1 December 1941
12 December 1941 – 29 March 1943
Krishak Praja Party Sir John Arthur Herbert The Marquess of Linlithgow
2 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin
Khawaja Nazimuddin of Pakistan.JPG
29 April 1943 – 31 March 1945 Bengal Provincial Muslim League Sir John Arthur Herbert (−1944)
Sir Richard Casey (1944–)
The Marquess of Linlithgow
The Viscount Wavell
3 H. S. Suhrawardy
Suhrawardy of Bengal.jpg
23 April 1946 – 14 August 1947 Bengal Provincial Muslim League Sir Richard Casey (−1946)
Sir Frederick Burrows
The Viscount Wavell
Earl Mountbatten

Subsequently, all three Bengali chief ministers moved to East Pakistan, where they continued to be influential statesmen. Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy became Prime Ministers of Pakistan, while Huq served as the Chief Minister and Governor of East Pakistan.

After Independence of India and Pakistan

British colonial period ended when India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947. Bengal fell into two parts – one in India, named West Bengal and the other part in Pakistan as East Bengal, later renamed to East Pakistan in 1955.

Pakistani (East) Bengal (1947–1971)

Governors of East Bengal (1947–1955)

Tenure Governor of East Bengal[citation needed]
15 August 1947 – 31 March 1950 Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne
31 March 1950 – 31 March 1953 Sir Feroz Khan Noon
31 March 1953 – 29 May 1954 Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
29 May 1954 – May 1955 Iskandar Ali Mirza
May 1955 – June 1955 Muhammad Shahabuddin (acting)
June 1955 – 14 October 1955 Amiruddin Ahmad

Chief Minister of East Bengal (1947–1955)

Tenure Chief Minister of East Bengal Political Party
August 1947 – September 1948 Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin Muslim League
September 1948 – April 1954 Nurul Amin Muslim League
April 1954 – 1955 Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq United Front

Governors of East Pakistan (1955–1971)

In late 1954, the prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra initiated the One Unit policy which resulted in East Bengal province being renamed to East Pakistan.

Tenure Governor of East Pakistan[citation needed] Political Affiliation
14 October 1955 – March 1956 Amiruddin Ahmad Muslim League
March 1956 – 13 April 1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq Muslim League
13 April 1958 – 3 May 1958 Hamid Ali (acting) Awami League
3 May 1958 – 10 October 1958 Sultanuddin Ahmad Awami League
10 October 1958 – 11 April 1960 Zakir Husain Muslim League
11 April 1960 – 11 May 1962 Lieutenant-General Azam Khan, PA Military Administration
11 May 1962 – 25 October 1962 Ghulam Faruque Independent
25 October 1962 – 23 March 1969 Abdul Monem Khan Civil Administration
23 March 1969 – 25 March 1969 Mirza Nurul Huda Civil Administration
25 March 1969 – 23 August 1969 Major-General Muzaffaruddin,[45] PA Military Administration
23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA Military Administration
1 September 1969 – 7 March 1971 Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, PN Military Administration
7 March 1971 – 6 April 1971 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA Military Administration
6 April 1971 – 31 August 1971 Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, PA Military Administration
31 August 1971 – 14 December 1971 Abdul Motaleb Malik Independent
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971 Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, PA Military Administration

Chief Minister of East Pakistan (1955–1971)

Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan Political Party
August 1955 – September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
September 1956 – March 1958 Ataur Rahman Khan Awami League
March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
March 1958 – 18 June 1958 Ataur Rahman Khan Awami League
18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958 Governor's Rule
25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958 Ataur Rahman Khan Awami League

On 7 October 1958, the post of Chief Minister of East Pakistan was abolished. And after the independence of Bangladesh on 16 December 1971, the Province of East Pakistan was dissolved.

Indian (West) Bengal (1947–present)

Governors of West Bengal

Sl. No. Name Took office Left office
1 Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari 15 August 1947 21 June 1948
2 Kailash Nath Katju 21 June 1948 1 November 1951
3 Harendra Coomar Mookerjee 1 November 1951 8 August 1956
4 Phani Bhusan Chakravartti 8 August 1956 3 November 1956
5 Padmaja Naidu 3 November 1956 1 June 1967
6 Dharma Vira 1 June 1967 1 April 1969
7 Deep Narayan Sinha (acting) 1 April 1969 19 September 1969
8 Shanti Swaroop Dhavan 19 September 1969 21 August 1971
9 Anthony Lancelot Dias 21 August 1971 6 November 1979
10 Tribhuvana Narayana Singh 6 November 1979 12 September 1981
11 Bhairab Dutt Pande 12 September 1981 10 October 1983
12 Anant Prasad Sharma 10 October 1983 16 August 1984
13 Satish Chandra (acting) 16 August 1984 1 October 1984
14 Uma Shankar Dikshit 1 October 1984 12 August 1986
15 Saiyid Nurul Hasan 12 August 1986 20 March 1989
16 T. V. Rajeswar 20 March 1989 7 February 1990
(15) Saiyid Nurul Hasan 7 February 1990 12 July 1993
17 B. Satyanarayan Reddy (additional charge) 13 July 1993 14 August 1993
18 K. V. Raghunatha Reddy 14 August 1993 27 April 1998
19 Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai 27 April 1998 18 May 1999
20 Shyamal Kumar Sen 18 May 1999 4 December 1999
21 Viren J. Shah 4 December 1999 14 December 2004
22 Gopalkrishna Gandhi 14 December 2004 14 December 2009
23 Devanand Konwar (additional charge) 14 December 2009 23 January 2010
24 M.K. Narayanan 24 January 2010 30 June 2014
25 D. Y. Patil (additional charge)[46] 3 July 2014 17 July 2014
26 Keshari Nath Tripathi 24 July 2014 29 July 2019
27 Jagdeep Dhankhar[47] 30 July 2019 17 July 2022
28 La. Ganesan (additional charge) 18 July 2022 Incumbent

Chief Ministers of West Bengal

Key: INC
Indian National Congress
BC (UF)
Bangla Congress (United Front)
CPI(M)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
AITC
All India Trinamool Congress
# Name Took Office Left Office Political Party
1 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 15 August 1947 14 January 1948 INC
2 Bidhan Chandra Roy 14 January 1948 1 July 1962 INC
President's rule 1 July 1962 8 July 1962
3 Prafulla Chandra Sen 8 July 1962 15 March 1967 INC
4 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 15 March 1967 2 November 1967 BC (UF)
(1) Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 2 November 1967 20 February 1968 Independent (Progressive Democratic Alliance)
President's rule 20 February 1968 25 February 1969
(4) Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 25 February 1969 19 March 1970 BC (UF)
President's rule 19 March 1970 2 April 1971
(4) Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 2 April 1971 28 June 1971 INC
President's rule 28 June 1971 19 March 1972
5 Siddhartha Shankar Ray 19 March 1972 21 June 1977 INC
6 Jyoti Basu 21 June 1977 6 November 2000 CPI(M) (Left Front)
7 Buddhadeb Bhattacharya 6 November 2000 13 May 2011 CPI(M) (Left Front)
8 Mamata Banerjee 20 May 2011 Incumbent AITC

After independence of Bangladesh

East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan on 16 December 1971 after the end of Bangladesh Liberation War and was named Bangladesh as an independent nation.

The President was the executive Head of state of Bangladesh during Presidential system of government from 1975 to 1991. Thereafter, the Prime Minister is the executive head of government of this parliamentary republic while the President is the ceremonial Head of state, elected by the parliament.

Key

Political parties
Other factions
Status

Presidents of Bangladesh

Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Party
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)[a]
17 April 1971 12 January 1972 Bangladesh Awami League
Syed Nazrul Islam
(1925–1975)[b]
17 April 1971 12 January 1972 Bangladesh Awami League
Abu Sayeed Chowdhury
(1921–1987)
12 January 1972 24 December 1973 Bangladesh Awami League
Mohammad Mohammadullah
(1921–1999)
24 December 1973 27 January 1974 Bangladesh Awami League
1974 27 January 1974 25 January 1975
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)
25 January 1975 15 August 1975
(assassinated in a coup d'état.)
BAKSAL
Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
(1918–1996)
15 August 1975 6 November 1975
(deposed.)
Bangladesh Awami League
Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem
(1916–1997)[c]
6 November 1975 21 April 1977 Bangladesh Awami League
Ziaur Rahman
(1936–1981)[d]
1977[e]
1978[f]
21 April 1977 30 May 1981
(assassinated.)
Military /
Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Abdus Sattar
(1906–1985)
30 May 1981 20 November 1981 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
1981[f] 20 November 1981 24 March 1982
(deposed.)
Hussain Muhammad Ershad

(1930–2019)[g]

24 March 1982 27 March 1982 Military
Ahsanuddin Chowdhury
(1915–2001)
27 March 1982 10 December 1983 Independent
Hussain Muhammad Ershad
(1930–2019)[h]
1985[e]
1986[f]
11 December 1983 6 December 1990 Military /
Jatiya Party
Shahabuddin Ahmed
(born 1930)
6 December 1990 10 October 1991 Independent
Abdur Rahman Biswas
(1926–2017)
1991 10 October 1991 9 October 1996 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Shahabuddin Ahmed
(born 1930)
1996 9 October 1996 14 November 2001 Independent
Badruddoza Chowdhury
(born 1932)
2001 14 November 2001 21 June 2002 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Jamiruddin Sircar
(born 1931)
21 June 2002 6 September 2002 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Iajuddin Ahmed
(1931–2012)
2002 6 September 2002 12 February 2009 Independent
Moeen U Ahmed 11 January 2007 12 January 2007 Military
Zillur Rahman
(1929–2013)
2009 12 February 2009 20 March 2013
(died in office.)
Bangladesh Awami League
Abdul Hamid
(born 1944)[i]
14 March 2013 24 April 2013 Bangladesh Awami League
2013 24 April 2013 24 April 2018
2018 24 April 2018 Incumbent

Prime Ministers of Bangladesh

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of office Tenure Party
Tajuddin Ahmad
(1925–1975)
No image.png
11 April 1971 12 January 1972 276 days Bangladesh Awami League
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1950.jpg
1973 12 January 1972 25 January 1975 3 years, 13 days Bangladesh Awami League
Muhammad Mansur Ali
(1919–1975)
No image.png
25 January 1975 15 August 1975
(deposed.)
202 days BAKSAL
Post abolished (15 August 1975 – 29 June 1978)
Mashiur Rahman
(1924–1979)[j]
No image.png
29 June 1978 12 March 1979
(died in office.)
256 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Shah Azizur Rahman
(1925–1988)
No image.png
1979 15 April 1979 24 March 1982
(deposed.)
2 years, 343 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Post abolished (24 March 1982 – 30 March 1984)
Ataur Rahman Khan
(1907–1991)
No image.png
30 March 1984 9 July 1986 2 years, 101 days Jatiya Party
Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury
(1928–2006)
Picture of Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury.jpeg
1986 9 July 1986 27 March 1988 1 year, 262 days Jatiya Party
Moudud Ahmed
(born 1940)
No image.png
1988 27 March 1988 12 August 1989 1 year, 138 days Jatiya Party
Kazi Zafar Ahmed
(1939–2015)
No image.png
12 August 1989 6 December 1990 1 year, 116 days Jatiya Party
Post abolished (6 December 1990 – 20 March 1991)
Khaleda Zia
(born 1945)
Begum Zia Book-opening Ceremony, 1 Mar, 2010.jpg
1991
1996 (Feb)
20 March 1991 30 March 1996 5 years, 10 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Habibur Rahman
(1928–2014)
Habibur Rahman.jpg
30 March 1996 23 June 1996 85 days Independent
Sheikh Hasina
(born 1947)
Sheikh Hasina in New York - 2018 (44057292035) (cropped).jpg
1996 (Jun) 23 June 1996 15 July 2001 5 years, 22 days Bangladesh Awami League
Latifur Rahman
(1936–2017)
No image.png
15 July 2001 10 October 2001 87 days Independent
Khaleda Zia
(born 1945)
Begum Zia Book-opening Ceremony, 1 Mar, 2010.jpg
2001 10 October 2001 29 October 2006 5 years, 19 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Iajuddin Ahmed
(1931–2012)[k]
No image.png
29 October 2006 11 January 2007 74 days Independent
Fazlul Haque
(born 1938)[l]
No image.png
11 January 2007 12 January 2007 1 day Independent
Fakhruddin Ahmed
(born 1940)
Fakhruddin Ahmed - WEF Annual Meeting Davos 2008.jpg
12 January 2007 6 January 2009 1 year, 360 days Independent
Sheikh Hasina
(born 1947)
Sheikh Hasina in New York - 2018 (44057292035) (cropped).jpg
2008
2014
2018
6 January 2009 Incumbent 13 years, 219 days Bangladesh Awami League

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pakistani prisoner to 8 January 1972.
  2. ^ Acting for Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
  3. ^ Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (24 August 1975 – 4 November 1975 and 7 November 1975 – 29 November 1976).
  4. ^ Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (29 November 1976 – 6 April 1979).
  5. ^ a b Referendum.
  6. ^ a b c Direct election.
  7. ^ Served as Chief Martial Law Administrator until 30 March 1984.
  8. ^ Served as Chief Martial Law Administrator until 30 March 1984.
  9. ^ Acting for Zillur Rahman until 20 March 2013.
  10. ^ Senior Minister.
  11. ^ Simultaneously served as President.
  12. ^ Acting Chief Adviser.

References

  1. ^ "Gangaridai - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  2. ^ Majumdar, R. C. (1973). History of Mediaeval Bengal. Calcutta: G. Bharadwaj & Co. pp. 1–2. OCLC 1031074. Tradition gives him credit for the conquest of Bengal but as a matter of fact he could not subjugate the greater part of Bengal ... All that Bakhtyār can justly take credit for is that by his conquest of Western and a part of Northern Bengal he laid the foundation of the Muslim State in Bengal. The historians of the 13th century never attributed the conquest of the whole of Bengal to Bakhtyār.
  3. ^ Arnold, Thomas Walker (1913) [First published 1896]. The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith (2nd ed.). London: Constable & Company. p. 227.
  4. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 68–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  5. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals, and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  6. ^ "The paradise of nations | Dhaka Tribune". Archive.dhakatribune.com. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  7. ^ M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
  8. ^ Khandker, Hissam (31 July 2015). "Which India is claiming to have been colonised?". The Daily Star (Op-ed).
  9. ^ Lex Heerma van Voss; Els Hiemstra-Kuperus; Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000. Ashgate Publishing. p. 255. ISBN 9780754664284.
  10. ^ "The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa" Translated into English Prose, Bharata Press, Calcutta (1883–1896)
  11. ^ Digha Nikaya
  12. ^ The Garuda Purana 55.12; V.D. I.9.4; the Markendeya Purana 56.16–18
  13. ^ "West Bengal | History, Culture, Map, Capital, & Population | Britannica".
  14. ^ Hossain, Md. Mosharraf, Mahasthan: Anecdote to History, 2006, pp. 69–73, Dibyaprakash, 38/2 ka Bangla Bazar, Dhaka, ISBN 984-483-245-4
  15. ^ Ghosh, Suchandra. "Pundravardhana". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
  16. ^ Klidsa; Mallinatha. Sajvan; Kle, M. R. (Moreshvar Ramchandra) (1922). The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa : with the commentary (the Samjivani) of Mallinatha ; Cantos I-X ; edited with a literal English translation, copious notes in Sanskrit and English, and various readings &c. &c. by M.R. Kale. Robarts - University of Toronto. Bombay : P.S. Rege.
  17. ^ Jha, M. (1997). "Hindu Kingdoms at contextual level". Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective. New Delhi: M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 27–42. ISBN 9788175330344.
  18. ^ Dr. Kamal Kant Jha, Pt. Sri ganeshrai Vidyabhushan, Dr. Dhanakar Thakur. "A Brief History of Mithila State Bihar Articles". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2008.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
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