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This article is a list of the various dynasties and monarchs that have ruled in the Indian subcontinent and it is one of several lists of incumbents.

The Indian subcontinent, the main centre of Indian culture

The earliest Indian rulers are known from epigraphical sources found in archeological inscriptions on Ashokan edicts[1][2] written in Pali language and using brahmi script. They are also known from the literary sources like Sanskrit literature, Jain literature and Buddhist literature in context of literary sources. Archaeological sources include archeological remains in Indian subcontinent which give many details about earlier kingdoms, monarchs, and their interactions with each other.

Early types of historic documentation include metal coins with an indication of the ruler, or at least the dynasty, at the time. These Punch-marked coins were issued around 600s BCE and are found in abundance from the Maurya Empire in 300s BCE. There are also stone inscriptions and documentary records from foreign cultures from around this time. The main imperial or quasi-imperial rulers of North India are fairly clear from this point on, but many local rulers, and the situation in the Deccan and South India has less clear stone inscriptions from early centuries. Main sources of South Indian history is Sangam Literature dated from 300s BCE. Time period of ancient Indian rulers is speculative, or at least uncertain.

Iron Age Kingdoms (c. 2000s BCE – 200s BCE)

See also: Outline of ancient India, Iron Age in India, Vedic Period, Janapada, and Mahajanapada

Kingdom of Magadha

Main articles: Magadha and List of monarchs of Magadha

King Magadha's dynasty

Main article: Puru and Yadu Dynasties

Rulers -
List of Magadha dynasty rulers
King Magadha
Sudhanva, (Nephew of King Magadha and son of King Kuru II)
Uparichara Vasu

(Uparichara Vasu was father of Brihadratha, he was succeeded by his son Brihadratha on throne of Magadha)

(Uparichara Vasu descendants founded many kingdoms like King Pratyagraha of Chedi Kingdom and great-grandfather of Shishupala, King Vatsa of Vatsa Kingdom and King Matsya of Matsya Kingdom and great-grandfather of Virata and Satyavati)

Brihadratha dynasty (c. 1700 – 682 BCE)

Main article: Brihadratha dynasty

Rulers -
List of Brihadratha dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Brihadratha 1700–1680 BCE
Jarasandha 1680–1665 BCE
Sahadeva 1665–1661 BCE
Somadhi 1661–1603 BCE
Srutasravas 1603–1539 BCE
Ayutayus 1539–1503 BCE
Niramitra 1503–1463 BCE
Sukshatra 1463–1405 BCE
Brihatkarman 1405–1382 BCE
Senajit 1382–1332 BCE
Srutanjaya 1332–1292 BCE
Vipra 1292–1257 BCE
Suchi 1257–1199 BCE
Kshemya 1199–1171 BCE
Subrata 1171–1107 BCE
Dharma 1107–1043 BCE
Susuma 1043–970 BCE
Dridhasena 970–912 BCE
Sumati 912–879 BCE
Subala 879–857 BCE
Sunita 857–817 BCE
Satyajit 817–767 BCE
Viswajit 767–732 BCE
Ripunjaya 732–682 BCE

(Ripunjaya was the last ruler of dynasty, dethroned by Pradyota in 682 BCE)

Pradyota dynasty (c. 682 – 544 BCE)

Main article: Pradyota dynasty

List of Pradyota dynasty Rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE) Period
Pradyota Mahasena 682–659 BCE 23
Palaka 659–635 BCE 24
Visakhayupa 635–585 BCE 50
Ajaka 585–564 BCE 21
Varttivarddhana 564–544 BCE 20

(Varttivarddhana was last ruler of dynasty dethroned by Bimbisara in 544 BCE)

Kingdom of Kashmir

Main article: Gonanda dynasty

See also: List of monarchs of Kashmir

Gonanda dynasty (I)

Kalhana mentions that Gonanda I ascended the throne in 653 Kali calendar era. Dating of Gonanda kings based on calculation of Jogesh Chander Dutt.[3]

List of Gonanda dynasty I rulers
Gonanda I
Damodara I
Gonanda II
35 kings (names lost)
Ashoka (Gonandiya)
Damodara II
Abhimanyu I

Gonanditya dynasty (c. 1175 – 167 BCE)

The Gonanditya dynasty ruled Kashmir for 1002 years.[4]

Ruler Reign[5] Ascension year Notes
Gonanda III 35 years 1175 BCE Gonanda III founded a new dynasty. (I.191) He belonged to Rama's lineage, and restored the Nāga rites
Vibhishana I 53 years, 6 months 1147 BCE
Indrajit 35 years 1094 BCE
Ravana 30 years, 6 months A Shivalinga attributed to Ravana could still be seen at the time of Kalhana.
Vibhishana II 35 years, 6 months 1058 BCE
Nara I (Kinnara) 40 years, 9 months 1023 BCE His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. He tried to abduct a Nāga woman, who was the wife of a Brahmin. Because of this, the Nāga chief burnt down the king's city, and the king died in the fire.
Siddha 60 years 983 BCE Siddha, the son of Nara, was saved from Nāga's fury, because he was away from the capital at the time. He was a religious king, and followed a near-ascetic lifestyle.
Utpalaksha 30 years, 6 months 923 BCE Son of Siddha
Hiranyaksha 37 years, 7 months 893 BCE Son of Utpalaksha
Hiranyakula 60 years 855 BCE Son of Hiranyaksha
Vasukula (Mukula) 60 years 795 BCE Son of Hiranyakula. During his reign, the Mlechchhas (possibly Hunas) overran Kashmir.
Mihirakula 70 years 735 BCE According to historical evidence, Mihirakula's predecessor was Toramana. Kalhana mentions a king called Toramana, but places him much later, in Book 3.[6] According to Kalhana, Mihirakula was a cruel ruler who ordered killings of a large number of people, including children, women and elders. He invaded the Sinhala Kingdom, and replaced their king with a cruel man. As he passed through Chola, Karnata and other kingdoms on his way back to Kashmir, the rulers of these kingdoms fled their capitals and returned only after he had gone away. On his return to Kashmir, he ordered killings of 100 elephants, who had been startled by the cries of a fallen elephant. Once, Mihirakula dreamt that a particular stone could be moved only by a chaste woman. He put this to test: the women who were unable to move the stone were killed, along with their husbands, sons and brothers. He was supported by some immoral Brahmins. In his old age, the king committed self-immolation.
Vaka (Baka) 63 years, 18 days 665 BCE A virtuous king, he was seduced and killed by a woman named Vatta, along with several of his sons and grandsons.
Kshitinanda 30 years 602 BCE The only surviving child of Vaka
Vasunanda 52 years, 2 months 572 BCE "Originator of the science of love"
Nara II 60 years 520 BCE Son of Vasunanda
Aksha 60 years 460 BCE Son of Nara II
Gopaditya 60 years, 6 days 400 BCE Son of Aksha. Gave lands to Brahmins. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-Sattvic diet); in their place, he brought others from foreign countries.
Gokarna 57 years, 11 months 340 BCE Son of Gopaditya
Narendraditya I (Khingkhila) 36 years, 3 months, 10 days 282 BCE Son of Gokarna
Yudhisthira I 34 years, 5 months, 1 day 246 BCE to 167 BCE Called "the blind" because of his small eyes. In later years of his reign, he started patronizing unwise persons, and the wise courtiers deserted him. He was deposed by rebellious ministers, and granted asylum by a neighboring king. His descendant Meghavahana later restored the dynasty's rule.

King Pratapaditya's dynasty (c. 167 BCE – 25 CE)

No kings mentioned in this book have been traced in any other historical source.[6] These kings ruled Kashmir for 192 years.[5]

Ruler Reign[5] Ascension year Notes
Pratapaditya I 32 years 167 BCE Pratapaditya was a relative of a distant king named Vikrmaditya (II.6).
Jalauka 32 years 135 BCE Son of Pratapaditya
Tungjina I 36 years 103 BCE Shared the administration with his queen. The couple sheltered their citizens in the royal palace during a severe famine resulting from heavy frost. After his death, the queen committed sati. The couple died childless.
Vijaya 8 years 67 BCE From a different dynasty than Tungjina.
Jayendra 37 years 59 BCE Son of Vijaya: his "long arms reached to his knees". His flatters instigated him against his minister Sandhimati. The minister was persecuted, and ultimately imprisoned because of rumors that he would succeed the king. Sandhimati remained in prison for 10 years. In his old age, the childless king ordered killing of Sandhimati to prevent any chance of him becoming a king. He died after hearing about the false news of Sandhimati's death.
Sandhimati 47 years 22 BCE to 25 CE Sandhimati was selected by the citizens as the new ruler. He ascended the throne reluctantly, at the request of his guru Ishana. He was a devout Shaivite, and his reign was marked by peace. He filled his court with rishis (sages), and spent his time in forest retreats. Therefore, his ministers replaced him with Meghavahana, a descendant of Yudhishthira I. He willingly gave up the throne.

Gonanda dynasty II (c. 25 – 625 CE)

Main article: Gonanda dynasty (II)

Ruler Reign[5] Ascension year Notes
Meghavahana 34 years 25 CE
Possible coinage of Meghavahana. Obverse: Shiva Pashupati ("Lord of the Beasts"), making a mudra gesture with right hand and holding filleted trident; behind, a lioness or tiger. Trace of legend Meghana... in Brahmi. Reverse: Goddess seated facing on lotus, holding lotus in both hand, Kidara monogram to left, Jaya in Brahmi to right. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[7]
Possible coinage of Meghavahana. Obverse: Shiva Pashupati ("Lord of the Beasts"), making a mudra gesture with right hand and holding filleted trident; behind, a lioness or tiger. Trace of legend Meghana... in Brahmi. Reverse: Goddess seated facing on lotus, holding lotus in both hand, Kidara monogram to left, Jaya in Brahmi to right. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[7]
Meghavahana was the son of Yudhisthira I's great-grandson, who had been granted asylum by Gopaditya, the king of Gandhara. Meghavahana had been selected the husband of a Vaishnavite princess at a Swayamvara in another kingdom. The ministers of Kashmir brought him to Kashmir after Sandhimati proved to be an unwilling king. Meghavahana banned animal slaughter and compensated those who earned their living through hunting. He patrnozed Brahmins, and set up a monastery. His queens built Buddhist viharas and monasteries. He subdued kings in regions as far as Sinhala Kingdom, forcing them to abandon animal slaughter.
Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II) 30 years 59 CE Son of Meghavahana
Hiranya 30 years, 2 months 89 CE Son of Shreshtasena, assisted by his brother and co-regent Toramana. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. Toramana's son Pravarasena, who had been brought up in secrecy by his mother Anjana, freed him. Hiranya died childless. Several coins of a king named Toramana have been found in the Kashmir region. This king is identified by some with Huna ruler Toramana, although his successor Mihirakula is placed much earlier by Kalhana.[6]
Matrigupta 4 years, 9 months, 1 day 120 CE According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of Ujjayini defeated the Shakas, and made his friend and poet Matrigupta the ruler of Kashmir. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana has confused the legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain with the Vardhana Emperor Harsha (c. 606–47 CE).[8] The latter is identified with Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account. However, according to M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Vikramaditya is another Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account: a king of Malwa around 580 CE.[9]
Pravarasena II 60 years 125 CE
Coinage of Pravarasena, supposed founder of Srinagar. Obverse: Standing king with two figured seated below. Name "Pravarasena". Reverse: goddess seated on a lion. Legend "Kidāra". Circa 6th-early 7th century CE.[7]
Coinage of Pravarasena, supposed founder of Srinagar. Obverse: Standing king with two figured seated below. Name "Pravarasena". Reverse: goddess seated on a lion. Legend "Kidāra". Circa 6th-early 7th century CE.[7]
Historical evidence suggests that a king named Pravarasena ruled Kashmir in the 6th century CE.[6] According to Kalhana, Pravarasena subdued many other kings, in lands as far as Saurashtra. He restored the rule of Vikramaditya's son Pratapshila (alias Shiladitya), who had been expelled from Ujjain by his enemies. Pratapshila agreed to be a vassal of Pravarasena after initial resistance. He founded a city called Pravarapura, which is identified by later historians as the modern city of Srinagar on the basis topographical details.[10]
Yudhishthira II 39 years, 8 months 185 CE Son of Pravarasena
Narendraditya I (Lakshmana) 13 years 206 CE Son of Yudhishthira II and Padmavati
Ranaditya I (Tungjina III) 42 years 219 CE
Sri Tujina. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[7]
Sri Tujina. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[7]
Younger brother of Narendraditya. His queen Ranarambha was an incarnation of Bhramaravasini. The Chola king Ratisena had found her among the waves, during an ocean worship ritual.
Vikramaditya 42 years 267 CE Son of Ranaditya
Baladitya 36 years, 8 months 309 to 345 CE Younger brother of Vikramaditya. He subdued several enemies. An astrologer prophesied that his son-in-law would succeed him as the king. To avoid this outcome, the king married his daughter Anangalekha to Durlabhavardhana, a handsome but non-royal man from Ashvaghama Kayastha caste.

Gandhara Kingdom (c. 1500 – 518 BCE)

Main article: Gandhara Kingdom

Gandhara region centered around the Peshawar Valley and Swat river valley, though the cultural influence of "Greater Gandhara" extended across the Indus river to the Taxila region in Potohar Plateau and westwards into the Kabul and Bamiyan valleys in Afghanistan, and northwards up to the Karakoram range.[11][12]

Known Gandhara rulers are-

Kuru Kingdom (c. 1200 – 345 BCE)

Main article: Kuru Kingdom

Kuru II was the ruler of Puru dynasty after whom the dynasty was named Kuruvāmshā and the kingdom was renamed from Puru dynasty to Kuru Kingdom. He had three sons, namely Vidhuratha I who became the ruler of Pratisthana, Vyushitaswa who died at a very young age, and Sudhanva, who became the ruler of Magadha. So Vidhuratha I became the king of Hastinapura.

List of rulers–

Kshemaka was the last Kuru king dethroned by Mahapadma Nanda of Nanda Empire in 345 BCE.[13][14]

Heheya Kingdom of Avanti (c. 1100 – 400 BCE)

Main articles: Heheya Kingdom and Avanti (region)

See also: Puru and Yadu Dynasties

Later they were divided among different sub-castes which include Kansara, Kasera, Tamrakar, Thathera, Tambat and many more.[17]

Medieval Haihayas

A number of early medieval dynasties, which include the Kalachuri and Mushika Kingdom of Kerala, claimed their descent from the Haihayas.[18]

Videha dynasty of Mithila (c. 1100 – 700 BCE)

Main articles: Videha and Mithila (region)

There were 52 Janaka (kings) ruled Videha dynasty of Mithila-[19]

  1. Mithi - (founder of Mithila and the first Janaka)[20]
  2. Udavasu
  3. Nandivardhana
  4. Suketu
  5. Devarata
  6. Brihadvrata
  7. Mahavira
  8. Sudhriti
  9. Dristaketu
  10. Haryasva
  11. Maru
  12. Pratindhaka
  13. Kritiratha
  14. Devamidha
  15. Vibhuta
  16. Mahidhrata
  17. Kirtirata
  18. Mahorama
  19. Swarnorama
  20. Hrisvaroma
  21. Seeradhwaja
  22. Bhaanumaan
  23. Shatadyumn
  24. Shuchi
  25. Oorjnaamaa
  26. Kriti
  27. Anjan
  28. Kurujit
  29. Arishtnemi
  30. Shrutaayu
  31. Supaarshwa
  32. Srinjaya
  33. Kshemaavee
  34. Anenaa
  35. Bhaumarath
  36. Satyarath
  37. Upagu
  38. Upagupt
  39. Swaagat
  40. Swaanand
  41. Suvarchaa
  42. Supaarshwa
  43. Subhaash
  44. Sushrut
  45. Jaya
  46. Vijaya
  47. Rit
  48. Sunaya
  49. Veetahavya
  50. Dhriti
  51. Bahulaashwa
  52. Kriti - last King of Videha or Janaka dynasty, Kirti Janak was atrocious ruler who lost control over his subjects. He was dethroned by public under leadership of Acharyas (Learned Men).

During this period of fall of Videha dynasty, the famous republic of Licchavi was rising in Vaishali and Mithila region came under control of Licchavi clan of Vajji confederacy in around eight century BCE.[21]

Kalinga Kingdom (c. 1100 – 261 BCE)

Main article: Kalinga (historical region)

Kalinga dynasty (I) (c. 1100 – 700 BCE)

Main article: Kalinga (Mahabharata)

According to Mahabharata and some Puranas, the prince 'Kalinga' founded the Kalinga Kingdom, in the current day region of coastal Odisha, including the North Sircars.[22][23] The Mahabharata also mentions one 'Srutayudha' as the king of the Kalinga kingdom, who joined the Kaurava camp.[24] In the Buddhist text, Mahagovinda Suttanta, Kalinga and its ruler, 'Sattabhu', have been mentioned.[25]

Known rulers are-

Kalinga dynasty (II) (c. 700 – 350 BCE)

This dynasty is mentioned in Chullakalinga Jataka and Kalingabodhi Jataka. The last ruler of First Kalinga dynasty is said to have broken away from the Danda kingdom along with the kings of Asmaka and Vidarbha as its feudal states, and established rule of Second Kalinga dynasty.

Known rulers are-
Other or late Kalinga rulers according to Dāṭhavaṃsa are-

This was probably another dynasty or late rulers of Second Kalinga dynasty, which is mentioned in Dāṭhavaṃsa.

Known rulers are-

Suryavamsha of Kalinga (c. 350 – 261 BCE)

Known rulers are-

His son, prince 'Soorudasaruna-Adeettiya' was exiled and as per Maldivian history, established the first kingdom Dheeva Maari and laid the foundation of the Adeetta dynasty.[26]

After Kalinga War (261 BCE), Kalinga Kingdom became a part of Mauryan Empire, after which Kalinga Kingdom was succeeded by Mahameghavahana Empire between 230 and 190 BCE which ruled until 350 CE.[28]

Kosala Kingdom (c. 1100 – 345 BCE)

Main articles: Kosala and Kosala Kingdom

List of rulers–[29]

Sumitra was the last ruler of Kosala kingdom, who was defeated by the Nanda ruler emperor Mahapadma Nanda of Magadha in 340 BCE. However, he wasn't killed, and fled to Rohtas, located in present-day Bihar.[30]

Panchala Kingdom (c. 1100 BCE – 350 CE)

Main article: Panchala Kingdom (Mahabharata)

Ajamida II had a son named Rishin. Rishin had two sons namely Samvarana II, whose son was Kuru and Brihadvasu whose descendants were Panchalas.[31][32][33]

List of Panchala Kingdom rulers are-

Anga Kingdom (c. 1100 – 530 BCE)

Main article: Anga

Known Anga rulers are-

Kamboja Kingdom (c. 700 – 200 BCE)

Main article: Kambojas

Known Kamboja rulers are-

Shakya Republic of Kapilavastu (c. 7th to 5th century BCE)

Main article: Shakya

Known Shakya rulers are–[34]

Later Shakya Republic was conquered by Virudhaka of Kosala.

First Magadha Empire (c. 544 – 28 BCE)

Haryanka Dynasty (c. 544 – 413 BCE)

Main article: Haryanka dynasty

List of Haryanka dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Bimbisara 544–491 BCE
Ajatashatru 491–461 BCE
Udayin 461–428 BCE
Anirudha 428–419 BCE
Munda 419–417 BCE
Darshaka 417–415 BCE
Nāgadāsaka 415–413 BCE

(Nāgadāsaka was last ruler of dynasty overthrowed by his named as Shishunaga in 413 BCE)

Shishunaga Dynasty (c. 413 – 345 BCE)

Main article: Shaishunaga dynasty

List of Shishunga dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Shishunaga 413–395 BCE
Kalashoka 395–377 BCE
Kshemadharman 377–365 BCE
Kshatraujas 365–355 BCE
Nandivardhana 355–349 BCE
Mahanandin 349–345 BCE

(Mahanandin was murdered by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE)

Nanda Dynasty (c. 345 – 322 BCE)

Main article: Nanda dynasty

List of Nanda dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Mahapadma Nanda 345–340 BCE
Pandukananda 340–339 BCE
Pandugatinanda 339–338 BCE
Bhutapalananda 338–337 BCE
Rashtrapalananada 337–336 BCE
Govishanakananda 336–335 BCE
Dashasiddhakananda 335–334 BCE
Kaivartananda 334–329 BCE
Dhana Nanda 329–321 BCE

(Dhana Nanda lost the throne to Chandragupta Maurya (the son-in-law of Dhana Nanda) after being defeated by him in 322 BCE)

Maurya Dynasty (c. 322 – 184 BCE)

Main article: Maurya dynasty

Ruler Reign
Chandragupta Maurya 322–297 BCE
Bindusara 297–273 BCE
Ashoka 268–232 BCE
Dasharatha Maurya 232–224 BCE
Samprati 224–215 BCE
Shalishuka 215–202 BCE
Devavarman 202–195 BCE
Shatadhanvan 195–187 BCE
Brihadratha 187–184 BCE

(Brihadratha, the last ruler of this dynasty, was dethroned by Pushyamitra Shunga in 185 BCE)

Shunga Dynasty (c. 185 – 73 BCE)

Main article: Shunga dynasty

List of Shunga dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Pushyamitra Shunga 185–149 BCE
Agnimitra 149–141 BCE
Vasujyeshtha 141–131 BCE
Vasumitra 131–124 BCE
Bhadraka 124–122 BCE
Pulindaka 122–119 BCE
Ghosha 119–108 BCE
Vajramitra 108–94 BCE
Bhagabhadra 94–83 BCE
Devabhuti 83–73 BCE

(Devabhuti was the last ruler of dynasty dethroned by Vasudeva Kanva in 73 BCE)

Kanva Dynasty (c. 73 – 28 BCE)

Main article: Kanva dynasty

List of Kanava dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign Period
Vasudeva Kanva 73–64 BCE 9
Bhumimitra 64–50 BCE 14
Narayana 50–38 BCE 12
Susarman 38–28 BCE 10

(Susarman was the last ruler of dynasty, defeated by Simuka of Satavahana Empire)

Pandyan dynasty (c. 600 BCE – 1650 CE)

Main article: Pandya dynasty

Early Pandyans

Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom

Middle Pandyans (c. 590–920 CE)

Pandyans under Chola Empire (c. 920–1216 CE)

Pandalam dynasty (Later Pandyans) (c. 1212–1345 CE)

Main article: Pandalam dynasty

Tenkasi Pandya dynasty (c. 1422–1650 CE)

Main article: Tenkasi Pandyas

During the 15th century, the Pandyans lost their traditional capital city Madurai because of the Islamic and Nayaks invasion, and were forced to move their capital to Tirunelveli in southern Tamilakam and existed there as vassals.

Chera dynasty (c. 600 BCE – 1530 CE)

Main article: Chera dynasty

Ancient Chera (c. 600 BCE–400 CE)

Kongu Chera dynasty (c. 400–844 CE)

Main article: Kongu Chera dynasty

Kodungallur Cheras (c. 844–1122 CE)

(The Perumals, formerly Kulasekharas)

Venadu Cheras (Kulasekharas) (c. 1090–1530 CE)

Main article: Kulasekhara

Chola dynasty (c. 600 BCE – 1279 CE)

Main article: Chola dynasty

See also: Legendary early Chola kings

Ancient Chola rulers (c. 600 BCE – 300 CE)

Main article: Early Cholas

Chola Empire (c. 848 – 1279 CE)

Main articles: Medieval Cholas and Later Cholas

Ruler Reign Notes
Vijayalaya Chola 848–870 Founder of the Chola Empire, and descendant of the Early Cholas.
Aditya I 870–907
Parantaka I 907–955
Gandaraditya 955–957 Ruled jointly.
Arinjaya 956–957
Parantaka II 957–970
Uttama 970–985
Rajaraja I the Great 985–1014
Rajendra I 1014–1018
Rajadhiraja I 1018–1054
Rajendra II 1054–1063
Rajamehendra 1060-1063
Virarajendra 1063–1070
Athirajendra 1070 Left no heirs.
Kulothunga I 1070–1122 Son of Amangai Devi Chola, daughter of Rajendra I, and Rajaraja Narendra, ruler of Eastern Chalukya dynasty. Kolothunga's reign started the period which was known as Chalukya-Chola dynasty or simply Later Cholas.
Vikrama 1122–1135
Kulothunga II 1135–1150 Grandson of the previous.
Rajaraja II 1150–1173
Rajadhiraja II 1173–1178 Grandson of king Vikrama Chola.
Kulothunga III 1178–1218
Rajaraja III 1218–1256
Rajendra III 1256–1279 Last Chola ruler, defeated by the Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I of the Pandya dynasty. After the war, the remaining Chola royal bloods were reduced to the state of being chieftains by the Pandyan forces.

Kingdom of Tambapanni (c. 543 – 437 BCE)

Main article: Kingdom of Tambapanni

House of Vijaya

Main article: House of Vijaya

Portrait Name Birth Death Ruler From (in BCE) Ruler Until (in BCE) Marriages Claim
Vijaya Vijaya ?
son of Sinhabahu, and Sinhasivali
543 505 Kuveni
two children Pandu Princess
Founded Kingdom
Marriage to Kuveni
- - 505 504 Prince Vijaya's Chief Minister
Panduvasdeva - - 504 474 Nephew of Vijaya
Abhaya - - 474 454 Son of Panduvasdeva
- - 454 437 Younger brother of Abhaya

Velir dynasties (c. 300 BCE – 1200 CE)

Main article: Velirs

Major dynasties of Velir are-

Ay dynasty (Velir) (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE)

Main article: Ay dynasty

Early Ay Kings

Medieval Ay Kings

Satavahana dynasty (c. 228 BCE – 224 CE)

Main article: Satavahana dynasty

The beginning of the Satavahana rule is dated variously between 230 BCE to 100 BCE and lasted until the early 3rd century CE.[35] Satavahanas dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE.[36] The following Satavahana kings are historically attested by epigraphic records, although the Puranas name several more kings.

S. Nagaraju relies on the Puranic lists of 30 kings, and gives the following regnal dates:[37]

List of Satavahana dynasty rulers
S. No Ruler Reign
1 Simuka (r. 228 – 205 BCE)
2 Krishna (r. 205 – 187 BCE)
3 Satakarni I (r. 187 – 177 BCE)
4 Purnotsanga (r. 177 – 159 BCE)
5 Skandhastambhi (r. 159 – 141 BCE)
6 Satakarni II (r. 141 – 85 BCE)
7 Lambodara (r. 85 – 67 BCE)
8 Apilaka (r. 67 – 55 BCE)
9 Meghasvati (r. 55 – 37 BCE)
10 Svati (r. 37 – 19 BCE)
11 Skandasvati (r. 19 – 12 BCE)
12 Mrigendra Satakarni (r. 12 – 9 BCE)
13 Kunatala Satakarni (r. 9 – 1 BCE)
14 Satakarni III (r. 1 BCE – 1 CE)
15 Pulumavi I (r. 1 – 36 CE)
16 Gaura Krishna (r. 36 – 61 CE)
17 Hāla (r. 61 – 66 CE)
18 Mandalaka aka Puttalaka or Pulumavi II (r. 69 – 71 CE)
19 Purindrasena (r. 71 – 76 CE)
20 Sundara Satakarni (r. 76 – 77 CE)
21 Chakora Satakarni (r. 77 – 78 CE)
22 Shivasvati (r. 78 – 106 CE)
23 Gautamiputra Satkarni (r. 106 – 130 CE)
24 Vasisthiputra aka Pulumavi III (r. 130 – 158 CE)
25 Shiva Sri Satakarni (r. 158 – 165 CE)
26 Shivaskanda Satakarni (r. 165–172)
27 Sri Yajna Satakarni (r. 172 – 201 CE)
28 Vijaya Satakarni (r. 201 – 207 CE)
29 Chandra Sri Satakarni (r. 207 – 214 CE)
30 Pulumavi IV (r. 217 – 224 CE)

Mahameghavahana dynasty of Kalinga (c. 225 BCE – 300 CE)

Main article: Mahameghavahana dynasty

Mahamegha Vahana was the founder of the Kalingan Chedi or Cheti Dynasty.[38][39] The names of Sobhanaraja, Chandraja, Ksemaraja also appear in context.[40] But, Kharavela is the most well known among them. The exact relation between Mahamegha Vahana and Kharavela is not known.[38]

Classical Period (c. 200s BCE – c. 550s CE)

Main article: Middle kingdoms of India

Kingdom of Kangleipak (Manipur) (c. 200s BCE –1950 CE)

Main articles: History of Manipur and List of Manipuri kings

The Meitei people are made up of seven major clans, known as Salai Taret.

The clans include:

  1. Mangang
  2. Khuman Salai
  3. Luwang
  4. Angom
  5. Moilang
  6. Kha Nganpa
  7. Salai Leishangthem

Ancient dynasties (clans) of Kangleipak

Khapa-Nganpa Salai
Luwang Salai

Ningthouja or Mangang dynasty (c. 33–1074 CE)

Main article: Ningthouja dynasty

Kangleipak dynasty (c. 1074–1819 CE)

Main article: Kangleipak State

  1. Loiyumpa (1074–1112)
  2. Loitongpa (1112–1150)
  3. Atom Yoilempa (1150–1163)
  4. Iyanthapa (1163–1195)
  5. Thayanthapa (1195–1231)
  6. Chingthang Lanthapa (1231–1242)
  7. Thingpai Shelhongpa (1242–1247)
  8. Pulanthapa (1247–1263)
  9. Khumompa (1263–1278)
  10. Moilampa (1278–1302)
  11. Thangpi Lanthapa (1302–1324)
  12. Kongyampa (1324–1335)
  13. Telheipa (1335–1355)
  14. Tonapa (1355–1359)
  15. Tapungpa (1359–1394)
  16. Lailenpa (1394–1399)
  17. Punsipa (1404–1432)
  18. Ningthoukhompa (1432–1467)
  19. Senpi Kiyampa (1467–1508)
  20. Koilempa (1508–1512)
  21. Lamkhyampa (1512–1523)
  22. Nonginphapa (1523–1524)
  23. Kapompa (1524–1542)
  24. Tangchampa (1542–1545)
  25. Chalampa (1545–1562)
  26. Mungyampa (1562–1597)
  27. Khaki Ngampa(1597–1652)
  28. Khunchaopa (1652–1666)
  29. Paikhompa (1666–1697)
  30. Charairongba (1697–1709)
  31. Gharib Nawaz (Ningthem Pamheipa) (1709–1754), (adoption of the name Manipur)
  32. Chit Sain (1754–1756)
  33. Gaurisiam (1756–1763)
  34. Ching-Thang Khomba (Bhagya Chandra) (1764–1798)
  35. Rohinchandra (Harshachandra Singh) (1798–1801)
  36. Maduchandra Singh (1801–1806)
  37. Charajit Singh (1806–1812)
  38. Marjit Singh (1812–1819)

(Came to power with Burmese support).

Burmese rule (c. 1819–1825 CE)

Princely State (c. 1825–1947 CE)

(Restored after the First Anglo-Burmese War)

Kuninda Kingdom (c. 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE)

Main article: Kuninda Kingdom

The Kingdom of Kuninda was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom documented from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE, located in the southern areas of modern Himachal Pradesh and far western areas of Uttarakhand in North India.

The only known ruler of Kuninda Kingdom is

Foreign assimilated kingdoms in Indian subcontinent

See also: Middle kingdoms of India

These empires were vast, centered in Persia or the Mediterranean; their satrapies (provinces) in India were at their outskirts.

The sequence of there invasions are-

Indo-Greek Kingdom (Yavanarajya) (c. 200 BCE – 10 CE)

Main article: Indo-Greek Kingdom

Indo-Scythian (Saka) ( c. 12 BCE – 395 CE)

Main articles: Indo-Scythians and List of Indo-Scythian dynasties and rulers

Aprācas rulers (c. 12 BCE − 45 CE )

Main article: Apracharajas

Northern Satraps rulers (Mathura area) (c. 20 BCE – 20 CE)

Main article: Northern Satraps

Minor local rulers
Northwestern Scythian rulers (c. 85 BCE – 10 CE)
Kshaharatas rulers
Western Satraps (Western Saka) (c. 119 – 395 CE)

Main article: Western Satraps

Pāratas rulers (c. 125 – 300 CE)

Main article: Paratarajas

Kushan Empire (c. 1 – 375 CE)

Main article: Kushan Empire

Ruler Reign Notes
Heraios 1–30 King or clan chief of the Kushans. Founder of the dynasty.
Kujula Kadphises 30–80 United the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century, and became the first Kushan emperor.
Vima Takto Soter Megas 80–90 Alias The Great Saviour. His empire covered northwestern Gandhara and greater Bactria towards China, where Kushan presence has been asserted in the Tarim Basin. Under his reign, embassies were also sent to the Chinese court.
Vima Kadphises 90–127 The first great Kushan emperor. He introduced gold coinage, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage. Most of the gold seems to have been obtained through trade with the Roman Empire.
Kanishka I the Great 127–144 Came to rule an empire in Bactria extending to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain. His conquests and patronage of Buddhism played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and in the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism from Gandhara across the Karakoram range to China.
Huvishka 144–191 His rule was a period of retrenchment and consolidation for the Empire.
Vasudeva I 191–232 He was the last great Kushan emperor, and the end of his rule coincides with the invasion of the Sassanians as far as northwestern India, and the establishment of the Indo-Sassanians or Kushanshahs from around 240.
Kanishka II 232–245 It is likely he lost part of his empire to the Kushano-Sassanians.
Vashishka 245–250
Kanishka III 250–275
Vasudeva II 275–310
Chhu 310–325
Vasudeva III c.300? Kings whose existence is uncertain.
Vasudeva IV
Vasudeva V
Shaka Kushan/Shaka I 325–350
Kipunada 350–375 May have been a subject of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire.

Indo-Parthian (Pahalava) (c. 21 – 100 CE)

Main article: Indo-Parthian Kingdom

Indo-Sasanian Kingdom (c. 233 – 365 CE)

Main article: Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom

Alchon Huns (Huna) (c. 400 – 670 CE)

Main article: Alchon Huns

Chutu dynasty of Banavasi (c. 100 BCE–200 CE)

Main article: Chutu dynasty

The following Chutu rulers are known from coins and inscriptions:[45]

Nagvanshi dynasty of Chotanagpur (c. 64–1952 CE)

Main article: Nagvanshis of Chotanagpur

Following is the list of Nagvanshi rulers according to Nagpuri poem "Nagvanshavali" written by Beniram Mehta and book "Nagvansh" written by Lal Pradumn Singh. The list of Kings and chronology varies in these books. 57th Nagvanshi king Dripnath Shah (c.1762–1790 CE) submitted list of Nagvanshi kings to Governor general of India in 1787.[46]

Rajas and Maharajas of Chotanagpur

Bharshiva dynasty (Nagas of Padmavati) (c. 170–350 CE)

Main article: Nagas of Padmavati

(Possibly ruled at Vidisha in the late 2nd Century).

(May also be the name of a distinct king who succeeded Vrisha-naga).

(Probably the first king to rule from Padmavati)

Chandra dynasty (c. 202–1050 CE)

Main articles: Chandra dynasty and Harikela

List of rulers–[47][48]
List of Chandra dynasty Rulers
# King Period Reign (CE)
1 Chandrodaya 27 202–229
2 Annaveta 5 229–234
3 Chandra 77 234–311
4 Rimbhiappa 23 311–334
5 Kuverami (Queen) 7 334–341
6 Umavira 20 341–361
7 Jugna 7 361–368
8 Lanki 2 368–370
9 Dvenchandra 55 370–425
10 Rajachandra 20 425–445
11 Kalachandra 9 445–454
12 Devachandra 22 454–476
13 Yajnachandra 7 476–483
14 Chandrabandu 6 483–489
15 Bhumichandra 7 489–496
16 Bhutichandra 24 496–520
17 Nitichandra 55 520–575
18 Virachandra 3 575–578
19 Pritichandra 12 578-90
20 Prithvichandra 7 590–597
21 Dhirtichandra 3 597–600
22 Mahavira 12 600-12
23 Virayajap 12 612-24
24 Sevinren 12 624-36
25 Dharmasura 13 636-49
26 Vajrashakti 16 649-65
27 Dharmavijaya 36 665–701
28 Narendravijaya 2 yr 9 months 701–703
29 Dharmachandra 16 703–720
30 Anandachandra 9+ 720-729+
Harikela Dynasty
1 Traillokyachandra 30 900–930
2 Srichandra 45 930–975
3 Kalyanachandra 25 975–1000
4 Ladahachandra 20 1000–1020
5 Govindachandra 30 1020–1050

Abhira dynasty of Nasik (203–370 CE)

Main article: Abhira dynasty

The following is the list of the sovereign and strong Abhira rulers:[49]

Second Magadha Empire (c. 240 – 750 CE)

Main article: Gupta Empire

Imperial Guptas

Ruler Reign
Srigupta 240–290
Ghatotkacha 290–320
Chandragupta I 320–325
Samudragupta 325–375
Kacha 4th-century
Ramagupta 375–380
Chandragupta II Vikramaditya 380–415
Kumaragupta I 415–455
Skandagupta 455–467
Purugupta 467–472
Kumaragupta II Kramaditya 472–479
Buddhagupta 479–496
Narasimhagupta Baladitya 496–530
Kumaragupta III 530–540
Vishnugupta Candraditya 540–550
Bhanugupta ?

Later Guptas (c. 490 – 750 CE)

Main article: Later Gupta dynasty

The genealogy of Later Gupta rulers regin is disputed, this list is approx to there original regin:[50][51]

List of Later Gupta dynasty rulers
Nu. King Reign (CE) Notes
1 Krishna-gupta c. 490–505
2 Harsha-gupta c. 505–525
3 Jivita-gupta I c. 525–550
4 Kumara-gupta c. 550–560
5 Damodara-gupta c. 560–562
6 Mahasena-gupta c. 562–601
7 Madhava-gupta c. 601–655
8 Aditya-sena c. 655–680
9 Deva-gupta c. 680–700
10 Vishnu-gupta c. 700–725
11 Jivita-gupta II c. 725–750

Vakataka dynasty (c. 250–500 CE)

Main article: Vakataka dynasty

Ruler Reign Capital Notes
Vindhyashakti 250-275 Vatsagulma Founder of the Vakataka Empire and dynasty.
Pravarasena I 275-330 Vatsagulma After his death, his sons divided the empire: Rudrasena took the northern half, and Sarvasena the southern (with the original capital)
Rudrasena I 330-360 Pravapura and
Son of Pravarasena, took the northern part of the realm.
Sarvasena I 330-355 Vatsagulma
Son of Pravarasena, took the southern part of the realm.
Vindhyasena 355-400 Vatsagulma
Prithivishena I 360-385 Pravapura and
Rudrasena II 385-390 Pravapura and
Regency of Prabhavatigupta (390-410) Ruled under regency of his mother (daughter of Chandragupta II). The regency coincided with the zenith of the Gupta Empire, which also extended influence into the Vakataka realms.
Divakarasena 390-410 Pravapura and
Pravarasena II 400-415 Vatsagulma
Damodarasena 410-420 Pravapura and
Sarvasena II 415-455 Vatsagulma
Pravarasena II 430-440 Pravapura and
Narendrasena 440-460 Pravapura and
Devasena 455-480 Vatsagulma
Prithivishena II 460-480 Pravapura and
Harishena 480-510 Vatsagulma

Pallava dynasty (c. 275 – 897 CE)

Main article: Pallava dynasty

Early or Middle Pallavs rulers regin is disputed, this timeline is approx to there original regin:

List of Pallava dynasty rulers
Nu. King Reign (CE) (disputed) Notes
Former Pallava
1 Simhavarman I c. 275–300
2 Sivaskandavarman c. 300–330
3 Skandavarman I c. 330–340
Middle Pallava
4 Vishnugopa c. 340–360
5 Skandavarman II c. 360–380
6 Kumaravishnu I c. 380–400
7 Buddhavarman c. 400–410
8 Kumaravishnu II c. 410–420
9 Viravarman c. 420–425
10 Skandavarman IV c. 425–436
11 Simhavarman II c. 436–458
12 Skandavarman V c. 458–480
13 Nandivarman c. 480–500
14 Vishnugopavarman c. 500–520
15 Candadanda c. 520–540
16 Simhavarman III c. 540–560
Later Pallava
17 Simhavishnu c. 560–600
18 Mahendravarman I c. 600–630
19 Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) c. 630–668
20 Mahendravarman II c. 668–672
21 Paramesvaravarman I c. 672–700
22 Narasimhavarman II (Raja Simha) c. 700–728
23 Paramesvaravarman II c. 728–732
24 Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) c. 732–796
25 Thandivarman c. 796–840
26 Nandivarman III c. 840–869
27 Nrpatungavarman c. 869–882
28 Aparajitavarman c. 882–897

Aulikara Empire (c. 300 – 550 CE)

Main articles: Aulikara Empire and Dashapura

Rulers of First Aulikara dynasty-

Rulers of Second Aulikara dynasty-

Kadamba dynasties (345 – 1310 CE)

Kadamba dynasty of Banavasi (c. 345 – 540 CE)

Main article: Kadamba dynasty

Banavasi branch rulers-

Triparvatha branch rulers-

Kadamba dynasty of Goa (960 – 1345 CE)

Main article: Kadambas of Goa

Kadamba dynasty of Hangal (980 – 1275 CE)

Main article: Kadambas of Hangal

known rulers are-

Other minor Kadamba Kingdoms

Kadambas of Halasi
Kadambas of Bankapur
Kadambas of Bayalnad
Kadambas of Nagarkhanda
Kadambas of Uchchangi
Kadambas of Bayalnadu (Vainadu)

Varman dynasty of Kamarupa (350–650 CE)

Main articles: Varman dynasty and Kamarupa

The dynastic line, as given in the Dubi and Nidhanpur copperplate inscriptions:[52]

Reign Name succession Queen
1 350-374 Pushyavarman (unknown)
2 374-398 Samudravarman son of Pushyavarman Dattadevi
3 398-422 Balavarman son of Samudravarman Ratnavati
4 422-446 Kalyanavarman son of Balavarman Gandharavati
5 446-470 Ganapativarman son of Kalyanavarman Yajnavati
6 470-494 Mahendravarman son of Ganapativarman Suvrata
7 494-518 Narayanavarman son of Mahendravarman Devavati
8 518-542 Bhutivarman son of Narayanavarman Vijnayavati
9 542-566 Chandramukhavarman son of Bhutivarman Bhogavati
10 566-590 Sthitavarman son of Chandramukhavarman Nayanadevi
11 590-595 Susthitavarman son of Sthitavarman Syamadevi
12 595-600 Supratisthitavarman son of Susthitavarman (Bachelor)
13 600-650 Bhaskaravarman brother of Supratisthitavarman (Bachelor)
14 650-655 Avanti Varman (unknown) (unknown)

Ganga dynasty (350–1424 CE)

Main articles: Western Ganga dynasty and Eastern Ganga dynasty

Ruler Reign Capital Notes
Konganivarma Madhava I 350-370 Talakad (Western) Founder of the dynasty, who gained independence from the Pallava dynasty. He ruled the area around modern Kolar in the early 4th century.
Madhava II 370-390 Talakad (Western)
Harivarman 390-410 Talakad (Western)
Vishnugopa 410-430 Talakad (Western)
Madhava III Tadangala 430-469 Talakad (Western)
Avinita 469-529 Talakad (Western)
Indravarman I 498-537 Dantapuram (Eastern) Indravarman I is earliest known Independent king of the dynasty. He is known from the Jirjingi copper plate grant.[53][54] Founder of the Eastern line of the family, which is probable to be descended from the Western one.
Durvinita 529-579 Talakad (Western)
Samantavarman 537-562 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Hastivarman 562-578 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Indravarman II 578-589 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Mushkara 579-604 Talakad (Western)
Danarnava 589-652 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Polavira 604-629 Talakad (Western)
Indravarman III 652-682 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Srivikrama 629-654 Talakad (Western)
Bhuvikrama 654-679 Talakad (Western)
Shivamara I 679-725 Talakad (Western)
Gunarnava 682-730 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Sripurusha 725-788 Talakad (Western)
Devendravarman I 730-780 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Anantavarman I 780-812 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Shivamara II 788-816 Talakad (Western) He was taken captive by the Rashtrakutas.
Rajendravarman 812-840 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Rachamalla I 817-853 Talakad (Western)
Devendravarman II 840-895 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Neetimarga I Ereganga 853-869 Talakad (Western)
Rachamalla II 869-907 Talakad (Western)
Gunamaharnava I 895-910 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Neetimarga II Ereyappa 907-921 Talakad (Western)
Vajrahasta-Anangabhimadeva I 910-939 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Narasimha I 921-933 Talakad (Western)
Rachamalla III 933-938 Talakad (Western)
Butuga 938-961 Talakad (Western) Ruled jointly, in 949.
Takkolam 949 Talakad (Western)
Gundama I 939-942 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Kamarnava I 942-977 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Neetimarga III Marulaganga 961-963 Talakad (Western)
Narasimha II 963-975 Talakad (Western)
Rachamalla IV 975-986 Talakad (Western)
Vinayaditya 977-980 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Vajrahasta II 980-1015 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Rachamalla V 986-999 Talakad (Western)
Neetimarga IV Permanadi 999 Talakad (Western) In 999, after his death, the Western Ganga Empire was annexed by the Chola dynasty.
Annexed to the Chola Empire
Kamarnava II 1015 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Gundama II 1015-1018 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Madhukamarnava 1018-1038 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Vajrahasta III 1038-1070 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Rajarajadeva I 1070-1078 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Anantavarman II Chodaganga 1078-1150 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Jatesvaradeva 1150-1156 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Raghavadeva 1156-1170 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Rajarajadeva II 1170-1178 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Anangabhimadeva II 1178-1198 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Rajarajadeva III 1198-1211 Dantapuram (Eastern)
Anangabhimadeva III 1211-1238 Kataka (Eastern)
Narasinghadeva I 1238-1264 Kataka (Eastern)
Bhanudeva I 1264-1279 Kataka (Eastern)
Narasinghadeva II 1279-1306 Kataka (Eastern)
Bhanudeva II 1306-1328 Kataka (Eastern)
Narasinghadeva III 1328-1352 Kataka (Eastern)
Bhanudeva III 1352-1378 Kataka (Eastern)
Narasinghadeva IV 1378-1424 Kataka (Eastern)
Bhanudeva IV 1424-1434 Kataka (Eastern) After his death, the Empire was annexed to the Gajapati Kingdom.
Annexed to the Gajapati Kingdom

Other minor Ganga states

Gudari Kataka Ganga State

Main article: Gudari, Rayagada

According to Gangavansucharitam written in sixteenth or seventeenth century, Bhanu Deva IV also known as Kajjala Bhanu founded a new small princedom in southern Odisha at Gudari in modern Rayagada district after he was toppled from power by his general Kapilendra Deva.[55]

Chikiti Ganga State (c. 881–1950 CE)

Main article: Chikiti

Historians conclude that the rulers of Chikiti were from the line of Ganga ruler Hastivarman.[56][57]

Parlakhemundi Ganga State (c. 1309–1950)

Main article: Parlakhemundi Ganga rulers

Parlakhemundi state rulers were the direct descendants of the Eastern Ganga dynasty rulers of Odisha.[58][59]

Traikutaka dynasty (c. 370–520 CE)

Main article: Traikutaka dynasty

The following Traikuta rulers are known from the coins and inscriptions of Gupta Empire:[60]

Vishnukundina dynasty (c. 420–624 CE)

Main article: Vishnukundina dynasty

Maitraka dynasty of Vallabhi (c. 475–776 CE)

Main article: Maitraka dynasty

Rai dynasty (c. 489–632 CE)

Main article: Rai dynasty

Chalukya dynasty (c. 500–1200 CE)

Main articles: Chalukya dynasty, Eastern Chalukyas, Chalukyas of Vemulavada, and Western Chalukya Empire

Ruler Reign Capital Notes
Jayasimha I 500–520 Badami Founder of the dynasty. He ruled the area around modern Bijapur in the early 6th century.
Ranaraga 520–540 Badami
Pulakeshin I 540–567 Badami He ruled parts of the present-day Maharashtra and Karnataka states in the western Deccan region of India.
Kirtivarman I 567–592 Badami He expanded the Chalukya kingdom by defeating the Nalas, the Mauryas of Konkana, the Kadambas, the Alupas, and the Gangas of Talakad.
Mangalesha 592–610 Badami Brother of Kirtivarman. Expanded the Chalukya power in present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra after defeating the Kalachuri king Buddharaja. He also consolidated his rule in the Konkan coastal region of Maharashtra and Goa after conquering Revati-dvipa from the rebel Chalukya governor Svamiraja. His reign ended when he lost a war of succession to his nephew Pulakeshin II, a son of Kirttivarman I.
Pulakeshin II 610–642 Badami Son of Kirtivarman I, he overthrew his uncle Mangalesha to gain control of the throne. Suppressed a rebellion by Appayika and Govinda, and decisively defeated the Kadambas of Banavasi in the south. Consolidated the Chalukya control over the western coast by subjugating the Mauryas of Konkana. He was victorious against the

powerful northern emperor Harsha-vardhana. He also achieved some successes against the Pallavas in the south, but was ultimately defeated, and probably killed, during an invasion by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I.

Kubja Vishnuvardhana I 615/24–641 Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Pulakeshin II. Ruled under him as viceroy in Vengi, and then declared independence in 624.
Jayasimha I (II) 641–673 Vengi (Eastern)
Adityavarman 642–645 Badami First son of Pulakeshin II. Probably ruled under the Pallavas.
Abhinavaditya 645–646 Badami Son of the predecessor.
Chandraditya 646–649 Badami Second son of Pulakeshin II.
Regency of Vijaya-Bhattarika (649-655) Regent for her minor son. She was deposed by her brother-in-law.
A son of Chandraditya 649-655 Badami
Satyashraya c.650-675 Vemulavada Founder of the branch, possibly son of Pulakshin II.
Vikramaditya I 655–680 Badami He restored order in the fractured kingdom and made the Pallavas retreat from the capital.
Indra Bhattaraka 673 Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Jayasimha II. Ruled for a week.
Vishnuvardhana II 673–682 Vengi (Eastern)
Prithvipathi c.675-700 Vemulavada
Vinayaditya 680–696 Badami He carried campaigns against the Pallavas, Kalabhras, Haihayas, Vilas, Cholas, Pandyas, Gangas and many more.
Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya I 696–733 Badami His long reign was marked by general peace and prosperity. Vijayaditya also built a number of temples. He fought against the Pallavas and extracted tributes from Parameshwar Varma V.
Maharaja c.700-725 Vemulavada
Jayasimha III 706–718 Vengi (Eastern)
Kokkli 718–719 Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnuvardhana III 719–755 Vengi (Eastern)
Rajaditya c.725-750 Vemulavada
Vikramaditya II 733–746 Badami Conducted successful military campaigns against their enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram, in three occasions: the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II.
Kirtivarman II Rahappa 746- 757 Badami His reign was continuously troubled by the growing power of the Rashtrakutas and Pandyas. He finallt succumbed to the Rashtrakutas, who ended the power of the family in Badami.
Vinayaditya Yuddhamalla I c.750-775 Vemulavada
Vijayaditya I (II) 755–772 Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnuvardhana IV 755–808 Vengi (Eastern)
Arikesari I c.775-800 Vemulavada
Narasimha I c.800-825 Vemulavada
Vijayaditya II (III) 808–847 Vengi (Eastern) His first military victories against the Rashtrakutas made the path for the independence of the dynasty from this occupant.
Yuddhamalla II c.825-850 Vemulavada
Kali Vishnuvardhana V 847–849 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya III (IV) 849–892 Vengi (Eastern) Brothers, ruled together.
Vikramaditya I (III) Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla I Vengi (Eastern)
Baddega I Soladaganda c.850-895 Vemulavada
Bhima I 892–921 Vengi (Eastern) During his rule, Vengi could claim some independence as capital from the Rashtrakutas.
Yuddhamalla III c.895-915 Vemulavada
Narasimha II c.915-930 Vemulavada
Vijayaditya IV (V) 921 Vengi (Eastern)
Amma I 921–927 Vengi (Eastern) Probably brothers, ruled jointly.
Vishnuvardhana VI Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya V (VI) 927 Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for fifteen days.
Tadapa 927 Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for a month.
Vikramaditya II (IV) 927–928 Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima II 928–929 Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla II 929–935 Vengi (Eastern)
Arikesari II c.930-941 Vemulavada
Bhima III 935–947 Vengi (Eastern)
Baddega II 941-946 Vemulavada Ruled jointly.
Vagaraja 941-950 Vemulavada
Arikesari III 946/950-968 Vemulavada
Annexed to the Western Chalukya Empire
Amma II 947–970 Vengi (Eastern)
Danarnava 970–973 Vengi (Eastern) Deposed by Jata Choda Bhima. Sought for help within the Chola Empire.
Tailapa II Ahvamalla 973–997 Kalyani (Western) 6th great-grandson of Vijayaditya I. Ousted the Rashtrakutas in the West and recovered the power once held by his family.
Jata Choda Bhima 973–999 Vengi (Eastern)
Satyashraya 997–1008 Kalyani (Western)
Shaktivarman I 999–1011 Vengi (Eastern) First son of Danarnava. Returned from exile and recovered his throne. Now free from the usurper, however Eastern Vengi dynasty lost some of the independence they have gained some generations ago. Begin of the growing Chola influence in Vengi kingdom.
Vikramaditya V 1008–1015 Kalyani (Western) Nephew of Satyahraya, as son of his brother, Dashavarman.
Vimaladitya 1011–1018 Vengi (Eastern) Second son of Danarnava. In his exile period with his father and brother, he was married to Kundavai, daughter of Rajaraja I from the Chola Empire.
Jayasimha II (III) 1015–1043 Kalyani (Western) He had to fight on many fronts, against the Cholas of Tanjore in the south and the Paramara dynasty in the north, to protect his kingdom. His rule however was an important period of development of Kannada literature. He saw his cousins in Vengi fall firmly into the hands of the Cholas who would use their marital relations with the Eastern Chalukyas and their over lordship over Vengi to frustrate and threaten the Western Chalukyas from two fronts, from the east and from the South. But, at the same time, he consolidated more firmly the Western Chalukya power in the Deccan.
Rajaraja Narendra 1018–1061 Vengi (Eastern) Son of Vimaladitya, had support in the throne from the Cholas, whose influence grew significantly. He supported Cholas against his cousins, the Western Chalukyas. His own son managed to succeed in the Chola Empire, in 1070, as Kulottunga I, beginning the Later Cholas period, in which the Chola Empire was ruled by a branch of the Eastern Chalukyas renamed Chola, which inherited Narendra's kingdom. It's possible, then, that the following rulers were governors for the Chola Emperor ruling Eastern Chalukya territory:
  • Shaktivarman II (1061-1062);
  • Vijayaditya VII (1062-1075), also son of Vimaladitya, but half-brother of Rajaraja Narendra. Ascended with support from Western Chalukyas.
  • Rajaraja (1075-1079)
  • Vishuvardhana VII (1079-1102), last known Chalukya ruler of Vengi.
Annexed to the Chola Empire (1061-1118); Annexed to the Western Chalukya Empire (since 1118)
Someshvara I Trilokyamalla 1042–1068 Kalyani (Western) His several military successes in Central India made him a formidable ruler of a vast empire. During his rule, the Chalukyan empire extended to Gujarat and Central India in the north.
Someshvara II Bhuvanaikamalla 1068–1076 Kalyani (Western) First son of Someshvara I, deposed by his younger brother, Vikramaditya.
Vikramaditya VI Tribhuvanamalla 1076–1126 Kalyani (Western) Second son of Someshvara I. Under his reign, the Western Chalukya Empire reached its zenith. He is noted for his patronage of art and letters. His court was adorned with famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. Intervened in Chola politics, sitting his brother-in-law, Athirajendra Chola, on the Chola Empire throne.
Someshvara III 1126–1138 Kalyani (Western) He was a noted historian, scholar, and poet, and authored the Sanskrit encyclopedic text Manasollasa touching upon such topics as polity, governance, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, medicine, food, architecture, painting, poetry and music: making his work a valuable modern source of socio-cultural information of the 11th- and 12th-century India.
Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151 Kalyani (Western) His rule saw the slow decline of the Chalukya empire with the loss of Vengi entirely, though he was still able to control the Hoysalas in the south and the Seuna and Paramara in the north.
Tailapa III 1151–1164 Kalyani (Western) Faced many feudatory risings against Chalukya rule.
Jagadhekamalla III 1164–1183 Kalyani (Western) His rule was completely overshowded by the emergence of the Southern Kalachuris under Bijjala II who took control of Kalyani. He had to escape to the Banavasi region.
Someshvara IV 1183–1200 Kalyani (Western) Recovered his capital, by defeating the Kalachuris, but failed to prevent his old allies, Seuna, Hoysala and the Kakatiya dynasty, who, after deposing Someshvara by 1200, divided his empire among themselves.
Annexed to the Seuna, Hoysala and the Kakatiya dynasties

Shahi Kingdom (c. 500–1026 CE)

In Kabul Shahi Kingdom two Dynasties ruled (both were Hindu dynasties) from:

Turk Shahi dynasty (c. 500–850 CE)

Main article: Turk Shahi

Hindu Shahi dynasty (c. 850–1026 CE)

Main article: Hindu Shahi

Pushyabhuti dynasty (c. 500 – 647 CE)

Main article: Pushyabhuti dynasty

List of Pushyabhuti dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (CE) Notes
Pushyabhuti ~500
Nāravardhana 500–525
Rājyavardhana I 525–555
Ādityvardhana 555–580
Prabhākaravardhana 580–605
Rājyavardhana II 605–606
Harṣavardhana 606–647

Jaintia Kingdom (c. 525–1835 CE)

Main article: Jaintia Kingdom

Old dynasty

  1. Urmi Rani (?-550)
  2. Krishak Pator (550–570)
  3. Hatak (570–600)
  4. Guhak (600–630)

Partitioned Jaintia

  1. Jayanta (630–660)
  2. Joymalla (660-?)
  3. Mahabal (?)
  4. Bancharu (?-1100)
  5. Kamadeva (1100–1120)
  6. Bhimbal (1120)

Brahmin dynasty

  1. Kedareshwar Rai (1120–1130)
  2. Dhaneshwar Rai (1130–1150)
  3. Kandarpa Rai (1150–1170)
  4. Manik Rai (1170–1193)
  5. Jayanta Rai (1193–1210)
  6. Jayanti Devi
  7. Bara Gossain

New dynasty

  1. Prabhat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1500–1516)
  2. Majha Gosain Syiem Sutnga (1516–1532)
  3. Burha Parbat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1532–1548)
  4. Bar Gosain Syiem Sutnga I (1548–1564)
  5. Bijay Manik Syiem Sutnga (1564–1580)
  6. Pratap Ray Syiem Sutnga (1580–1596)
  7. Dhan Manik Syiem Sutnga (1596–1612)
  8. Jasa Manik Syiem Sutnga (1612–1625)
  9. Sundar Ray Syiem Sutnga (1625–1636)
  10. Chota Parbat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1636–1647)
  11. Jasamanta Ray Syiem Sutnga (1647–1660)
  12. Ban Singh Syiem Sutnga (1660–1669)
  13. Pratap Singh Syiem Sutnga (1669–1678)
  14. Lakshmi Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1678–1694)
  15. Ram Singh Syiem Sutnga I (1694–1708)
  16. Jay Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1708–1731)
  17. Bar Gosain Syiem Sutnga II (1731–1770)
  18. Chattra Singh Syiem Sutnga (1770–1780)
  19. Yatra Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1780–1785)
  20. Bijay Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1785–1786)
  21. Lakshmi Singh Syiem Sutnga (1786–1790)
  22. Ram Singh Syiem Sutnga II (1790–1832)
  23. Rajendra Singh Syiem Sutnga (1832–1835)[62][63]

Early Medieval Period (c. 550s CE – c. 1200s CE)

Kalachuri dynasties (c. 550 – 1225 CE)

Kalachuri dynasty of Mahishmati/Malwa (Early Kalachuris) (c. 550 – 625 CE)

Main article: Kalachuri dynasty

The following are the known rulers of the Kalachuri dynasty of Malwa with their estimated reigns (IAST names in brackets):[64]

Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri/Chedi (Later Kalachuris) (c. 675 – 1212 CE)

Main article: Kalachuris of Tripuri


Kalachuri dynasty of Ratnapura (c. 1000 – 1225 CE)

Main article: Kalachuris of Ratnapura

The following is a list of the Ratnapura Kalachuri rulers, with estimated period of their reigns:[66]

Kalachuri dynasty of Kalyani (Southern Kalachuris) (c. 1130 – 1184 CE)

Main article: Kalachuris of Kalyani


Patola/Gilgit Shahi dynasty (c. 550 – 750 CE)

Main article: Patola Shahis

Regin of known rulers is disputed-[67][68]

Gurjara-Pratihara Empire (c. 550 – 1036 CE)

Main article: Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty

Pratiharas of Mandavyapura (Mandor) (c. 550 – 860 CE)

Main article: Pratiharas of Mandavyapura

R. C. Majumdar, on the other hand, assumed a period of 25 years for each generation, and placed him in c. 550 CE. The following is a list of the dynasty's rulers (IAST names in brackets) and estimates of their reigns, assuming a period of 25 years.

Imperial Pratiharas of Kannauj (c. 730 – 1036 CE)

Main article: Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty

List of rulers–
List of Imperial Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty rulers
Serial No. Ruler Reign (CE)
1 Nagabhata I 730–760
2 Kakustha and Devaraja 760–780
3 Vatsaraja 780–800
4 Nagabhata II 800–833
5 Ramabhadra 833–836
6 Mihira Bhoja or Bhoja I 836–885
7 Mahendrapala I 885–910
8 Bhoja II 910–913
9 Mahipala I 913–944
10 Mahendrapala II 944–948
11 Devapala 948–954
12 Vinayakapala 954–955
13 Mahipala II 955–956
14 Vijayapala II 956–960
15 Rajapala 960–1018
16 Trilochanapala 1018–1027
17 Yasahpala 1024–1036

Other Pratihara Branches

Baddoch Branch (c. 600 – 700 CE)

Known Baddoch rulers are-

Rajogarh Branch

Badegujar were rulers of Rajogarh

Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasties (c. 551 – 1315 CE)

Main articles: Chauhan (disambiguation) and Chahamanas (disambiguation)

The ruling dynasties belonging to the Chauhan clan included–

Chahamanas of Sambhar Ajmer and Delhi (c. 551 – 1194 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Shakambhari

Following is a list of Chahamana rulers of Shakambhari, Ajmer and Delhi with approximate period of reign, as estimated historian by R. B. Singh:[69]

Serial no. Regnal names Reign (CE) Notes
1 King Chahamana (Unknown) Ancient founder of Chahamana clan.
2 Vasu-deva c. 551 CE (disputed) First known ruler of the dynasty. He ruled the Sapadalaksha region and made Shakambhari (modern Sambhar) as capital.
3 Samanta-raja 684–709 Identified as the ancient King Manik Rai by R. B. Singh.
4 Nara-deva 709–721 Naradeva was succeeded by his brother Ajayaraja I.
5 Ajaya-raja I 721–734 According to Prithviraja Vijaya, he was a great warrior who defeated several enemies.
6 Vigraha-raja I 734–759 He achieved military successes upon neighbouring kingdom.
7 Chandra-raja I 759–771 Chandraraja I was a son of the Chahamana king Vigraharaja I. He was succeeded by his brother Gopendraraja.
8 Gopendra-raja 771–784 The Prabandha-Kosha states that Gopendra defeated Arab invader Muhammad bin Qasim in a battle.
9 Durlabha-raja I 784–809 He achieved military success against the Pala Empire king Dharmapala as a vassal of the Pratihara emperor Vatsaraja.
10 Govinda-raja I alias Guvaka I 809–836 The Harsha stone inscription suggests that he was a vassal the Pratihara emperor Nagabhata II.
11 Chandra-raja II 836–863 He was succeeded by his son Govindaraja II.
12 Govindaraja II alias Guvaka II 863–890 The Harsha stone inscription describes Govinda II as a warrior. He married his sister to Pratihara emperor Mihira Bhoja.
13 Chandana-raja 890–917 According to the Harsha stone inscription, Chandana defeated a Tomara ruler named Rudra


14 Vakpati-raja 917–944 His younger son established the Naddula Chahamana branch in 950 CE.
15 Simha-raja 944–971 He was the first independent ruler of dynasty. He had assume the title of Maharajadhiraja.
16 Vigraha-raja II 971–998 He joined an alliance formed by the ruler of Lahore against the Ghaznavid ruler Sabuktigin.
17 Durlabha-raja II 998–1012 He assumed the title Maharajadhiraja. He joined a confederacy of Hindu kings to support Anandapala in

Battle of Chach against invasion Mahmud of Ghazni in 1008 CE.

18 Govinda-raja III 1012–1026 The Prabandha Kosha states that he defeated Mahmud of Ghazni badly.
19 Vakpati-raja II 1026–1040 Later texts claimed that he defeated Bhoja, the Paramara king of Malwa.
20 Viryarama 1040 (few months) Paramara king Bhoja attacked Chahamana kingdom and defeated him.
21 Chamunda-raja 1040–1065 He have defeated a Muslim army led by a Ghaznavid Sultan or general.
22 Durlabha-raja III alias Duśala 1065–1070 He conquered military successes upon neighbouring kingdom.
23 Vigraha-raja III alias Visala 1070–1090 He defeated Shahab-ud-Din (general of Ibrahim of Ghazna).
24 Prithvi-raja I 1090–1110 After defeating Muslim invaders he adopted titles as Parama-bhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara.
25 Ajaya-raja II 1110–1135 He founded the city of Ajmer and moved his capital there.
26 Arno-raja alias Ana 1135–1150 His title as Maharajadhiraja-Parameshvara.
27 Jagad-deva 1150 Some sources claimed that he ascended Chahamana throne after killing his father.
28 Vigraha-raja IV alias Visaladeva 1150–1164 The Chahaman kingdom reached its zenith under him.
29 Apara-gangeya 1164–1165 He have ascended the throne as a minor, and ruled for a very short period.
30 Prithvi-raja II 1165–1169 He probably died heirless, so he was succeeded by his uncle Someshvara.
31 Someshvara 1169–1178 He adopted title of Pratāpalaṃkeśvara.
32 Prithviraja III Rai Pithora 1177–1192 Last effective ruler of the dynasty who was defeated in the Second Battle of Tarain against Muhammad of Ghor in 1192 CE.
33 Govinda-raja IV 1192 Ghurid vassal who later established the Chahamana branch of Ranastambhapura in 1192 CE.
34 Hari-raja 1193–1194 Last ruler of Chauhan dynasty branch of Ajmer.

Chahamanas of Naddula (c. 950 – 1197 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Naddula

Following is a list of Chahmana rulers of Naddula, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:

List of Chauhan rulers of Naddula
Serial no. Kings Reign (CE)
1 Lakshmana 950–982
2 Shobhita 982–986
3 Baliraja 986–990
4 Vigrahapala 990–994
5 Mahindra 994–1015
6 Ashvapala 1015–1019
7 Ahila 1019–1024
8 Anahilla 1024–1055
9 Balaprasada 1055–1070
10 Jendraraja 1070–1080
11 Prithvipala 1080–1090
12 Jojalladeva 1090–1110
13 Asharaja 1110–1119
14 Ratnapala 1119–1132
15 Rayapala 1132–1145
16 Katukaraja 1145–1148
17 Alhanadeva 1148–1163
18 Kelhanadeva 1163–1193
19 Jayatasimha 1193–1197

Chahamanas of Jalor (c. 1160 – 1311 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Jalor

The Chahamana rulers of the Jalor branch, with their estimated periods of reign, are as follows:[70]

Virama-deva (1311 CE) was last ruler of dynasty, crowned during the Siege of Jalore, but died 212 days later.[71][72]

List of Chauhan rulers of Jalor
Serial no. Kings Reign (CE)
1 Kirti-pala 1160–1182
2 Samara-simha 1182–1204
3 Udaya-simha 1204–1257
4 Chachiga-deva 1257–1282
5 Samanta-simha 1282–1305
6 Kanhada-deva 1292–1311
7 Virama-deva 1311

Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura (c. 1192 – 1301 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura

List of Chauhan rulers of Ranastambhapura
Serial no. Kings Reign (CE)
1 Govinda-raja 1192
2 Balhana-deva
3 Prahlada-deva
4 Viranarayana
5 Vagabhata
6 Jaitra-simha
7 Shakti-deva
8 Hammira-deva 1283–1311

Kingdom of Mewar (c. 566 – 1947 CE)

Main article: Kingdom of Mewar

In the 6th century, three different Guhila dynasties are known to have ruled in present-day Rajasthan:

  1. Guhilas of Nagda-Ahar– most important branch and future ruling dynasty of Mewar.
  2. Guhilas of Kishkindha (modern Kalyanpur)
  3. Guhilas of Dhavagarta (modern Dhor)

Guhila dynasty (c. 566 – 1303 CE)

Main articles: Guhila dynasty and Gahlot

List of Guhila dynasty rulers
Nu. King (Rawal) Reign (CE) Notes
1 Rawal Guhil 566–586
2 Rawal Bhoj 586–606
3 Rawal Mahendra I 606–626
4 Rawal Naga (Nagaditya) 626–646
5 Rawal Shiladitya 646–661
6 Rawal Aprajeet 661–688
7 Rawal Mahendra II 688–716
8 Bappa Rawal 728–753
9 Rawal Khuman I 753–773
10 Rawal Mattat 773–793
11 Rawal Bhartri Bhatt I 793–813
12 Rawal Sinh 813–828
13 Rawal Khuman II 828–853
14 Rawal Mahayak 853–878
15 Rawal Khuman III 878–926
16 Rawal Bhartri Bhatt II 926–951
17 Rawal Allat 951–971
18 Rawal Narwahan 971–973
19 Rawal Saliwahan 973–977
20 Rawal Shakti Kumar 977–993
21 Rawal Amba Prasad 993–1007
22 Rawal Shuchivarma 1007–1021
23 Rawal Narvarma 1021–1035
24 Rawal Keertivarma 1035–1051
25 Rawal Yograj 1051–1068
26 Rawal Vairath 1068–1088
27 Rawal Hanspal 1088–1103
28 Rawal Vair Singh 1103–1107
29 Rawal Vijai Singh 1107–1116
30 Rawal Ari Singh I 1116–1138
31 Rawal Chaudh Singh 1138–1148
32 Rawal Vikram Singh 1148–1158
33 Rawal Ran Singh 1158–1168
Post-split Rawal branch rulers
34 Rawal Khshem Singh 1168–1172
35 Rawal Samant Singh 1172–1179
36 Rawal Kumar Singh 1179–1191
37 Rawal Mathan Singh 1191–1211
38 Rawal Padam Singh 1211–1213
39 Rawal Jaitra Singh 1213–1252
40 Rawal Tej Singh 1252–1273
41 Rawal Samar Singh 1273–1302
42 Rawal Ratan Singh 1302–1303

Branching of Guhil dynasty

During reign of Rawal Ran Singh (1158–1168), the Guhil dynasty got divided into two branches.

First (Rawal Branch)

Rawal Khshem Singh (1168–1172), son of Ran Singh, ruled over Mewar by building Rawal Branch.

Second (Rana Branch)

Rahapa, the second son of Ran Singh started the Rana Branch by establishing Sisoda bases. Later Hammir Singh of Sisoda base started main Sisodia or Mewar dynasty in 1326 CE.

Rana branch rulers (c. 1168 – 1326 CE)

"Rahapa", a son of Ranasimha alias Karna, established the Rana branch. According to the 1652 Eklingji inscription, Rahapa's successors were:

List of Rana branch rulers
Nu. King (Rana) Reign (CE) Notes
1 Rahapa/Karna 1168 CE
2 Narapati
3 Dinakara
4 Jasakarna
5 Nagapala
6 Karnapala
7 Bhuvanasimha
8 Bhimasimha
9 Jayasimha
10 Lakhanasimha
11 Arisimha
12 Hammir Singh 1326 CE

Sisodia dynasty (c. 1326 – 1947 CE)

Main articles: Sisodia dynasty and List of ranas of Mewar

Picture King (Maharana) Reign Notes
Hammir Singh 1326–1364 He attacked Chittor in 1326 and re-took it from the Khiljis after the family lost it in 1303. Defeated Muhammad Bin Tughluq in SSingoli taking the sultan himself a prisoner of war.

Captured Ajmer, Ranthambor, Nagaur and Sopore.[73]

Kshetra Singh 1364–1382 Hammir's son, he captured Madalgarh and Bundi, completely annexed Ajmer. He also defeated Amin Shah of Malwa at the "Battle of Bakrole" and inflicted heavy casualties. His death can actually by as late as 1405.[74]
Lakha Singh 1382–1421 Khsetra's son, he was defeated multiple battles by Zafar Khan of Gujrat, but the territories were recovered. He rebuilt temples and shrines destroyed by Allaudin Khilji.[75]
Mokal Singh 1421–1433 Lakha's son, he defeated the Sultan of Nagaur and Gujrat. Later the sultan of Gujrat invaded Mewar and during this invasion. He was assassinated by his uncles Chacha and Mera.[76]
Rana Kumbha 1433–1468 Mokal's son, he first attacked and killed his fathers assassins. Defeated the Sultans of Nagaur, Gujarat and Malwa. Mewar became the strongest kingdom in North India. Built multiple strong forts in Mewar.[77]
Udai Singh I 1468–1473 Kumbha' son, he assassinated his father and was then defeated by his brother.[78]
Rana Raimal 1473–1508 Son of Kumbha, he killed his brother for assassinating his father. Fought against Malwa sultanate.[79][80]
Rana Sanga 1508–1527 Raimal's son, defeated the Sultan of Gujrat, Malwa and Delhi. Under his rule Mewar reached its pinnacle in power and prosperity. Eventually defeated by Babur.[81][82]
Ratan Singh II 1528–1531 Sanga's son, defeated and killed by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.[83]
Vikramaditya Singh 1531–1536 Sanga's son, assassinated by his cousin Vanvir Singh.[84]
Vanvir Singh 1536–1540 Usurper of the throne. Defeated and expelled by his cousin Udai Singh II.[85]
Udai Singh II 1540–1572 Sanga's son, defeated Vanvir. Fought against Mughals and was defeated in Siege of Chittorgarh.[86][87]
Maharana Pratap 1572–1597 Udai's son, notable for his military resistance against the Mughals.[88]
Amar Singh I 1597–1620 Pratap's son, notable for his struggle against Mughals.[89]
Karan Singh II 1620–1628 Amar's son, maintained good relations with Mughals, built many temples, forts and strengthened existing ones.[90]
Jagat Singh I 1628–1652 Karan's son, attempted to restore fort of Chittor but Shah Jahan blocked his attempt.
Raj Singh I 1652–1680 Jagat's son, fought and defeated Mughals many times. Regained territory and increased the wealth of the kingdom. Fought against Aurangzeb. Eventually poisoned by Aurangzeb's loyalists.[91][92][93]
Jai Singh 1680–1698 Raj's son, struggled to regain captured parts of Mewar from Mughals.[94]
Amar Singh II 1698–1710 Jai's son, invaded neighboring territories, formed an alliance against the Mughals with Jaipur and Marwar. Capitalized over a weak Mughal empire.[95]
Sangram Singh II 1710–1734 Amar's son, defeated Ranabaaz Khan at the Battle of Bandanwara. Reestablished relations with a weak Mughal emperor.
Jagat Singh II 1734–1751 Sangram's son, started paying Chauth to the Marathas. Heavily invested in placing Sawai Madho Singh on the throne of Jaipur, eventually bankrupting Mewar.
Pratap Singh II 1751–1754 Jagat's son.
Raj Singh II 1754–1762 Pratap's son, paid heavy tribute to Maratha's, financially devastating Mewar.
Ari Singh II 1762–1772 Raj's son, under him, Maratha's raided Mewar multiple times for not paying tribute.
Hamir Singh II 1772–1778 Ari's son, underaged when became Rana and died.
Bhim Singh 1778–1828 Hamir's brother, under him Mewar was repeatedly raided by Pindaris, Marwar and Jaipur fought for his daughter Krishna Kumari. Accepted sub ordinance of East India Company.
Jawan Singh 1828–1838 Bhim's son, abused alcohol, not interested in ruling Mewar. Mewar racked up a lot of debt under his rule.
Sardar Singh 1838–1842 Jawan's son
Swarup Singh 1842–1861 Ruler during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Shambhu Singh 1861–1874 Focused on reform of education and social reforms.
Sajjan Singh 1874–1884 Shambhu's ruler.
Fateh Singh 1884–1930 Sajjan's son
Bhupal Singh 1930–1948

Signed the Instrument of Accession to India, dissolving his kingdom into the India. Titular ruler from 1955
Titular Maharanas
Bhagwat Singh 1955–1984 Lost the Privy Purse.
Mahendra Singh 1984–present Present ruler

Gauda Kingdom (c. 590 – 626 CE)

Main article: Gauda Kingdom

Karkota dynasty of Kashmir (c. 625–855 CE)

Main articles: Karkota dynasty and Kashmir

Other puppet rulers under Utpala dynasty are

Chacha dynasty of Sindh (c. 632–724 CE)

Main article: Brahman dynasty of Sindh

The known rulers of the Brahman dynasty are:[96]

Under the Umayyad Caliphate

Mlechchha dynasty of Kamarupa (650–900 CE)

Main articles: Mlechchha dynasty and Kamarupa

Garhwal Kingdom (c. 688–1949 CE)

Main article: Garhwal Kingdom

Mola Ram the 18th century painter, poet, historian and diplomat of Garhwal wrote the historical work Garhrajvansh Ka Itihas (History of the Garhwal royal dynasty) which is the only source of information about several Garhwal rulers.[98][99]

Rulers of Garhwal - Panwar clan of Garhwali Rajputs
No. Name Reign Years Reigned No. Name Reign Years Reigned No. Name Reign Years Reigned
1 Kanak Pal 688–699 11 21 Vikram Pal 1116–1131 15 41 Vijay Pal 1426–1437 11
2 Shyam Pal 699–725 26 22 Vichitra Pal 1131–1140 9 42 Sahaj Pal 1437–1473 36
3 Pandu Pal 725–756 31 23 Hans Pal 1141–1152 11 43 Bahadur Shah 1473–1498 25
4 Abhijat Pal 756–780 24 24 Som Pal 1152–1159 7 44 Man Shah 1498–1518 20
5 Saugat Pal 781–800 19 25 Kadil Pal 1159–1164 5 45 Shyam Shah 1518–1527 9
6 Ratna Pal 800–849 49 26 Kamadev Pal 1172–1179 7 46 Mahipat Shah 1527–1552 25
7 Shali Pal 850–857 7 27 Sulakshan Dev 1179–1197 18 47 Prithvi Shah 1552–1614 62
8 Vidhi Pal 858–877 19 28 Lakhan Dev 1197–1220 23 48 Medini Shah 1614–1660 46
9 Madan Pal 877–894 17 29 Anand Pal II 1220–1241 21 49 Fateh Shah 1660–1708 48
10 Bhakti Pal 895–919 24 30 Purva Dev 1241–1260 19 50 Upendra Shah 1708–1709 1
11 Jayachand Pal 920–948 28 31 Abhay Dev 1260–1267 7 51 Pradip Shah 1709–1772 63
12 Prithvi Pal 949–971 22 32 Jayaram Dev 1267–1290 23 52 Lalit Shah 1772–1780 8
13 Medinisen Pal 972–995 23 33 Asal Dev 1290–1299 9 53 Jayakrit Shah 1780–1786 6
14 Agasti Pal 995–1014 19 34 Jagat Pal 1299–1311 12 54 Pradyumna Shah 1786–1804 18
15 Surati Pal 1015–1036 21 35 Jit Pal 1311–1330 19 55 Sudarshan Shah 1804–1859 55
16 Jay Pal 1037–1055 18 36 Anant Pal II 1330–1358 28 56 Bhawani Shah 1859–1871 12
17 Anant Pal I 1056–1072 16 37 Ajay Pal 1358–1389 31 57 Pratap Shah 1871–1886 15
18 Anand Pal I 1072–1083 11 38 Kalyan Shah 1389–1398 9 58 Kirti Shah 1886–1913 27
19 Vibhog Pal 1084–1101 17 39 Sundar Pal 1398–1413 15 59 Narendra Shah 1913–1946 33
20 Suvayanu Pal 1102–1115 13 40 Hansadev Pal 1413–1426 13 60 Manabendra Shah 1946–1949 3

Mallabhum (Bishnupur) kingdom (c. 694–1947 CE)

Main article: Mallabhum kingdom

Mallabhum kingdom or Bishnupur kingdom was the kingdom ruled by the Malla kings of Bishnupur, primarily in the present Bankura district in Indian state of West Bengal.[100] (also known as Mallabhoom),[101]

Name of the king[102][103] Reign Notes
Adi Malla 694–710
Jay Malla 710–720
Benu Malla 720–733
Kinu Malla 733–742
Indra Malla 742–757
Kanu Malla 757–764
Dha (Jhau) Malla 764–775
Shur Malla 775–795
Kanak Malla 795–807
Kandarpa Malla 807–828
Sanatan Malla 828–841
Kharga Malla 841–862
Durjan (Durjay) Malla 862–906
Yadav Malla 906–919
Jagannath Malla 919–931
Birat Malla 931–946
Mahadev Malla 946–977
Durgadas Malla 977–994
Jagat Malla 994–1007
Ananta Malla 1007–1015
Rup Malla 1015=1029
Sundar Malla 1029–1053
Kumud Malla 1053–1074
Krishna Malla 1074–1084
Rup II (Jhap) Malla 1084–1097
Prakash Malla 1097–1102
Pratap Malla 1102–1113
Sindur Malla 1113–1129
Sukhomoy(Shuk) Malla 1129–1142
Banamali Malla 1142–1156
Yadu/Jadu Malla 1156–1167
Jiban Malla 1167–1185
Ram Malla 1185=1209
Gobinda Malla 1209–1240
Bhim Malla 1240–1263
Katar(Khattar) Malla 1263–1295
Prithwi Malla 1295 -1319
Tapa Malla 1319–1334
Dinabandhu Malla 1334–1345
Kinu/Kanu II Malla 1345–1358
Shur Malla II 1358–1370
Shiv Singh Malla 1370–1407
Madan Malla 1407–1420
Durjan II (Durjay) Malla 1420–1437
Uday Malla 1437–1460
Chandra Malla 1460–1501
Bir Malla 1501–1554
Dhari Malla 1554–1565
Hambir Malla Dev (Bir Hambir) 1565–1620
Dhari Hambir Malla Dev 1620–1626
Raghunath Singha Dev 1626–1656
Bir Singha Dev 1656–1682
Durjan Singha Dev 1682–1702
Raghunath Singha Dev II 1702–1712
Gopal Singha Dev 1712–1748
Chaitanya Singha Dev 1748–1801
Madhav Singha Dev 1801–1809
Gopal Singha Dev II 1809–1876
Ramkrishna Singha Dev 1876–1885
Dwhaja Moni Devi 1885–1889
Nilmoni Singha Dev 1889–1903
Churamoni Devi (Regency) 1903–1930
Kalipada Singha Thakur 1930–1947

Chand Kingdom of Kumaon (700–1790 CE)

Main article: Chand kings

Badri Datt Pandey, in his book Kumaun Ka Itihaas lists the Chand kings as following:

King Reign Notes
Som Chand 700–721
Atm Chand 721–740
Purn Chand 740–758
Indra Chand 758–778 Opened Silk Factories
Sansar Chand 778–813
Sudha Chand 813–833
Hamir Chand 833–856
Vina Chand 856–869 Lost to Khas Kings
Vir Chand 1065–1080
Rup Chand 1080–1093
Laxmi Chand 1093–1113
Dharm Chand 1113–1121
Karm Chand 1121–1140
Ballal Chand 1140–1149
Nami Chand 1149–1170
Nar Chand 1170–1177
Nanaki Chand 1177–1195
Ram Chand 1195–1205
Bhishm Chand 1205–1226
Megh Chand 1226–1233
Dhyan Chand 1233–1251
Parvat Chand 1251–1261
Thor Chand 1261–1275
Kalyan Chand II 1275–1296
Trilok Chand 1296–1303 Conquered Chhakhata
Built a fort at Bhimtal
Damaru Chand 1303–1321
Dharm Chand 1321–1344 Defeated One Lakh Army of Delhi Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughluq under Khusrau Malik in his Qarachil Expedition
Abhay Chand 1344–1374
Garur Gyan Chand 1374–1419 Established authority over Bhabar and Terai; later lost them to nawab of Sambhal, Recaptured it by defeating Turkish Nawab of Sambhal under General Nilu Kathait
Harihar Chand 1419–1420
Udyan Chand 1420–1421 built Baleshwar Temple at Champawat
Captured Chaugarkha
Atma Chand II 1421–1422
Hari Chand II 1422–1423
Vikram Chand 1423–1437 Completed Baleshwar Temple
Bharati Chand 1437–1450 Defeated Doti
Ratna Chand 1450–1488 Defeated Bams of Sor,
defeated Doti again
Kirti Chand 1488–1503 annexed Barahmandal, Pali and Faldakot, Conquered Garhwal by defeating Ajaypal and made it vassal state of Kumaon
Pratap Chand 1503–1517
Tara Chand 1517–1533
Manik Chand 1533–1542
Kalyan Chand III 1542–1551
Purna Chand 1551–1555
Bhishm Chand 1555–1560 laid foundation stone of Alamnagar
lost Barahmandal to Khas Sardar Gajuwathinga
Balo Kalyan Chand 1560–1568 recaptured Barahmandal
moved capital to Alamnagar and renamed it Almora
Annexed Mankot and Danpur
Rudra Chand 1568–1597 Successfully defended Terai from nawab of Kath and Gola
founded the city of Rudrapur
Annexed Sira
Laxmi Chand 1597–1621 built Laxmeswar and Bagnath Temple at Almora and Bageshwar respectively
Invaded Garhwal 7 times without any Success
Dilip Chand 1621–1624
Vijay Chand 1624–1625
Trimal Chand 1625–1638
Baz Bahadur Chand 1638–1678 Captured Dehradun and Hindu Pilgrimage Kailash Mansarovar defeated Garhwal and Tibet, has his kingdom from ton river until karnali
Udyot Chand 1678–1698 Defeated combined armies of Garhwal and Doti
Gyan Chand 1698–1708 Defeated Garhwal and expelled fateh shah from Srinagar
Jagat Chand 1708–1720 Invaded Garhwal and captured its capital Srinagar, defeated combined armies of Sikhs|Khalsa and Garhwal
Devi Chand 1720–1726 Made Afghani Daud Khan General of Kumaon, looted Moradabad, Mughal Empire and captured villages of Mughals
Ajit Chand 1726–1729
Kalyan Chand V 1729–1747 Defeated Rohillas
Deep Chand 1747–1777 Defeated Garhwal King Pradip Shah left him embarrassed
Mohan Chand 1777–1779 Defeated by King Lalit Shah of Garhwal
Pradyumn Chand 1779–1786 Son of king Lalit Shah of Garhwal
Mohan Chand 1786–1788 Overthrew Pradyumn Shah; Became king for second time
Shiv Chand 1788
Mahendra Chand 1788–1790 Defeated by Gorkhas

Karttikeyapur (Katyur) Kingdom (700–1065 CE)

Main article: Katyuri kings

The period of certain Katyuri rulers, is generally determined as below, although there is some ambiguity in respect to exact number of years ruled by each King[104]


Varman dynasty of Kannauj (c. 725–770 CE)

Main article: Varman dynasty of Kannauj

Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta (c. 735–982 CE)

Main article: Rashtrakuta dynasty

Tomar dynasty of Delhi (c. 736–1151 CE)

Main article: Tomara dynasty

Various historical texts provide different lists of the Tomara kings:[107]

As stated earlier, the historians doubt the claim that the Tomaras established Delhi in 736 CE.[108]

List of Tomara rulers according to various sources[109][110]
# Abul Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari / Bikaner manuscript Gwalior manuscript of Khadag Rai Kumaon-Garhwal manuscript Ascension year in CE (according to Gwalior manuscript) Length of reign
Years Months Days
1 Ananga Pāla Bilan Dev 736 18 0 0
2 Vasu Deva 754 19 1 18
3 Gangya Ganggeva 773 21 3 28
4 Prithivi Pāla (or Prithivi Malla) Prathama Mahi Pāla 794 19 6 19
5 Jaya Deva Saha Deva Jadu Pāla 814 20 7 28
6 Nīra Pāla or Hira Pāla Indrajita (I) Nai Pāla 834 14 4 9
7 Udiraj (or Adereh) Nara Pāla Jaya Deva Pāla 849 26 7 11
8 Vijaya (or Vacha) Indrajita (II) Chamra Pāla 875 21 2 13
9 Biksha (or Anek) Vacha Raja Bibasa Pāla 897 22 3 16
10 Rīksha Pāla Vira Pāla Sukla Pāla 919 21 6 5
11 Sukh Pāla (or Nek Pāla) Go-Pāla Teja Pāla 940 20 4 4
12 Go-Pāla Tillan Dev Mahi Pāla 961 18 3 15
13 Sallakshana Pāla Suvari Sursen 979 25 10 10
14 Jaya Pāla Osa Pāla Jaik Pāla 1005 16 4 3
15 Kunwar Pāla Kumara Pāla 1021 29 9 18
16 Ananga Pāla (or Anek Pāla) Ananga Pāla Anek Pāla 1051 29 6 18
17 Vijaya Pāla (or Vijaya Sah) Teja Pāla Teja Pāla 1081 24 1 6
18 Mahi Pāla (or Mahatsal) Mahi Pāla Jyūn Pāla 1105 25 2 23
19 Akr Pāla (or Akhsal) Mukund Pāla Ane Pāla 1130 21 2 15
Prithivi Raja (Chahamana) Prithvi Pala 1151

Another resource tells that the son of King Mukundpal Tomar, King Prithvipal Tomar had a son named King Govind Raj Tomar ruled for 1189 to 1192 .

Pala dynasty of Bengal (c. 750 – 1174 CE)

Main article: Pala Empire

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[111] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[112]

RC Majumdar (1971)[113] AM Chowdhury (1967)[114] BP Sinha (1977)[115][failed verification] DC Sircar (1975–76)[116] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[111]
Gopala I 750–770 756–781 755–783 750–775 750–774
Dharmapala 770–810 781–821 783–820 775–812 774–806
Devapala 810–c. 850 821–861 820–860 812–850 806–845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845–860
Shurapala I Deemed to be alternate name of Vigrahapala I 850–858 860–872
Gopala II NA (copper-plate charter discovered in 1995. Text of inscription published in 2009.)
Vigrahapala I 850–853 861–866 860–865 858–60 872–873
Narayanapala 854–908 866–920 865–920 860–917 873–927
Rajyapala 908–940 920–952 920–952 917–952 927–959
Gopala III 940–957 952–969 952–967 952–972 959–976
Vigrahapala II 960–c. 986 969–995 967–980 972–977 976–977
Mahipala I 988–c. 1036 995–1043 980–1035 977–1027 977–1027
Nayapala 1038–1053 1043–1058 1035–1050 1027–1043 1027–1043
Vigrahapala III 1054–1072 1058–1075 1050–1076 1043–1070 1043–1070
Mahipala II 1072–1075 1075–1080 1076–1078/9 1070–1071 1070–1071
Shurapala II 1075–1077 1080–1082 1071–1072 1071–1072
Ramapala 1077–1130 1082–1124 1078/9–1132 1072–1126 1072–1126
Kumarapala 1130–1140 1124–1129 1132–1136 1126–1128 1126–1128
Gopala IV 1140–1144 1129–1143 1136–1144 1128–1143 1128–1143
Madanapala 1144–1162 1143–1162 1144–1161/62 1143–1161 1143–1161
Govindapala 1158–1162 NA 1162–1176 or 1158–1162 1161–1165 1161–1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165–1199 1165–1200


Shilahara dynasty (765–1265 CE)

Main article: Shilahara

Shilahara Kingdom was split into three branches:

South Konkan branch (c. 765–1020 CE)

List of rulers–
  1. Sanaphulla (765–795 CE)
  2. Dhammayira (795–820 CE)
  3. Aiyaparaja (820–845 CE)
  4. Avasara I (845–870 CE)
  5. Adityavarma (870–895 CE)
  6. Avasara II (895–920 CE)
  7. Indraraja (920–945 CE)
  8. Bhima (945–970 CE)
  9. Avasara III (970–995 CE)
  10. Rattaraja (995–1020 CE)

North Konkan (Thane) branch (c. 800–1265 CE)

List of rulers–
  1. Kapardin I (800–825 CE)
  2. Pullashakti (825–850 CE)
  3. Kapardin II (850–880 CE)
  4. Vappuvanna (880–910 CE)
  5. Jhanjha (910–930 CE)
  6. Goggiraja (930–945 CE)
  7. Vajjada I (945–965 CE)
  8. Chhadvaideva (965–975 CE)
  9. Aparajita (975–1010 CE)
  10. Vajjada II (1010–1015 CE)
  11. Arikesarin (1015–1022 CE)
  12. Chhittaraja (1022–1035 CE)
  13. Nagarjuna (1035–1045 CE)
  14. Mummuniraja (1045–1070 CE)
  15. Ananta Deva I (1070–1127 CE)
  16. Aparaditya I (1127–1148 CE)
  17. Haripaladeva (1148–1155 CE)
  18. Mallikarjuna (1155–1170 CE)
  19. Aparaditya II ( 1170–1197 CE)
  20. Ananta Deva II (1198–1200 CE)
  21. Keshideva II (1200–1245 CE)
  22. Ananta Deva III (1245–1255 CE)
  23. Someshvara (1255–1265 CE), last ruler of dynasty

Kolhapur branch (c. 940–1212 CE)

List of rulers–
  1. Jatiga I (940–960 CE)
  2. Naivarman (960–980 CE)
  3. Chandra (980–1000 CE)
  4. Jatiga II (1000–1020 CE)
  5. Gonka (1020–1050 CE)
  6. Guhala I (1050 CE)
  7. Kirtiraja (1050 CE)
  8. Chandraditya (1050 CE)
  9. Marsimha (1050–1075 CE)
  10. Guhala II (1075–1085 CE)
  11. Bhoja I (1085–1100 CE)
  12. Ballala (1100–1108 CE)
  13. Gonka II (1108 CE)
  14. Gandaraditya I (1108–1138 CE)
  15. Vijayaditya I (1138–1175 CE)
  16. Bhoja II (1175–1212 CE)

Ayudha dynasty of Kannauj (c. 770–810 CE)

Main article: Ayudha dynasty

Chandela dynasty of Jejakabhukti (c. 831–1315 CE)

Main article: Chandelas of Jejakabhukti

The Chandelas of Jejakabhukti were a dynasty in Central India. They ruled much of the Bundelkhand region (then called Jejakabhukti) between the 9th and the 13th centuries.

Based on epigraphic records, the historians have come up with the following list of Chandela rulers of Jejākabhukti (IAST names in brackets):[120][121]

Seuna (Yadava) dynasty of Devagiri (c. 850–1334 CE)

Main article: Seuna (Yadava) dynasty

Paramara dynasty of Malwa (c. 9th century to 1305 CE)

Main article: Paramara dynasty

See also: List of rulers of Malwa

According to historical 'Kailash Chand Jain', "Knowledge of the early Paramara rulers from Upendra to Vairisimha is scanty; there are no records, and they are known only from later sources."[123] The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources include:

List of Paramara dynasty rulers
Serial No. Ruler Reign (CE)
1 King Paramar (Legendary)
2 Upendra Krishnraja early 9th century
3 Vairisimha (I) early 9th century
4 Siyaka (I) mid of 9th century
5 Vakpatiraj (I) late 9th to early 10th century
6 Vairisimha (II) mid of 10th century
7 Siyaka (II) 940–972
8 Vakpatiraj (II) alias Munja 972–990
9 Sindhuraja 990–1010
10 Bhoja 1010–1055
11 JayasimhaI 1055–1070
12 Udayaditya 1070–1086
13 Lakshmadeva 1086–1094
14 Naravarman 1094–1133
15 Yashovarman 1133–1142
16 Jayavarman I 1142–1143
17 Interregnum from (1143 to 1175 CE) under an usurper named 'Ballala' and later the Solanki king Kumarapala 1143–1175
18 Vindhyavarman 1175–1194
19 Subhatavarman 1194–1209
20 Arjunavarman I 1210–1215
21 Devapala 1215/1218–1239
22 Jaitugideva 1239–1255
23 Jayavarman II 1255–1274
24 Arjunavarman II 1274–1285
25 Bhoja II 1285–1301
26 Mahalakadeva 1301–1305

After death of Mahalakadeva in 1305 CE, Paramara dynasty rule was ended in Malwa region, but not in other Parmar states.

Utpala dynasty of Kashmir (c. 855 – 1009 CE)

Main article: Utpala dynasty

Ruler Reign
Avantivarman 853/855 – 883 CE
Shankaravarman 883 – 902 CE
Gopalavarman 902 – 904 CE
Sankata 904 CE
Sugandha 904 – 906 CE
Partha 906 – 921 CE
Nirjitavarman 921 – 922 CE
Chakravarman 922 – 933 CE
Shuravarman I 933 – 934 CE
Partha (2nd reign) 934 – 935 CE
Chakravarman (2nd reign) 935 CE
Shankaravardhana (or Shambhuvardhana) 935 – 936 CE
Chakravarman (3rd reign) 936 – 937 CE
Unmattavanti ("Mad Avanti") 937 – 939 CE
Shuravarman II 939 CE
Yashaskara-deva 939 CE
Varnata 948 CE
Sangramadeva (Sanggrama I) 948 CE
Parvagupta 948 – 950 CE
Kshemagupta 950 – 958 CE
Abhimanyu II 958 – 972 CE
Nandigupta 972 – 973 CE
Tribhuvanagupta 973 – 975 CE
Bhimagupta 975 – 980 CE
Didda 980 to 1009/1012 CE

Didda (c. 980 – 1003 CE) placed Samgrāmarāja, son of her brother on the throne, who became founder of the Lohara dynasty.

Somavamshi dynasty (c. 882 – 1110 CE)

Main article: Somavamshi dynasty

Historian Krishna Chandra Panigrahi provides the following chronology of the later Somavamshis:[124]

Name (IAST) Regnal name (IAST) Reign
Janmejaya I Mahābhavagupta I c. 882–922
Yayāti I Mahāśivagupta I (Mahashivagupta) c. 922–955
Bhīmaratha Mahābhavagupta II c. 955–980
Dharmaratha Mahāśivagupta II c. 980–1005
Nahuṣa (Nahusha) Mahābhavagupta III c. 1005–1021
Yayāti II Candihara (Chandihara) Mahāśivagupta III c. 1025–1040
Uddyotakeśarī (Uddyotakeshari) Mahābhavagupta IV c. 1040–1065
Janmejaya II Mahāśivagupta IV c. 1065–1085
Purañjaya Mahābhavagupta V c. 1085–1110
Karṇadeva Mahāśivagupta V c. 1100–1110

Pala dynasty of Kamarupa (c. 900 – 1100 CE)

Main article: Pala dynasty (Kamarupa) King Reign (CE) Notes
1 Brahma Pala 900–920 Founder of the dynasty
2 Ratna Pala 920–960
3 Indra Pala 960–990
4 Go Pala aka Gopalavarman 990–1015
5 Harsha Pala 1015–1035
6 Dharma Pala 1035–1060
7 Jaya Pala 1075–1100 Last ruler of dynasty

Paramara dynasty of Chandravati (Abu) (c. 910 – 1220 CE)

Main article: Paramaras of Chandravati

The following is a list of Paramara rulers of Chandravati, with approximate regnal years, as estimated by epigraphist H. V. Trivedi.[125][126] The rulers are sons of their predecessors unless noted otherwise:

Regional Name IAST Name Reign (CE) Notes
Utpala-raja Utpalarāja c. 910–930 Founder of dynasty
Arnno-raja, or Aranya-raja Arṇṇorāja, or Araṇyarāja c. 930–950
Krishna-raja Kṛṣṇarāja c. 950–979
Dhara-varaha or Dharani-varaha Dhāravarāha or Dharaṇīvarāha c. 970–990
Dhurbhata Dhūrbhaṭa c. 990–1000
Mahi-pala Mahīpāla c. 1000–1020 son of Dharavaraha
Dhandhuka Dhaṃdhuka c. 1020–1040
Punya-pala or Purna-pala Puṇyapāla or Pūrṇapāla c. 1040–1050
Danti-varmman Daṃtivarmman c. 1050–1060 son of Dhandhuka
Krishna-deva, or Krishna-raja II Kṛṣṇadeva, or Kṛṣṇarāja II c. 1060–1090 son of Dhandhuka
Kakkala-deva, or Kakala-deva Kakkaladeva, or Kākaladeva c. 1090–1115
Vikrama-simha Vikramāsiṃha c. 1115–1145
Yasho-dhavala Yaśodhavala c. 1145–1160 great-grandson of Dantivarman through Yogaraja and Ramadeva
Rana-simha Raṇāsiṃha ? son of Vikramasimha; possibly a regent for Dharavarsha
Dhara-varsha Dhāravarṣa c. 1160–1220 son of Yashodhavala and last ruler of dynasty

Kingdom of Ladakh (c. 930 – 1842 CE)

Main article: History of Ladakh

Maryul dynasty of Ngari (c. 930 – 1460 CE)

Main article: Maryul

Known Maryul rulers are-

Namgyal dynasty (Gyalpo of Ladakh) (c. 1460 – 1842 CE)

Main article: Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh

The kings of the Namgyal dynasty along with their periods of reign are as follows:[127][128][129]

Later Ladakh was conquered by Sikh Empire in 1842 CE.

Solanki dynasty (Chaulukyas of Gujarat) (c. 940–1244 CE)

Main article: Chaulukya dynasty

The Chalukya rulers of Gujarat, with approximate dates of reign, are as follows:[130][131]

Kachchhapaghata dynasty (c. 950–1150 CE)

Main article: Kachchhapaghata dynasty

Simhapaniya (Sihoniya) and Gopadri (Gwalior) branch

Dubkund (Dobha) branch

Nalapura (Narwar) branch

Kachwaha dynasty (c. 966–1949 CE)

Main article: Jaipur State

See also: Kachhwaha and Dhundhar

Kachwahas King Sorha Dev and Dulha Rao defeated Meena of Dhundhar kingdom & established Kachwaha dynasty, which ruled for more than 1000 years & still ruling in Jaipur district of Rajasthan.[134]


He was the last ruler of Kachawa dynasty, he annexed Jaipur State with Union of India in 1949 CE.[139][140]

Titular rulers

Titles were abolished in 1971 according to the 26th amendment to the Indian Constitution.

Hoysala Empire (c. 1000–1343 CE)

Main article: Hoysala Empire

Lohara dynasty of Kashmir (c. 1003–1320 CE)

Main article: Lohara dynasty

The Lohara dynasty were Hindu rulers of Kashmir from the Khasa tribe,[141][142] in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, between 1003 and approximately 1320 CE. The dynasty was founded by the Samgramaraja, the grandson of Khasha chief Simharaja and the nephew of the Utpala dynasty Queen Didda.

First Lohara dynasty

Ruler Reign[5] Ascension year Notes
Sangramaraja (Samgramaraja / Kshamapati) 25 Years 1003 CE Nephew of Didda. Ascended the throne after her death, beginning Lohara dynasty's rule over Kashmir
Hariraja 22 days 1028 CE
Ananta-deva 35 Years 1028 CE Abdicated the throne in favour of his son, but retained power through his minister Haladhara
Kalasha (Ranaditya II) 26 Years 1063 CE Rebelled against his parents, leading to the suicide of his father Ananta, followed by sati-suicide by his mother. His son Harsha revolted against him, and was imprisoned.
Utkarsha 22 days 1089 CE Second son of Kalasha. His half-brother Vijaymalla rebelled against him, and got Harsha released from prison. Utkarsha was imprisoned and committed suicide
Harsha 12 Years died in 1101 CE
Harshadeva of Kashmir 1089-1101 CE
Harshadeva of Kashmir 1089-1101 CE
In his early years, he was a sagacious king, and a patron of art and literature. The later years of his reign were marked by unsuccessful military campaigns, resulting in excessive taxation and plundering of temples. Revolts by his generals Uchchala and Sussala (of Lohara family) ended his reign. His son Bhoja was killed, and Harsha himself was killed by Uchchala's men while hiding in a village.

Second Lohara dynasty

Ruler[5] Notes
Uchchala Made his brother Sussala the ruler of Lohara. Murdered by Radda.
Radda (Shankharaja) Usurped the throne, claiming to be a descendant of Yashaskara
Salhana Uchchala's step-brother; became the king after Radda's death. The real power lay in the hands of a noble named Gargachandra. Salhana was deposed and imprisoned.
Sussala Uchchala's brother; ascended throne with Gargachandra's support
Bhikshachara Harsha's grandson, who had escaped Uchchala's revolt. Brought up by Naravarman, the king of Malava. Deposed Sussala.
Sussala (2nd reign) Within 6 months of Bhikshachara's ascension, Sussala recovered his capital, leading to a civil war
Jayasimha (Sinha-deva) Sussala's son. In the early years of his reign, the actual power was held by Sussala. Kalhana's account closes in the 22nd year of his reign.

Khasa Malla Kingdom (c. 10th to 14th century CE)

Main article: Khasa Malla kingdom

The list of Khas Malla kings mentioned by Giuseppe Tucci is in the following succession up to Prithvi Malla:[143]


Naga dynasty of Kalahandi (1005 – 1947 CE)

Main article: Kalahandi State

Sena dynasty of Bengal (1070 – 1230 CE)

Main article: Sena dynasty

List of Sena dynasty dynasty rulers
Serial No. Ruler Reign (CE)
1 Hemanta Sen 1070–1096
2 Vijay Sen 1096–1159
3 Ballal Sen 1159–1179
4 Lakshman Sen 1179–1206
5 Vishwarup Sen 1206–1225
6 Keshab Sen 1225–1230

Kakatiya dynasty (1083–1323)

Main article: Kakatiya dynasty

Gahadavala dynasty (1089–1197 CE)

Main article: Gahadavala dynasty

List of rulers–

Karnata dynasty of Mithila (1097 – 1324 CE)

Main article: Karnat dynasty

See also: History of Mithila

List of rulers–[148][149]
S.N. Ruler Regin Notes
1 Nanyadeva 1097–1147
2 Gangadeva 1147–1187
3 Narsimhadeva 1187–1227
4 Ramasimhadeva 1227–1285
5 Shaktisimhadeva 1285–1295
6 Harisimhadeva 1295–1324

Chutia (Sadiya) Kingdom of Assam (1187–1524 CE)

Main article: Chutia Kingdom

List of rulers

Late Medieval Period (c. 1200s CE – c. 1500s CE)

Delhi Sultanate (c. 1206–1526 CE)

Main article: List of rulers of the Delhi Sultanate

Mamluk dynasty (1206–1290 CE)

Main article: Mamluk dynasty (Delhi)

Khalji dynasty (1290–1320 CE)

Main article: Khalji dynasty

Tughlaq dynasty (1321–1414 CE)

Main article: Tughlaq dynasty

After the invasion of Timur in 1398, the governor of Multan, Khizr Khan abolished the Tughluq dynasty in 1414.

Jaunpur Sultanate (1394–1479 CE)

Main article: Jaunpur Sultanate

Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451 CE)

Main article: Sayyid dynasty

Lodi dynasty (1451–1526 CE)

Main article: Lodi dynasty

Kadava dynasty (c. 1216–1279 CE)

Main article: Kadava dynasty

Kingdom of Marwar (c. 1226–1950 CE)

Main articles: Kingdom of Marwar and Rathore dynasty

Rathore dynasty of Jodhpur

Rulers from Pali & Mandore (1226–1438 CE)
Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Siha He conquered Pali and became the first rao of the Rathore dynasty in Marwar. He died in the battle of Lakha Jhawar (1273) against Sultan Ghaus ud-din Balban. 1226 1273
2 Rao Asthan Conquered Kher from the Gohils and Idar from the Bhils. He died in battle against Jalaludin Khilji. 1273 1292
3 Rao Doohad He conquered more than 140 villages. He was killed in battle against the Parihars. 1292 1309
4 Rao Raipal He avenged his father by killing the ruler of the Parihars. During a famine in Marwar he distributed his own personal grains to the people. 1309 1313
5 Rao Kanhapal He suffered raids from the Turko-Afgan tribes and was killed in action defending his lands. 1313 1323
6 Rao Jalansi He defeated the Sodhas. He took the turban of the Sodha chief to mark his supremacy in the region. 1323 1328
7 Rao Chado 1328 1344
8 Rao Tida He was killed in battle against the sultan of Delhi. 1344 1357
9 Rao Kanha Dev 1357 1374
10 Rao Viram Dev He died in battle against the Johiyas. 1374 1383
11 Rao Chandra He conquered Mandore from the Turks in 1406. He further conquered the areas of Nagaur, Sambhar, Khatu, Nadol and Ajmer. He was killed in battle against Salim Shah of Multhan. 1383 1424
12 Rao Kanha Fought battles with his brothers. Died young in Mandore. 1424 1427
13 Rao Ranmal He consolidated his rule with the help of the Sisodias of Mewar. He was later assassinated on the orders of Rana Kumbha. 1427 1438
Rulers from Jodhpur (1459–1950 CE)
Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Jodha Fought Rana Kumbha and reclaimed his lands. He later founded the city of Jodhpur and made it his capital. He subjugated the states of Jalore and Bundi and annexed Ajmer, Sambhar and Mohilavati. 12 May 1438 6 April 1489
2 Rao Satal Died from wounds after saving 140 women from Afghan raiders. 6 April 1489 March 1492
3 Rao Suja March 1492 2 October 1515
4 Rao Biram Singh Son of Bagha 2 October 1515 8 November 1515
5 Rao Ganga Assisted Rana Sanga in his campaigns against the Sultans of India. 8 November 1515 9 May 1532
6 Rao Maldeo Successfully repelled the invasions of Sher Shah Suri. Called as one of the most potent rulers of Hindustan by Ferishta. 9 May 1532 7 November 1562
7 Rao Chandra Sen He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire. 7 November 1562 1581
8 Raja Udai Singh Mota Raja He was the father in law of Jahangir and got married his daughter Mani Bai married to him, later on who became parents of Shah Jahan[150] 4 August 1583 11 July 1595
9 Sawai Raja Suraj-Mal 11 July 1595 7 September 1619
10 Maharaja Gaj Singh I The first to take the title Maharaja by himself 7 September 1619 6 May 1638
11 Maharaja Jaswant Singh He fought Aurangzeb in the Battle of Dharmatpur. 6 May 1638 28 December 1678
12 Maharaja Ajit Singh Became Maharaja of Marwar after 25 years of war with Aurangzeb. Durgadas Rathore played a key role in the war. 19 February 1679 24 June 1724
13 Raja Indra Singh Installed in opposition to Maharaja Ajit Singh by Emperor Aurangzeb but unpopular with people of Marwar 9 June 1679 4 August 1679
14 Maharaja Abhai Singh Defeated Sarbuland Khan and occupied all of Gujarat for a short time. 24 June 1724 18 June 1749
15 Maharaja Ram Singh First reign 18 June 1749 July 1751
16 Maharaja Bakht Singh He was the general of the Marwari forces against Sarbuland Khan and defeated him. In the Battle of Gangwana he defeated a combined army of Mughals and Kachwahas. July 1751 21 September 1752
17 Maharaja Vijay Singh First reign 21 September 1752 31 January 1753
18 Maharaja Ram Singh Second reign 31 January 1753 September 1772
19 Maharaja Vijay Singh Second reign – Was defeated by Mahadji Scindia and forced to surrender the fort and city of Ajmer. September 1772 17 July 1793
20 Maharaja Bhim Singh 17 July 1793 19 October 1803
21 Maharaja Man Singh Entered into treaty relations with the British on 6 January 1818. 19 October 1803 4 September 1843
22 Maharaja Sir Takht Singh Not in the direct line, but a great-great-great-grandson of Ajit Singh. Formerly Regent of Ahmednagar. 4 September 1843 13 February 1873
23 Maharaja Sir Jaswant Singh II Kaisar-i-Hind 13 February 1873 11 October 1895
24 Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 11 October 1895 20 March 1911
25 Maharaja Sir Sumair Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 20 March 1911 3 October 1918
26 Maharaja Sir Umaid Singh Lieutenant-General in the British Indian Army 3 October 1918 9 June 1947
27 Maharaja Sir Hanwant Singh Ruler of Marwar (Jodhpur) until accession to the Union of India in 1949; died on 26 January 1952 9 June 1947 7 April 1949
28 (titular) Maharaja Gaj Singh II of Jodhpur Became head of the House on 26 January 1952 26 January 1952 Present

Ahom dynasty of Assam (c. 1228–1826 CE)

Main article: Ahom dynasty

The list of Swargadeos of the Ahom Kingdom
Years Reign Ahom name Other names succession End of reign Capital
1228–1268 40y Sukaphaa natural death Charaideo
1268–1281 13y Suteuphaa son of Sukaphaa natural death Charaideo
1281–1293 8y Subinphaa son of Suteuphaa natural death Charaideo
1293–1332 39y Sukhaangphaa son of Subinphaa natural death Charaideo
1332–1364 32y Sukhrangpha son of Sukhaangphaa natural death Charaideo
1364–1369 5y Interregnum[151]
1369–1376 7y Sutuphaa brother of Sukhrangphaa[152] assassinated[153] Charaideo
1376–1380 4y Interregnum
1380–1389 9y Tyao Khamti brother of Sutuphaa assassinated[154] Charaideo
1389–1397 8y Interregnum
1397–1407 10y Sudangphaa Baamuni Konwar son of Tyao Khaamti[155] natural death Charagua
1407–1422 15y Sujangphaa son of Sudangphaa natural death
1422–1439 17y Suphakphaa son of Sujangpha natural death
1439–1488 49y Susenphaa son of Suphakphaa natural death
1488–1493 5y Suhenphaa son of Susenphaa assassinated[156]
1493–1497 4y Supimphaa son of Suhenphaa natural death
1497–1539 42y Suhungmung Swarganarayan,
Dihingiaa Rojaa I
son of Supimphaa assassinated[157] Bakata
1539–1552 13y Suklenmung Garhgayaan Rojaa son of Suhungmung natural death Garhgaon
1552–1603 51y Sukhaamphaa Khuraa Rojaa son of Suklenmung natural death Garhgaon
1603–1641 38y Susenghphaa Prataap Singha,
Burhaa Rojaa,
son of Sukhaamphaa natural death Garhgaon
1641–1644 3y Suramphaa Jayaditya Singha,
Bhogaa Rojaa
son of Susenghphaa deposed[158] Garhgaon
1644–1648 4y Sutingphaa Noriyaa Rojaa brother of Suramphaa deposed[159] Garhgaon
1648–1663 15y Sutamla Jayadhwaj Singha,
Bhoganiyaa Rojaa
son of Sutingphaa natural death Garhgaon/Bakata
1663–1670 7y Supangmung Chakradhwaj Singha cousin of Sutamla[160] natural death Bakata/Garhgaon
1670–1672 2y Sunyatphaa Udayaditya Singha brother of Supangmung[161] deposed[162]
1672–1674 2y Suklamphaa Ramadhwaj Singha brother of Sunyatphaa poisoned[163]
1674–1675 21d Suhung[164] Samaguria Rojaa Khamjang Samaguria descendant of Suhungmung deposed[165]
1675-1675 24d Gobar Roja great-grandson of Suhungmung[166] deposed[167]
1675–1677 2y Sujinphaa[168] Arjun Konwar,
Dihingia Rojaa II
grandson of Pratap Singha, son of Namrupian Gohain deposed, suicide[169]
1677–1679 2y Sudoiphaa Parvatia Rojaa great-grandson of Suhungmung[170] deposed, killed[171]
1679–1681 3y Sulikphaa Ratnadhwaj Singha,
Loraa Rojaa
Samaguria family deposed, killed[172]
1681–1696 15y Supaatphaa Gadadhar Singha son of Gobar Rojaa natural death Borkola
1696–1714 18y Sukhrungphaa Rudra Singha son of Supaatphaa natural death Rangpur
1714–1744 30y Sutanphaa Siva Singha son Sukhrungphaa natural death
1744–1751 7y Sunenphaa Pramatta Singha brother of Sutanphaa natural death
1751–1769 18y Suremphaa Rajeswar Singha brother of Sunenphaa natural death
1769–1780 11y Sunyeophaa Lakshmi Singha brother of Suremphaa natural death
1780–1795 15y Suhitpangphaa Gaurinath Singha son of Sunyeophaa natural death Jorhat
1795–1811 16y Suklingphaa Kamaleswar Singha great-grandson of Lechai, the brother of Rudra Singha[173] natural death, smallpox Jorhat
1811–1818 7y Sudingphaa (1) Chandrakaanta Singha brother of Suklingphaa deposed[174] Jorhat
1818–1819 1y Purandar Singha (1) descendant of Suremphaa[174] deposed[175] Jorhat
1819–1821 2y Sudingphaa (2) Chandrakaanta Singha fled the capital[176]
1821–1822 1y Jogeswar Singha 5th descendant of Jambor, the brother of Gadadhar Singha. Jogeswar was brother of Hemo Aideo, and was puppet of Burmese ruler[177] removed[178]
1833–1838 Purandar Singha (2)[179]

Vaghela dynasty (1244–1304 CE)

Main article: Vaghela dynasty

The sovereign Vaghela rulers include:

Jaffna (Aryachakravarti) dynasty (c. 1277–1619 CE)

Main article: Jaffna Kingdom

List of rulers–

Kingdom of Tripura (c. 1280–1949 CE)

Main article: Twipra Kingdom

Manikya dynasty

Main article: Manikya dynasty

List of rulers–
Kingdom of Tripura
Part of History of Tripura
Maha Manikyac. 1400–1431
Dharma Manikya I1431–1462
Ratna Manikya I1462–1487
Pratap Manikya1487
Vijaya Manikya I1488
Mukut Manikya1489
Dhanya Manikya1490–1515
Dhwaja Manikya1515–1520
Deva Manikya1520–1530
Indra Manikya I1530–1532
Vijaya Manikya II1532–1563
Ananta Manikya1563–1567
Udai Manikya I1567–1573
Joy Manikya I1573–1577
Amar Manikya1577–1585
Rajdhar Manikya I1586–1600
Ishwar Manikya1600
Yashodhar Manikya1600–1623
Kalyan Manikya1626–1660
Govinda Manikya1660–1661
Chhatra Manikya1661–1667
Govinda Manikya1661–1673
Rama Manikya1673–1685
Ratna Manikya II1685–1693
Narendra Manikya1693–1695
Ratna Manikya II1695–1712
Mahendra Manikya1712–1714
Dharma Manikya II1714–1725
Jagat Manikya1725–1729
Dharma Manikya II1729
Mukunda Manikya1729–1739
Joy Manikya IIc. 1739–1744
Indra Manikya IIc. 1744–1746
Udai Manikya IIc. 1744
Joy Manikya II1746
Vijaya Manikya III1746–1748
Lakshman Manikya1740s/1750s
Krishna Manikya1760–1783
Rajdhar Manikya II1785–1806
Rama Ganga Manikya1806–1809
Durga Manikya1809–1813
Rama Ganga Manikya1813–1826
Kashi Chandra Manikya1826–1829
Krishna Kishore Manikya1829–1849
Ishan Chandra Manikya1849–1862
Bir Chandra Manikya1862–1896
Birendra Kishore Manikya1909–1923
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya1947–1949
1949–1978 (titular)
Kirit Pradyot Manikya1978–present (titular)
Tripura monarchy data
Manikya dynasty (Royal family)
Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)
Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)
Neermahal (Royal residence)
Rajmala (Royal chronicle)
Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)
Chaturdasa Devata (Family deities)

On 9 September 1949, "Tripura Merger Agreement", was signed and come in effect from 15 October 1949 & Tripura became part of Indian Union.[181]

Nayaka Kingdoms (c. 1325–1815 CE)

Main articles: Nayaka dynasties and Kingdom of Kandy

See also: Musunuri Nayakas, Recherla Nayakas, Pemmasani Nayaks, Nayaks of Gingee, Nayakas of Keladi, Thanjavur Nayak kingdom, Madurai Nayak dynasty, Nayakas of Chitradurga, and Nayaks of Kandy

The Nayakas were originally military governors under the Vijayanagara Empire. It is unknown, in fact, if these founded dynasties were related, being branches of a major family, or if they were completely different families. Historians tend to group them by location.

Nayaka dynasty

See also: Nayaka dynasties

Ruler Reign Capital Notes
Prolaya 1323-1333 Warangal
(Musunuri line)
Founded a brief dynasty that was significant in the region of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
Kapaya 1333-1368 Warangal
(Musunuri line)
Rebelled against the Vijayanagara Empire.
Warangal annexed to Recherla
Singama I 1335-1361 Rachakonda
(Recherla line)
Helped his (probable kin?) in the rebellion against the Vijayanagara Empire. Founded a dynasty that became the dominant power in the Telangana region during the late 14th century and 15th century .[182]
Anavotha I 1361-1384 Rachakonda
(Recherla line)
Singama II 1384-1399 Rachakonda
(Recherla line)
Anavotha II 1399-1421 Rachakonda
(Recherla line)
Mada 1421-1430 Rachakonda
(Recherla line)
Brother of the predecessor.
Singama III 1430-1475 Rachakonda
(Recherla line)
Son of Anavotha II. Last of his line.
Rachakonda annexed to Vijayanagara Empire
Kumaravira Timma I 1441-1462 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
Ruler of Gandikota, and vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire; his dynasty established a solid rule that lasted 200 years.
Chenna Vibhudu 1462-1505 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
During his rule other lines of Nayaks gained relevance.
Vaiyappa 1464-1490 Gingee
(Gingee line)[183]
Tubaki Krishnappa 1490-1520 Gingee
(Gingee line)
Originally Bala/Vala Krishnappa, became Tubbaki/Dubakki/Dubala Krishnappa in local legends.
Chaudappa 1499-1530 Keladi
(Keladi line)
He was originally from a village called Pallibailu near Keladi. He was the son of couple Basavappa and Basavamambe, who were into farming.[184] He was the earliest chieftain to rule the area surrounding Shimoga, rose through self capability and acumen and was a feudatory of Vijayanagara Empire.
Ramalinga 1505-1540 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
Achyutavijaya Ramachandra 1520-1540 Gingee
(Gingee line)
Viswanatha 1529-1564 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Founder of one of the most successful Nayaka branches: the Madurai line.
Sadashiva 1530-1566[185] Keladi
(Keladi line)
He was an important ruler in the Vijayanagara Empire and earned the title Kotekolahala from emperor Aliya Rama Raya for his heroics in the battle of Kalyani. The coastal provinces of Karnataka came under his direct rule. He moved the capital to Ikkeri some 20 km. from Keladi.
Chevappa 1532-1580 Tanjore
(Thanjavur line)
Bangaru Timma 1540-1565 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
Muthialu 1540-1570 Gingee
(Gingee line)
Krishnappa I 1564-1572 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Narasimha 1565-1598 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
Sankanna I 1566-1570 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Timanna 1568-1589 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Sankanna II the Younger
(Chikka Sankanna)
1570-1580 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Opportunistic king who took advantage of the confusion in the Vijayanagara Empire, following its defeat at Tallikota and grabbed a few provinces in Uttara Kannada district.
Venkatappa 1570-1600 Gingee
(Gingee line)
Virappa 1572-1595 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Ramaraja 1580-1586 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Achuthappa 1580-1614 Tanjore
(Thanjavur line)
Venkatappa I the Elder
(Hiriya Venkatappa)
1586-1629 Keladi
(Keladi line)
He is considered by scholars as the ablest monarch of the clan. He completely freed himself from the overlordship of the relocated Vijayanagar rulers of Penugonda. Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, who visited his kingdom in 1623, called him an able soldier and administrator. In his reign the kingdom expanded so that it covered coastal regions, Malnad regions, and some regions to the east of the western Ghats of present-day Karnataka. He is also known to have defeated the Adilshahis of Bijapur in Hanagal. Though a Virashaiva by faith, he built many temples for Vaishnavas and Jains and a mosque for Muslims. He defeated the Portuguese in 1618 and 1619.[186]
Obanna-Madakari I 1589-1602 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Krishnappa II 1595-1601 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Timma 1598-1623 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
Varadappa 1600-1620 Gingee
(Gingee line)
Muthu Krishnappa 1601-1609 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Kasturi Rangappa I 1602-1652 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Muthu Virappa I 1609-1623 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Raghunatha 1614-1634 Tanjore
(Thanjavur line)
Appa 1620-1649 Gingee
(Gingee line)
Gingee annexed to the Bijapur Sultanate
Chenna Timma 1623-1652 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
Tirumala 1623-1659 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Virabhadra 1629-1645 Keladi
(Keladi line)
He faced many troubles from the start, including competition from rival Jain chieftains of Malenad for the throne of Ikkeri and invasion by the Sultanate armies of Bijapur. Ikkeri was plundered by the Bijapur army during his time.
Vijaya Raghava 1634-1673 Tanjore
(Thanjavur line)
Thanjavur annexed to the Maratha Empire
Shivappa 1645-1660 Keladi
(Keladi line)
He is widely considered as the ablest and greatest of the Keladi rulers. Uncle of his predecessor, Shivappa deposed him. Not only was he an able administrator, but also patronised literature and fine arts. His successful campaigns against the Bijapur sultans, the Mysore kings, the Portuguese, and other Nayakas of the neighbouring territories east of the western ghats helped expand the kingdom to its greatest extent, covering large areas of present-day Karnataka. He gave importance to agriculture and developed new schemes for collection of taxes and revenues which earned him much praise from later British officials. A statue of him and the palace built by him containing many artifacts of his times are reminders of the respect he has earned even from the present generation of people of the region. He destroyed the Portuguese political power in the Kanara region by capturing all the Portuguese forts of the coastal region.[187]
Madakari II 1652-1674 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Kumaravira Timma II 1652-1685 Gandikota
(Pemmasani line)
Last of his line.
Gandikota annexed to the Sultanate of Golconda
Muthu Virappa II 1659 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Chokanatha I 1659-1682 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Venkatappa II the Younger
(Chikka Venkatappa)
1660-1662 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Bhadrappa 1662-1664 Keladi
(Keladi line)
During his reign the rule of Vokkaligas came to an end and was replaced by the rule of Banajigas.[188]
Somashekara I 1664-1672 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Was once a good administrator, gave up his interest in administration after his association with a dancer named Kalavati. Bharame Mavuta, a relative of Kalavati slow poisoned the king which eventually led to his death.
Chennamma 1672-1697 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Widow of Somashekara I. She was an able ruler who some scholars claim was allied with the Maratha Shivaji and later his son Sambhaji to defeat all rival claimants to the throne. She gave shelter to Chhatrapathi Rajaram when he fled from the Mughal army. Chennamma of Keladi is well remembered by local people through tales of her bravery.
Obanna II 1674-1675 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Shoora Kantha 1675-1676 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Chikanna 1676-1686 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Regency of Queen Mangammal (1682-1689)
Aranga Krishna
Muthu Virappa III
1682-1689 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Madakari III 1686-1688 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Donne Rangappa 1688-1689 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Regency of Queen Mangammal (1689-1704)
Chokanatha II
1689-1732 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Bharamana 1689-1721 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Basavappa 1697-1714 Keladi
(Keladi line)
He was a brave ruler and was adopted by Rani Chennammaji from their relative

Markappa Shetty of Bedanur[189]

Somashekara II 1714-1739 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Madakari IV 1721-1748 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Meenakshi 1732-1736 Madurai
(Madurai line)
Widow of the predecessor. The ruling dynasty ends with her death. According to some sources, she was a regent for an adopted son of hers.
Madurai annexed to the Nawab of Carnatic
Basavappa 1739-1754 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Sri Vijaya Rajasinha 1739-1747 Kandy
(Kandy line)
This branch was related to the Madurai Nayaks. Sri Vijaya was a brother-in-law of the late king of Kandy.
Kirti Sri Rajasinha 1747-1782 Kandy
(Kandy line)
Kasturi Rangappa II 1748-1758 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Basappa 1754-1759 Keladi
(Keladi line)
Madakari V 1758-1779 Chitradurga
(Chitradurga line)
Chitradurga annexed to the Kingdom of Mysore
Virammaji 1759-1763 Keladi
(Keladi line)
She was defeated by Hyder Ali, who merged the Keladi kingdom with the Kingdom of Mysore. The queen was captured by Hyder Ali and was kept in confinement along with her son in the fort of Madugiri.[190] They were however rescued in 1767 when Madhavrao I of the Maratha Empire defeated Hyder Ali in the battle of Madugiri. Later, they were sent to Pune the capital of the Maratha Empire for protection.[190]
Keladi annexed to the Kingdom of Mysore
Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha 1782-1798 Kandy
(Kandy line)
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha 1798-1815[191][192] Kandy
(Kandy line)
Kandy annexed to Great Britain

Vellore Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1540–1601 CE)

Main article: Nayaks of Vellore

The list of nayaks are unclear. Some of the Nayaks are:

Other Nayaka kingdoms

Reddy Kingdom (c. 1325–1448 CE)

Main article: Reddy Kingdom

List of rulers–

Oiniwar (Sugauna) dynasty of Mithila (c. 1325–1526 CE)

Main article: Oiniwar dynasty

List of rulers–

According to historian Makhan Jha, the rulers of the Oiniwar dynasty are as follows:[195]

Vijayanagara Empire (c. 1336–1646 CE)

Main articles: Vijayanagara Empire and List of Vijayanagara emperors

Vijayanagara Empire was ruled by four different dynasties for about 310 years on entire South India.[198]

Serial no. Regnal names Reign (CE) Notes
Sangama dynasty rulers (1336 to 1485 CE)
1 Harihara I 1336–1356
2 Bukka Raya I 1356–1377
3 Harihara II 1377–1404
4 Virupaksha Raya 1404–1405
5 Bukka Raya II 1405–1406
6 Deva Raya 1406–1422
7 Ramachandra Raya 1422
8 Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya 1422–1424
9 Deva Raya II 1424–1446
10 Mallikarjuna Raya 1446–1465
11 Virupaksha Raya II 1465–1485
12 Praudha Raya 1485
Saluva dynasty rulers (1485 to 1505 CE)
13 Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya 1485–1491
14 Thimma Bhupala 1491
15 Narasimha Raya II 1491–1505
Tuluva dynasty rulers (1491 to 1570 CE)
16 Tuluva Narasa Nayaka 1491–1503
17 Viranarasimha Raya 1503–1509
18 Krishnadevaraya 1509–1529
19 Achyuta Deva Raya 1529–1542
20 Sadasiva Raya 1542–1570
Aravidu dynasty rulers (1542 to 1646 CE)
21 Aliya Rama Raya 1542–1565
22 Tirumala Deva Raya 1565–1572
23 Sriranga Deva Raya 1572–1586
24 Venkatapati Deva Raya 1586–1614
25 Sriranga II 1614–1617
26 Rama Deva Raya 1617–1632
27 Peda Venkata Raya 1632–1642
28 Sriranga III 1642–1646/1652

Bahmani Sultanate (c. 1347–1527 CE)

Main article: Bahmani Sultanate

Malwa Sultanate (c. 1392–1562 CE)

Main article: Malwa Sultanate

Ghoris (1390–1436 CE)
Khaljis (1436–1535 CE)

Baro-Bhuyan kingdoms (c. 1365–1632 CE)

Main article: Baro-Bhuyan

List of Kingdoms and their rulers are

Baro-Bhuyan of Assam (1365–1440 CE)

Baro-Bhuyan of Bengal (1576–1632 CE)

Tomara dynasty of Gwalior (c. 1375–1523 CE)

Main article: Tomaras of Gwalior

The Tomara rulers of Gwalior include the following.[199][200]

Name in dynasty's inscriptions (IAST) Reign Names in Muslim chronicles and vernacular literature
Vīrasiṃha-deva 1375–1400 CE or (c. 1394–1400 CE) Virsingh Dev, Bir Singh Tomar, Bar Singh (in Yahya's writings), Har Singh (in Badauni's writings), Nar Singh (in Firishta's and Nizamuddin's writings).[201]
Uddharaṇa-deva 1400–1402 CE Uddharan Dev, Usaran or Adharan (in Khadagrai's writings)[202]
Virāma-deva 1402–1423 CE Viram Dev, Biram Deo (in Yahya's writings), Baram Deo (in Firishta's writings)
Gaṇapati-deva 1423–1425 CE Ganpati Dev
Dungarendra-deva alias Dungara-siṃha 1425–1459 CE Dungar Singh, Dungar Sen
Kirtisiṃha-deva 1459–1480 CE Kirti Singh Tomar
Kalyāṇamalla 1480–1486 CE Kalyanmal, Kalyan Singh
Māna-siṃha 1486–1516 CE Mana Sahi, Man Singh
Vikramāditya 1516–1523 CE Vikram Sahi, Vikramjit

Wadiyar Kingdom of Mysore (c. 1399–1950 CE)

Main articles: Kingdom of Mysore and Wadiyar dynasty

List of rulers

Gajapati Empire (c. 1434–1541 CE)

Main article: Gajapati Empire

Picture King Reign Notes
Kapilendra Deva 1434–1467 Founder and first ruler of dynasty
Purushottama Deva 1467–1497 Second ruler of dynasty
Prataparudra Deva 1497–1540 Third ruler of dynasty
Kalua Deva 1540–1541 Fourth ruler of dynasty
Kakharua Deva 1541 Fifth and last ruler of dynasty

Rathore dynasty of Bikaner (c. 1465–1947 CE)

Main articles: Bikaner State and Rathore dynasty

Name Reign Began (in CE) Reign Ended (in CE) Notes
1 Rao Bika 1465 1504 First ruler of dynasty and founder of Bikaner city.
2 Rao Narayan Singh 1504 1505
3 Rao Luna Karana (Lon-Karan) 1505 1526
4 Rao Jait Singh (Jetasi) 1526 1542
5 Rao Kalyan Mal 1542 1574 Acknowledged the suzerainty of Emperor Akbar at Nagaur in November 1570
6 Rao Rai Singh I (Rai Rai Singh) 1574 1612 Important general in the Mughal army like Raja Man Singh I of Amber
7 Rai Dalpat Singh (Dalip) 1612 1613
8 Rai Surat Singh Bhuratiya 1613 1631
9 Rao Karan Singh (Jangalpat Badhshah) 1631 1667 Deposed by Emperor Aurangzeb for dereliction of duty at Attock, 11 January 1667. Exiled to his betel gardens at Karanpura in the Deccan.
10 Anup Singh 1669 1698 To be the first to be granted the title "Maharaja" by Emperor Aurangzeb. Served in the Deccan campaign at Salher in 1672, Bijapur in 1675, and the siege of Golconda in 1687. He was administrator of Aurangabad from 1677 to 1678, 'Hakim' of Adoni in 1678, Imtiazgarh and Adoni from 1689 to 1693, and of Nusratabad and Sukkar from 1693 to 1698 CE.
11 Rao Sarup Singh 1698 1700 He died from smallpox at Adoni in the Deccan on 15 December 1700.
12 Rao Sujan Singh 1700 1735 Ordered to attend Emperor Aurangzeb in the Deccan, where he remained for ten years. Faced invasions from Maharaja Abhai Singh of Jodhpur and Maharaja Bakht Singh of Nagaur, but successfully repulsed both.
13 Rao Zorawar Singh 1735 1746
14 Rao Gaj Singh 1746 1787 The first of his line granted permission to mint his own coinage by Emperor Alamgir II.
15 Rao Rai Singh II (Raj Singh) 1787 1787
16 Rao Pratap Singh 1787 1787 Reigned under the Regency of his uncle Surat Singh who poisoned him to assume the throne.
17 Rao Surat Singh 1787 1828 He incurred huge debts due to his military adventures which had reduced his state to near anarchy. Entered the protection of the East India Company with a subsidiary alliance on 9 March 1818.
18 Rao Ratan Singh 1828 1851 Received the hereditary title of Narendra Maharaja from Emperor Akbar Shah II and assisted the British by furnishing them with supplies during the First Afghan War of 1841.
19 Rao Sardar Singh 1851 1872 Assisted the British during the Indian Uprising of 1857 and served in person during many of the battles. Removed the name of the Mughal Emperor from his coinage, replacing the words with Aurang Arya Hind wa Queen Victoria.
20 Dungar Singh 1872 1887 Assisted the British during the Second Afghan War.
21 Ganga Singh 1887 1943 Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Bikaner, 1952–1977. On 28 December 1971, India amended its Constitution to remove the position of the rulers of princely states and their right to receive privy-purse payments, thus making him the last ruler of Bikaner. Imperial Conferences and at the League of Nations.
22 Sadul Singh 1943 1947 Signed the Instrument of Accession to the Dominion of India on 7 August 1947. Merged his state into the present state of Rajasthan, India on 30 March 1949.
23 Karni Singh 1947 1971 First titular ruler.

Deccan Sultanates (c. 1490–1686 CE)

Main article: Deccan Sultanates

Barid Shahi dynasty (1490–1619 CE)

Main article: Bidar Sultanate

Imad Shahi dynasty (1490–1572 CE)

Main article: Berar Sultanate

Adil Shahi dynasty (1490–1686 CE)

Main article: Adil Shahi dynasty

Nizam Shahi dynasty (1490–1636 CE)

Main article: Ahmadnagar Sultanate

Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518–1686 CE)

Main article: Qutb Shahi dynasty

Gatti Mudalis of Taramangalam (c. 15th–17th century CE)

Main articles: Gatti Mudalis and Taramangalam

List of known rulers–

Early Modern Period (c. 1500s CE – 1850s CE)

Kingdom of Cochin (c. 1503–1948 CE)

Main article: Kingdom of Cochin

Veerakerala Varma, nephew of Cheraman Perumal Nayanar, is supposed to have been the first king of Cochin around the 7th century. But the records we have start in 1503.[citation needed]

  1. Unniraman Koyikal I (?–1503)
  2. Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537)
  3. Veera Kerala Varma (1537–1565)
  4. Keshava Rama Varma (1565–1601)
  5. Veera Kerala Varma (1601–1615)
  6. Ravi Varma I (1615–1624)
  7. Veera Kerala Varma (1624–1637)
  8. Godavarma (1637–1645)
  9. Veerarayira Varma (1645–1646)
  10. Veera Kerala Varma (1646–1650)
  11. Rama Varma I (1650–1656)
  12. Rani Gangadharalakshmi (1656–1658)
  13. Rama Varma II (1658–1662)
  14. Goda Varma (1662–1663)
  15. Veera Kerala Varma (1663–1687)
  16. Rama Varma III (1687–1693)
  17. Ravi Varma II (1693–1697)
  18. Rama Varma IV (1697–1701)
  19. Rama Varma V (1701–1721)
  20. Ravi Varma III (1721–1731)
  21. Rama Varma VI (1731–1746)
  22. Veera Kerala Varma I (1746–1749)
  23. Rama Varma VII (1749–1760)
  24. Veera Kerala Varma II (1760–1775)
  25. Rama Varma VIII (1775–1790)
  26. Shaktan Thampuran (Rama Varma IX) (1790–1805)
  27. Rama Varma X (1805–1809), Vellarapalli-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Vellarapali")
  28. Veera Kerala Varma III (1809–1828), Karkidaka Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "karkidaka" month (Kollam Era))
  29. Rama Varma XI (1828–1837), Thulam-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Thulam" month (ME))
  30. Rama Varma XII (1837–1844), Edava-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Edavam" month (ME))
  31. Rama Varma XIII (1844–1851), Thrishur-il Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Thrishivaperoor" or Thrishur)
  32. Veera Kerala Varma IV (1851–1853), Kashi-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Kashi" or Varanasi)
  33. Ravi Varma IV (1853–1864), Makara Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Makaram" month (ME))
  34. Rama Varma XIV (1864–1888), Mithuna Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Mithunam" month (ME))
  35. Kerala Varma V (1888–1895), Chingam Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chingam" month (ME))
  36. Rama Varma XV (1895–1914), a.k.a. Rajarshi, abdicated (d. in 1932)
  37. Rama Varma XVI (1915–1932), Madrasil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in Madras or Chennai)
  38. Rama Varma XVII (1932–1941), Dhaarmika Chakravarthi (King of Dharma), Chowara-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chowara")
  39. Kerala Varma VI (1941–1943), Midukkan (syn: Smart, expert, great) Thampuran
  40. Ravi Varma V (1943–1946), Kunjappan Thampuran (Brother of Midukkan Thampuran)
  41. Kerala Varma VII (1946–1948), Ikya-Keralam (Unified Kerala) Thampuran
  42. Rama Varma XVIII (1948–1964), Pareekshit Thampuran

Koch dynasty (c. 1515–1949 CE)

Main article: Koch dynasty

Rulers of undivided Koch kingdom (c. 1515–1586)

Rulers of Koch Bihar (c. 1586–1949)

Main article: Cooch Behar State

Rulers of Koch Hajo (c. 1581–1616 CE)

Main article: Koch Hajo

Rulers of Darrang

Rulers of Beltola

Main article: History of Beltola

Rulers of Bijni

The Bijni rulers reigned between the Sankosh and the Manas rivers, the region immediately to the east of Koch Bihar.

Rulers of Khaspur

The rulers of the Koch kingdom at Khaspur were:[204]

Khandwala (Raj Darbhanga) dynasty of Mithila (c. 1526–1947 CE)

Main article: Raj Darbhanga

List of rulers–

Mughal Empire (c. 1526–1857 CE)

Main articles: Mughal empire and Mughal emperors

Mughal emperors

Portrait Titular Name Birth (modern-day name) Reign Death
1 Babur 14 February 1483 Andijan, Uzbekistan 20 April 1526 – 26 December 1530

(4 years 8 months 9 days)

26 December 1530 (aged 47) Agra, India
2 Humayun 6 March 1508 Kabul, Afghanistan 26 December 1530  – 17 May 1540

22 February 1555 – 27 January 1556

(10 years 3 months 25 days)

27 January 1556 (aged 47) Delhi, India
3 Akbar 15 October 1542 Umerkot, Pakistan 11 February 1556 – 27 October 1605   

(49 years 9 months 0 days)

27 October 1605 (aged 63) Agra, India 
4 Jahangir 31 August 1569 Agra, India 3 November 1605 – 28 October 1627

(21 years 11 months 23 days)

28 October 1627 (aged 58) Jammu and Kashmir, India
5 Shah Jahan 5 January 1592 Lahore, Pakistan 19 January 1628 – 31 July 1658

(30 years 8 months 25 days)

22 January 1666 (aged 74) Agra, India
6 Aurangzeb 3 November 1618 Gujarat, India 31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707

(48 years 7 months 0 days)

3 March 1707 (aged 88) Ahmednagar, India
7 Azam Shah 28 June 1653 Burhanpur, India 14 March 1707 – 20 June 1707 20 June 1707 (aged 53) Agra, India
8 Bahadur Shah I 14 October 1643 Burhanpur, India 19 June 1707 – 27 February 1712

(4 years, 253 days) 

27 February 1712 (aged 68) Lahore, Pakistan
9 Jahandar Shah 9 May 1661 Deccan, India 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713

(0 years, 350 days)

12 February 1713 (aged 51) Delhi, India
10 Farrukhsiyar
Puppet King Under the Sayyids of Barha
20 August 1685 Aurangabad, India 11 January 1713 – 28 February 1719

(6 years, 48 days)

19 April 1719 (aged 33) Delhi, India
11 Rafi ud-Darajat
Puppet King Under the Sayyids of Barha
1 December 1699 28 February 1719 – 6 June 1719

(0 years, 98 days)

6 June 1719 (aged 19) Agra, India
12 Shah Jahan II
Puppet King Under the Sayyids of Barha
5 January 1696 6 June 1719 – 17 September 1719

(0 years, 105 days)

18 September 1719 (aged 23) Agra, India
13 Muhammad Shah
Puppet King Under the Sayyids of Barha
7 August 1702 Ghazni, Afghanistan 27 September 1719 – 26 April 1748

(28 years, 212 days)

26 April 1748 (aged 45) Delhi, India
14 Ahmad Shah Bahadur 23 December 1725 Delhi, India 29 April 1748 – 2 June 1754

(6 years, 37 days)

1 January 1775 (aged 49) Delhi, India
15 Alamgir II 6 June 1699 Burhanpur, India 3 June 1754 – 29 November 1759

(5 years, 180 days)

29 November 1759 (aged 60) Kotla Fateh Shah, India
16 Shah Jahan III 1711 10 December 1759 – 10 October 1760

(282 days)

1772 (aged 60–61)
17 Shah Alam II 25 June 1728 Delhi, India 10 October 1760 – 31 July 1788

(27 years, 301 days)

19 November 1806 (aged 78) Delhi, India
18 Mahmud Shah Bahadur 1749 Delhi, India 31 July 1788 – 11 October 1788

(63 days)

1790 (aged 40–41) Delhi, India
19 Shah Alam II
Puppet King under the Maratha Empire
25 June 1728 Delhi, India 16 October 1788 – 19 November 1806

(18 years, 339 days)

19 November 1806 (aged 78) Delhi, India
20 Akbar II
Puppet King under the East India Company
22 April 1760 Mukundpur, India 19 November 1806 – 28 September 1837

(30 years, 321 days)

28 September 1837 (aged 77) Delhi, India
21 Bahadur Shah II 24 October 1775 Delhi, India 28 September 1837 – 21 September 1857

(19 years, 360 days)

7 November 1862 (aged 87) Rangoon, Myanmar

Sur Empire (c. 1540–1555 CE)

Main article: Sur Empire

Bhoi dynasty (c. 1541–1947 CE)

Main article: Bhoi dynasty

Gajapati of Odisha

Khurda Kingdom

Main article: Khurda Kingdom

Dhenkanal State

Main article: Dhenkanal State

List of rulers of the Dhenkanal princely state of the Bhoi dynasty branch:[208]

Puri Estate

Main article: Puri Estate

Kingdom of Ramnad (c. 1601–1949 CE)

Main articles: Ramnad estate and Maravar

As Sethupathi chieftains of Madurai Nayaks (1601 – 1677)

Imperial Sethupathi rulers (1678 – 1795 CE)

Rulers of princely state (1795 – 1949 CE)

As king
As Zamindars

Chogyal Kingdom of Sikkim (c. 1642–1975 CE)

Main articles: Kingdom of Sikkim and Chogyal


Maratha Empire (c. 1674–1818 CE)

Main articles: Maratha Empire and List of Maratha Rulers

See also: List of Maratha dynasties and states, Satara state, Kingdom of Nagpur, and Thanjavur Maratha kingdom

House of Bhonsle

See also: House of Bhonsle

Ruler Birth Reign Death Capital Notes
Shivaji I 19 February 1630[210] 1674-1680 3 April 1680 Raigad
Venkoji I 1632 1674-1686 1686 Tanjore Half-brother of Shivaji I, established his independent realm at Tanjore. The Thanjavur Marathas were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 17th and 19th centuries. Their native language was Thanjavur Marathi.[211]
Sambhaji I 14 May 1657 1681-1689 11 March 1689 Raigad
Shahuji I 1672 1684-1712 1712 Tanjore
Rajaram I 24 February 1670 1689-1700 3 March 1700 Raigad Brother of the predecessor.
Regency of Queen Tarabai (1700–1707) As a minor, ruled under regency. From 1710 ruled at his own in a separate state.
Shivaji II 9 June 1696 1700–1707 14 March 1726 Raigad
1710–1714 Kolhapur
Shahu I 18 May 1682 1707-1749 15 December 1749 Raigad
(until 1731)

(from 1731)
Son of Sambhaji I.
The Empire was divided between two branches of the family, the Satara and the Kolhapur (c. 1707–1710); the division was formalized in 1731.
Serfoji I 1675 1712-1728 1728 Tanjore Brother of the predecessor.
Sambhaji II 1698 1714–1760 18 December 1760 Kolhapur
Tukkoji 1677 1728-1736 1736 Tanjore Brother of the predecessor.
Venkoji II 1694 1736-1737 1737 Tanjore
Sujanabai c.1695? 1737-1738 1738 Tanjore Succeeded her husband in the throne for a year, before being deposed.
Shahuji II c.1710? 1738-1739 After 1739 Tanjore Illegitimate son of Serfoji I.
Raghoji I the Great 1695 1739-1755 February 1755 Nagpur Relative of Shahu I, from whom he usurped part of the kingdom, establishing his own at Nagpur .
Pratapsingh c.1695 1739-1763 16 December 1763 Tanjore Brother of Venkoji II.
Rajaram II June 1726 1749-1777 11 December 1777 Satara
Janoji 19 February 1630 1755-1772 16 May 1772 Nagpur
Shivaji III 1756 1760-1813 24 April 1813 Kolhapur
Thuljaji 1738 1763-1773

1787 Tanjore Thanjavur was invaded and loathed under the rule of the Nawab of Carnatic for three years (1773-1776).[212]
Mudhoji I ? 1772-1788 1788 Nagpur Brother of the predecessor. Candidate to the throne favored by the British.
Shahu II 1763 1777-1808 3 May 1808 Satara
Regency of Prince Amar Singh of Thanjavur (1787-1793) Last ruler to have authority in his own realm. After his death, the power of the rulers started to fade.
Serfoji II 24 September 1777 1787-1793

7 March 1832 Tanjore
Raghoji II ? 1788-1816 22 March Nagpur Nephew of Janoji.
Amarsingh c.1738 1793-1798 19 April 1802 Tanjore Son of Pratapsingh, and previous regent for Serfoji II, usurped the throne from his pupil, but was ultimately deposed.
Pratapsingh 18 January 1793 1808-1839 14 October 1847 Satara
Sambhaji III 1801 1813-1821 2 July 1821 Kolhapur
Parsoji 1778 1816-1817 2 February 1817 Nagpur Murdered.
Mudhoji II ? 1817-1818 15 July 1840 Nagpur Usurper and murderer of the predecessor, he was then arrested by the British.
Raghoji III 1806/08 1818-1853 11 December 1853 Nagpur Maternal grandson of Raghoji II. After his death, the state merged in the British Empire.
The kingdom was annexed by the British on 13 March 1854 under the Doctrine of Lapse.[213]
Shivaji IV 1816 1821-1822 3 January 1822 Kolhapur
Shahaji I 22 January 1802 1822-1838 29 November 1838 Kolhapur
Shivaji c.1810? 1832-1855 29 October 1855 Tanjore Last ruler of Thanjavur. After his death, Tanjore fell in the British Empire.
Tanjore annexed to the British Empire
Shivaji V 26 December 1830 1838–1866 4 August 1866 Kolhapur
Shahaji (II) 1802 1839-1848 5 April 1848 Satara After his death, Satara was annexed to the British Empire. This didn't stop a titular succession, however:
  • Pratapsinh II (adopted son of Shahaji)
  • Rajaram III
  • Pratapsinh III
  • Shahu (IV) (1918–1950)
Satara annexed to the British Empire
Rajaram II 13 April 1850 1866-1870 November 30, 1870 Kolhapur
Shivaji VI 5 April 1863 1871–1883 25 December 1883 Kolhapur Distant cousin of the predecessor.
Regencies of Queen Anandbai (1883-1884) and Jaisingrao Ghatge (father of the ruler, 1884-1885) Adopted child of Shivaji VI's widow. Shahu was considered a true democrat and social reformer, being an able ruler associated with many progressive policies.
Shahu III 26 June 1874 1883-1922 6 May 1922 Kolhapur
Rajaram III 31 July 1897 1922–1940 26 November 1940 Kolhapur
Regency of Queen Indumati Tarabai (1941-1946)
Shivaji VII 22 November 1941 1941-1946 28 September 1946 Kolhapur
Regency of Queen Indumati Tarabai (1946-1947) Formerly Maharaja of Dewas Senior; adopted by Indumati Tarabai, widow of Rajaram IIIn 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947, but the monarchy was officially abolished. Sahahi continued only as a titular ruler.
Shahaji II (III) 4 April 1910 1946-1947

9 May 1983 Kolhapur
(titular from 1947)

The Peshwas (c. 1713–1858 CE)

Main article: Peshwa

Technically they were not monarchs, but hereditary prime ministers, though in fact they ruled instead of the Chhatrapati (Maratha emperor) after the death of Chattrapati Shahu, and were they were the hegemons of the Maratha confederation.

Gaekwad dynasty of Baroda (c. 1721–1947 CE)

Main articles: Gaekwad dynasty and Baroda State

Scindia of Gwalior (c. 1731–1947 CE)

Main articles: Scindia and Gwalior State

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India.

Holkar rulers of Indore (c. 1731–1948 CE)

Main articles: Holkar and Indore State

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India. The monarchy was ended in 1948, but the title is still held by Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur, Maharani of Indore since 1961.

Sinsinwar Jat Kingdom of Bharatpur and Deeg (c. 1683–1947 CE)

Main article: Bharatpur State

List of rulers
Sinsinwar Jats of Bharatpur & Deeg (1683–1947)
Ruler Years
Raja Ram Sinsinwar 1683–1688
Churaman 1695–1721
Muhkam Singh 1721–1722
Badan Singh 1722–1755
Suraj Mal 1755–1763
Jawahar Singh 1764–1768
Ratan Singh 1768–1769
Kehri Singh 1769–1778
Ranjit Singh 1778–1805
Randhir Singh 1805–1823
Baldeo Singh 1823–1825
Balwant Singh 1825–1853
Jaswant Singh 1853–1893
Ram Singh 1893–1900
Kishan Singh 1918–1929
Brijendra Singh 1929–1947

Pudukkottai Kingdom (c. 1686–1948 CE)

Main article: Pudukkottai state


Sivaganga Kingdom (c. 1725–1947 CE)

Main article: Sivaganga estate

Zamindar under British rule (1803–1947)

Kingdom of Travancore (c. 1729–1949 CE)

Main article: Travancore


Newalkar dynasty of Jhansi (c. 1769–1858 CE)

Main articles: Newalkar and Jhansi State

List of rulers–

Sikh Empire (c. 1801–1849 CE)

Main article: Sikh Empire

List of rulers-

The British Empire annexed the Punjab in 1845–49 CE; after the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars

Muslim vassal kingdoms of the Maratha/Mughal/British Paramountcy (c. 1707–1856 CE)

Main articles: Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad, Oudh State, Hyderabad State, Nizam of Hyderabad, and Kingdom of Rohilkhand

Nawabs of Bengal Nawabs of Oudh Nawabs of Hyderabad

Dogra dynasty of Jammu and Kashmir (c. 1846–1952 CE)

Main article: Dogra dynasty

Ruler Reign Notes
Gulab Singh 1846–1856 CE Founder of Dogra dynasty and the first Maharaja of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state under the British Raj, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846) formalised the sale by the British to Gulab Singh for 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Jammu and Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore.
Ranbir Singh 1856–1885 CE Ascended the throne in 1856 after Gulab Singh's abdication due to poor health. He allied with the British during the Sepoy Mutiny. Unlike European women and children, Indian mutineers were not allowed to take refuge in his state. He also sent his troops to help the British to besiege Delhi. He was subsequently rewarded for his behaviour during the mutiny. He went on to annex Gilgit which had previously witnessed a rebellion against the state. He also established a modern judicial system. Civil and criminal laws were compiled into the Ranbir Penal Code during his reign.
Pratap Singh 1885–1925 CE Reigned for 40 years from 1885 to 1925, the longest of all the Dogra rulers. Out of the four Dogra rulers, Maharaja Pratap Singh's era was a period of enlightenment for his subjects, particularly for Kashmiris. He established local self governing bodies, democratic processes, educational systems, health care and hygiene and infrastructure development during his reign. A beginning was made in local self-government by establishing municipalities at Jammu, Srinagar, Sopore and Baramulla. By 1925, then Kashmir, particularly Srinagar had undergone significant social and cultural transformation.
Hari Singh 1925–1952 CE Ascended the throne following the death of his uncle, Maharaja Pratap Singh in 1925. He made primary education compulsory in the state, introduced laws prohibiting child marriage, and opened places of worship to the low castes. He signed the Instrument of Accession of Jammu and Kashmir to the Union of India on 26 October 1947, through which the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir became a part of the Dominion of India. He remained the titular Maharaja of the state until 1952, when the monarchy was abolished by Government of India under Jawaharlal Nehru.
Karan Singh
(Prince Regent)
1949–1952 CE Appointed as Prince Regent of Jammu and Kashmir in 1949, aged eighteen and served until the monarchy's abolition in 1952. He was appointed 'Sadr-e-Riyasat' ('Head of State') in 1952 and Governor of the State in 1964 CE.

Later Modern India (c. 1850s onwards)

Empire of India (1876–1947 CE)

Main articles: British Raj and Emperor of India

Portrait Name Birth Reign Death Consort Imperial Durbar Royal House
Victoria 24 May 1819 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 22 January 1901 None[a] 1 January 1877
(represented by Lord Lytton)
Edward VII 9 November 1841 22 January 1901 – 6 May 1910 6 May 1910

Alexandra of Denmark

1 January 1903
(represented by Lord Curzon)
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
George V 3 June 1865 6 May 1910 – 20 January 1936 20 January 1936

Mary of Teck

12 December 1911 Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Edward VIII 23 June 1894 20 January 1936 – 11 December 1936 28 May 1972 None None[b] Windsor
George VI 14 December 1895 11 December 1936 – 15 August 1947[216] 6 February 1952

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon

None[c] Windsor

Dominion of India (1947–1950 CE)

Main articles: Dominion of India and List of heads of state of India § Monarch of India (1947–1950)

Portrait Name Birth Reign Death Consort Royal House
George VI 14 December 1895 15 August 1947 – 26 January 1950[216] 6 February 1952

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon


See also

Other lists of monarchs


  1. ^ Victoria's husband Prince Albert died on 14 December 1861.
  2. ^ Edward VIII abdicated after less than one year of reign.
  3. ^ A durbar was deemed expensive and impractical due to poverty and demands for independence.[217]


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