This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "List of Indian monarchs" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. It includes those said to have ruled a portion of the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka.

South Asia, main centre of Indian culture
South Asia, main centre of Indian culture

The earliest Indian rulers are known from Sanskrit literature, Jain literature and a few in Buddhist literature in context of literary sources. Archaeological sources included archological remains in Indian subcontinent which give many details about earlier kingdoms, monarchs, and their interactions with each other.

Early types of historic documentation include metal coins with an indication of the ruler, or at least the dynasty, at the time. These Punch-marked coins issued around 600s BCE and in abundance under the Maurya Empire in 300s BCE.

There are also stone inscriptions and documentary records from foreign cultures from around this time. The main imperial or quasi-imperial rulers of North India are fairly clear from this point on, but the many local rulers, and the situation in the Deccan and South India is less clear stone inscriptions from early centuries. Main sources of South Indian history is Sangam Literature dated from 300s BCE.

Time period of ancient Indian rulers rulers are speculative, or at least uncertain. The early history of many dynasties of Ancient India and are currently uncertain.

Heheya Kingdom

Main article: Heheya Kingdom

Later they were divided among different sub-castes which include Kansara, Kasera, Tamrakar, Thathera, Tambat and many more.[3]

Medieval Haihayas

A number of early medieval dynasties, which include the Kalachuri and Mushika Kingdom of Kerala, claimed their descent from the Haihayas.[4]

Magadha dynasties

Main article: Magadha

Brihadratha dynasty (c. 1700 – 682 BCE)

Main article: Brihadratha dynasty

List of Brihadratha dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Sahadeva of Magadha
Somadhi 1661–1603 BCE
Srutasravas 1603–1539 BCE
Ayutayus 1539–1503 BCE
Niramitra 1503–1463 BCE
Sukshatra 1463–1405 BCE
Brihatkarman 1405–1382 BCE
Senajit 1382–1332 BCE
Srutanjaya 1332–1292 BCE
Vipra 1292–1257 BCE
Suchi 1257–1199 BCE
Kshemya 1199–1171 BCE
Subrata 1171–1107 BCE
Dharma 1107–1043 BCE
Susuma 1043–970 BCE
Dridhasena 970–912 BCE
Sumati 912–879 BCE
Subala 879–857 BCE
Sunita 857–817 BCE
Satyajit 817–767 BCE
Viswajit 767–732 BCE
Ripunjaya 732–682 BCE

(Ripunjaya was the last ruler of dynasty, dethorned by Pradyota in 682 BCE)

Pradyota dynasty (c. 682 – 544 BCE)

Main article: Pradyota dynasty

List of Pradyota dynasty Rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE) Period
Pradyota Mahasena 682–659 BCE 23
Palaka 659–635 BCE 24
Visakhayupa 635–585 BCE 50
Ajaka 585–564 BCE 21
Varttivarddhana 564–544 BCE 20

(Varttivarddhana was last ruler of dynasty dethroned by Bimbisara in 544 BCE)

Haryanka dynasty (c. 544 – 413 BCE)

Main article: Haryanka dynasty

List of Haryanka dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Bimbisara 544–491 BCE
Ajatashatru 491–461 BCE
Udayin 461–428 BCE
Anirudha 428–419 BCE
Munda 419–417 BCE
Darshaka 417–415 BCE
Nāgadāsaka 415–413 BCE

(Nāgadāsaka was last ruler of dynasty overthrowed by Shishunaga in 413 BCE)

Shishunaga dynasty (c. 413 – 345 BCE)

Main article: Shaishunaga dynasty

List of Shishunga dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Shishunaga 413–395 BCE
Kalashoka 395–377 BCE
Kshemadharman 377–365 BCE
Kshatraujas 365–355 BCE
Nandivardhana 355–349 BCE
Mahanandin 349–345 BCE

(Mahanandin lost his empire by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE)

Nanda Empire (c. 345 – 322 BCE)

Main article: Nanda Empire

See also: Conquest of the Nanda Empire

List of Nanda dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Mahapadma Nanda 345–340 BCE
Pandhukananda 340–339 BCE
Panghupatinanda 339–338 BCE
Bhutapalananda 338–337 BCE
Rashtrapalananada 337–336 BCE
Govishanakananda 336–335 BCE
Dashasidkhakananda 335–334 BCE
Kaivartananda 334–333 BCE
Karvinathanand 333–330 BCE
Dhana Nanda 330–322 BCE

(Dhana Nanda lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him in 322 BCE)

Maurya Empire (c. 322 – 184 BCE)

Main article: Maurya Empire

Ruler Reign Notes
Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya and Bhadrabahu.png
322–297 BCE Founder of first Indian united empire.
I42 1karshapana Maurya Bindusara MACW4165 1ar (8486583162).jpg
297–273 BCE Known for his foreign diplomacy and crushed of Vidarbh revolt.
268–232 BCE Greatest emperor of dynasty. His son Kunala was blinded and died before his father. Ashoka was succeeded by his grandson. Also known for Kalinga war victory.
Dasharatha Maurya
Dasaratha Maurya inscription on entrance of Vadathika cave.jpg
232–224 BCE Grandson of Ashoka.
Samprati 224–215 BCE Brother of Dasharatha.
Mauryan Empire. temp. Salisuka or later. Circa 207-194 BC.jpg
215–202 BCE
Devavarman 202–195 BCE
Shatadhanvan 195–187 BCE The Mauryan Empire had shrunk by the time of his reign
Brihadratha 187–184 BCE Assassinated by his Commander-in-chief Pushyamitra Shunga in 185 BCE.

(Brihadratha was the last ruler of dynasty, dethroned by Pushyamitra Shunga in 185 BCE)

Shunga Empire (c. 185 – 73 BCE)

Main article: Shunga Empire

List of Shunga dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign (BCE)
Pushyamitra Shunga 185–149 BCE
Agnimitra 149–141 BCE
Vasujyeshtha 141–131 BCE
Vasumitra 131–124 BCE
Bhadraka 124–122 BCE
Pulindaka 122–119 BCE
Ghosha 119–108 BCE
Vajramitra 108–94 BCE
Bhagabhadra 94–83 BCE
Devabhuti 83–73 BCE

(Devabhuti was the last ruler of dynasty dethroned by, dethroned Vasudeva Kanva in 73 BCE)

Kanva dynasty (c. 73 – 28 BCE)

Main article: Kanva dynasty

List of Kanava dynasty rulers
Ruler Reign Period
Vasudeva Kanva 73–64 BCE 9
Bhumimitra 64–50 BCE 14
Narayana 50–38 BCE 12
Susarman 38–28 BCE 10

(Susarman was the last ruler of dynasty, dethroned by Simuka of Satavahana Empire)

Kalinga Empire

Main article: Kalinga (historical region)

First Kalinga dynasty (c. 1700 – 700 BCE)

According to Mahabharata and some Puranas, the prince Kalinga founded the kingdom of Kalinga, in the current day region of coastal Odisha, including the North Sircars.[5][6] The Mahabharata also mentions one Srutayudha as the king of the Kalinga kingdom, who joined the Kaurava camp.[7] In the Buddhist text, Mahagovinda Suttanta, Kalinga and its ruler, Sattabhu, have been mentioned.[8]

Second Kalinga dynasty (c. 700 – 550 BCE)

This dynasty is mentioned in Chullakalinga Jataka and Kalingabodhi Jataka. The first king Kalinga I is said to have broken away from the Danda kingdom along with the kings of Asmaka and Vidarbha as its feudal states.

Unknown dynasty mentioned in Dathavamsha (c. 550 – 410 BCE)

Solar dynasty of Kalinga (c. 410 – 380 BCE)

His son, Prince Soorudasaruna-Adeettiya was exiled and as per Maldivian history, established the first kingdom Dheeva Maari and laid the foundation of the Adeetta dynasty.[9]

Gonanda Kingdom of Kashmir

Main articles: Gonanda dynasty and Kashmir

Gonanda dynasty I (c. 1700 – 1182 BCE)

Kalhana mentions that Gonanda I ascended the throne in 653 Kali calendar era. According to Jogesh Chander Dutt's calculation, this year corresponds between 1800 BCE – 1700 BCE.[10]

Gonanditya dynasty (c. 1182 – 246 BCE)

The Gonanditya dynasty ruled Kashmir for 1002 years.[11]

Ruler Reign[12] Ascension year Notes
Gonanda III 35 years 1182 BCE Gonanda III founded a new dynasty. (I.191) He belonged to Rama's lineage, and restored the Nāga rites
Vibhishana I 53 years, 6 months 1147 BCE
Indrajit 35 years 1094 BCE
Ravana 30 years, 6 months A Shivalinga attributed to Ravana could still be seen at the time of Kalhana.
Vibhishana II 35 years, 6 months 1058 BCE
Nara I (Kinnara) 40 years, 9 months 1023 BCE His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. He tried to abduct a Nāga woman, who was the wife of a Brahmin. Because of this, the Nāga chief burnt down the king's city, and the king died in the fire.
Siddha 60 years 983 BCE Siddha, the son of Nara, was saved from Nāga's fury, because he was away from the capital at the time. He was a religious king, and followed a near-ascetic lifestyle.
Utpalaksha 30 years, 6 months 923 BCE Son of Siddha
Hiranyaksha 37 years, 7 months 893 BCE Son of Utpalaksha
Hiranyakula 60 years 855 BCE Son of Hiranyaksha
Vasukula (Mukula) 60 years 795 BCE Son of Hiranyakula. During his reign, the Mlechchhas (possibly Hunas) overran Kashmir.
Mihirakula 70 years 735 BCE According to historical evidence, Mihirakula's predecessor was Toramana. Kalhana mentions a king called Toramana, but places him much later, in Book 3.[13] According to Kalhana, Mihirakula was a cruel ruler who ordered killings of a large number of people, including children, women and elders. He invaded the Sinhala Kingdom, and replaced their king with a cruel man. As he passed through Chola, Karnata and other kingdoms on his way back to Kashmir, the rulers of these kingdoms fled their capitals and returned only after he had gone away. On his return to Kashmir, he ordered killings of 100 elephants, who had been startled by the cries of a fallen elephant. Once, Mihirakula dreamt that a particular stone could be moved only by a chaste woman. He put this to test: the women who were unable to move the stone were killed, along with their husbands, sons and brothers. He was supported by some immoral Brahmins. In his old age, the king committed self-immolation.
Vaka (Baka) 63 years, 18 days 665 BCE A virtuous king, he was seduced and killed by a woman named Vatta, along with several of his sons and grandsons.
Kshitinanda 30 years 602 BCE The only surviving child of Vaka
Vasunanda 52 years, 2 months 572 BCE "Originator of the science of love"
Nara II 60 years 520 BCE Son of Vasunanda
Aksha 60 years 460 BCE Son of Nara II
Gopaditya 60 years, 6 days 400 BCE Son of Aksha. Gave lands to Brahmins. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-Sattvic diet); in their place, he brought others from foreign countries.
Gokarna 57 years, 11 months 340 BCE Son of Gopaditya
Narendraditya I (Khingkhila) 36 years, 3 months, 10 days 282 BCE Son of Gokarna
Yudhisthira I 34 years, 5 months, 1 day 246 BCE Called "the blind" because of his small eyes. In later years of his reign, he started patronizing unwise persons, and the wise courtiers deserted him. He was deposed by rebellious ministers, and granted asylum by a neighboring king. His descendant Meghavahana later restored the dynasty's rule.

Kashmir Chiefs of Ujjani Kingdom (c. 246 BCE – 25 CE )

No kings mentioned in this book have been traced in any other historical source.[13] These kings ruled Kashmir for 192 years.[12]

Ruler Reign[12] Ascension year Notes
Pratapaditya I 32 years 167 BCE Pratapaditya was a relative of a distant king named Vikrmaditya (II.6).
Jalauka 32 years 135 BCE Son of Pratapaditya
Tungjina I 36 years 103 BCE Shared the administration with his queen. The couple sheltered their citizens in the royal palace during a severe famine resulting from heavy frost. After his death, the queen committed sati. The couple died childless.
Vijaya 8 years 67 BCE From a different dynasty than Tungjina.
Jayendra 37 years 59 BCE Son of Vijaya: his "long arms reached to his knees". His flatters instigated him against his minister Sandhimati. The minister was persecuted, and ultimately imprisoned because of rumors that he would succeed the king. Sandhimati remained in prison for 10 years. In his old age, the childless king ordered killing of Sandhimati to prevent any chance of him becoming a king. He died after hearing about the false news of Sandhimati's death.
Sandhimati 47 years 22 BCE Sandhimati was selected by the citizens as the new ruler. He ascended the throne reluctantly, at the request of his guru Ishana. He was a devout Shaivite, and his reign was marked by peace. He filled his court with rishis (sages), and spent his time in forest retreats. Therefore, his ministers replaced him with Meghavahana, a descendant of Yudhishthira I. He willingly gave up the throne.

Gonanda dynasty II (c. 25 – 561 CE)

Main article: Gonanda dynasty (II)

Ruler Reign[12] Ascension year Notes
Meghavahana 34 years 25 CE
Possible coinage of Meghavahana. Obverse: Shiva Pashupati ("Lord of the Beasts"), making a mudra gesture with right hand and holding filleted trident; behind, a lioness or tiger. Trace of legend Meghana... in Brahmi. Reverse: Goddess seated facing on lotus, holding lotus in both hand, Kidara monogram to left, Jaya in Brahmi to right. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[14]
Meghavahana was the son of Yudhisthira I's great grandson, who had been granted asylum by Gopaditya, the king of Gandhara. Meghavahana had been selected the husband of a Vaishnavite princess at a Swayamvara in another kingdom. The ministers of Kashmir brought him to Kashmir after Sandhimati proved to be an unwilling king. Meghavahana banned animal slaughter and compensated those who earned their living through hunting. He patrnozed Brahmins, and set up a monastery. His queens built Buddhist viharas and monasteries. He subdued kings in regions as far as Sinhala Kingdom, forcing them to abandon animal slaughter.
Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II) 30 years 59 CE Son of Meghavahana
Hiranya 30 years, 2 months 89 CE Son of Shreshtasena, assisted by his brother and co-regent Toramana. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. Toramana's son Pravarasena, who had been brought up in secrecy by his mother Anjana, freed him. Hiranya died childless. Several coins of a king named Toramana have been found in the Kashmir region. This king is identified by some with Huna ruler Toramana, although his successor Mihirakula is placed much earlier by Kalhana.[13]
Matrigupta 4 years, 9 months, 1 day 120 CE According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of Ujjayini defeated the Shakas, and made his friend and poet Matrigupta the ruler of Kashmir. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana has confused the legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain with the Vardhana Emperor Harsha (c. 606–47 CE).[15] The latter is identified with Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account. However, according to M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Vikramaditya is another Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account: a king of Malwa around 580 CE.[16]
Pravarasena II 60 years 125 CE
Coinage of Pravarasena, supposed founder of Srinagar. Obverse: Standing king with two figured seated below. Name "Pravarasena". Reverse: goddess seated on a lion. Legend "Kidāra". Circa 6th-early 7th century CE.[14]
Historical evidence suggests that a king named Pravarasena ruled Kashmir in the 6th century CE.[13] According to Kalhana, Pravarasena subdued many other kings, in lands as far as Saurashtra. He restored the rule of Vikramaditya's son Pratapshila (alias Shiladitya), who had been expelled from Ujjain by his enemies. Pratapshila agreed to be a vassal of Pravarasena after initial resistance. He founded a city called Pravarapura, which is identified by later historians as the modern city of Srinagar on the basis topographical details.[17]
Yudhishthira II 39 years, 8 months 185 CE Son of Pravarasena
Narendraditya I (Lakshmana) 13 years 206 CE Son of Yudhishthira II and Padmavati
Ranaditya I (Tungjina III) 300 years 219 CE
Sri Tujina. Circa 7th century CE, Kashmir.[14]
Younger brother of Narendraditya. His queen Ranarambha was an incarnation of Bhramaravasini. The Chola king Ratisena had found her among the waves, during an ocean worship ritual.
Vikramaditya 42 years 519 CE Son of Ranaditya
Baladitya 36 years, 8 months 561 CE Younger brother of Vikramaditya. He subdued several enemies. An astrologer prophesied that his son-in-law would succeed him as the king. To avoid this outcome, the king married his daughter Anangalekha to Durlabhavardhana, a handsome but non-royal man from Ashvaghama Kayastha caste.

Gandhara Kingdom (c. 1500 – 518 BCE)

Main article: Gandhara Kingdom

Gandhara region centered around the Peshawar Valley and Swat river valley, though the cultural influence of "Greater Gandhara" extended across the Indus river to the Taxila region in Potohar Plateau and westwards into the Kabul and Bamiyan valleys in Afghanistan, and northwards up to the Karakoram range.[18][19]

Known Gandhara rulers are-

Kuru Kingdom (c. 1200–345 BCE)

Main article: Kuru Kingdom

Panchala Kingdom (c. 1100 BCE – 350 CE)

Main article: Panchala Kingdom (Mahabharata)

Ajamida II had a son named Rishin. Rishin had two sons namely Samvarana II, whose son was Kuru and Brihadvasu whose descendants were Panchalas.[22][23][24]

List of Panchala Kingdom rulers are-

Anga Kingdom (c. 1100 – 530 BCE)

Main article: Anga

Known Anga rulers are-

Kamboja Kingdom (c. 700 – 200 BCE)

Main article: Kambojas

Known Kamboja rulers are-

Pandyan dynasty (c. 600 BCE – 1650 CE)

Main article: Pandya dynasty

Early Pandyans

Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom

(Earliest Known Pandyan king)

(Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan) (he was mentioned in legend of Kannagi)

(Pasumpun Pandiyan)

(Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan)

Middle Pandyans (c. 590–920 CE)

Pandyans under Chola empire (c. 920–1216 CE)

Pandalam (Later Pandyans) (c. 1212–1345 CE)

Tenkasi Pandyans (c. 1422–1650 CE)

During the 15th century, the Pandyans lost their traditional capital city Madurai because of the Islamic and Nayaks invasion, and were forced to move their capital to Tirunelveli in southern Tamilakam and existed there as vassals.






Chera dynasty (c. 600 BCE–1530 CE)

Main article: Chera dynasty

Ancient Chera (c. 600 BCE–400 CE)

Kongu Cheras (Karur) (c. 400–844 CE)

Main article: Karur

Kodungallur Cheras (c. 844–1122 CE)

(The Perumals, formerly Kulasekharas)

Venadu Cheras (Kulasekhara) (c. 1090–1530 CE)

Main article: Kulasekhara

Chola dynasty (c. 600 BCE–1280 CE)

Main article: Chola dynasty

Ancient Cholas (c. 600 BCE - 300 CE)

Imperial Cholas Empire (c. 848–1280 CE)

Kingdom of Tambapanni (c. 543–437 BCE)

Main article: Kingdom of Tambapanni

House of Vijaya

Main article: House of Vijaya

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Marriages Claim
Vijaya ?
son of Sinhabahu, and Sinhasivali
505 BC
543 BC 505 BC Kuveni
two children Pandu Princess
Founded Kingdom
Marriage to Kuveni
- - 505 BC 504 BC Prince Vijaya's Chief Minister
Panduvasdeva - - 504 BC 474 BC Nephew of Vijaya
Abhaya - - 474 BC 454 BC Son of Panduvasdeva
- - 454 BC 437 BC Younger brother of Abhaya

Satavahana dynasty (c. 230 BCE–220 CE)

Main article: Satavahana dynasty

The beginning of the Satavahana rule is dated variously from 230 BCE to 220 CE.[25] Satavahanas dominated the Deccan region from 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE.[26] It lasted till the early 3rd century CE. The following Satavahana kings are historically attested by epigraphic records, although the Puranas name several more kings (see Satavahana dynasty#List of rulers):

Mahameghavahana dynasty (c. 225 BCE – 300 CE)

Main article: Mahameghavahana dynasty

Mahamegha Vahana was the founder of the Kalingan Chedi or Cheti Dynasty.[27][28] The names of Sobhanaraja, Chandraja, Ksemaraja also appear in context.[29] But, Kharavela is the most well known among them. The exact relation between Mahamegha Vahana and Kharavela is not known.[27]

Kingdom of Kangleipak (Manipur) (c. 200 BCE –1950 CE)

Main articles: History of Manipur and List of Manipuri kings

The Meitei people are made up of seven major clans, known as Salai Taret The clans include–

  1. Mangang
  2. Khuman Salai
  3. Luwang
  4. Angom
  5. Moilang
  6. Khaba Nganba
  7. Salai Leishangthem

Ancient dynasty of Kangleipak (c. 200 BCE −33 CE)

Khapa-Nganpa Salai

Luwang Salai

Ningthouja or Mangang dynasty (c. 33–1074 CE)

Main article: Ningthouja dynasty

Kangleipak dynasty (c. 1074–1819 CE)

Main article: Kangleipak State

  1. Loiyumpa (1074–1112)
  2. Loitongpa (1112–1150)
  3. Atom Yoilempa (1150–1163)
  4. Iyanthapa (1163–1195)
  5. Thayanthapa (1195–1231)
  6. Chingthang Lanthapa (1231–1242)
  7. Thingpai Shelhongpa (1242–1247)
  8. Pulanthapa (1247–1263)
  9. Khumompa (1263–1278)
  10. Moilampa (1278–1302)
  11. Thangpi Lanthapa (1302–1324)
  12. Kongyampa (1324–1335)
  13. Telheipa (1335–1355)
  14. Tonapa (1355–1359)
  15. Tapungpa (1359–1394)
  16. Lailenpa (1394–1399)
  17. Punsipa (1404–1432)
  18. Ningthoukhompa (1432–1467)
  19. Senpi Kiyampa (1467–1508)
  20. Koilempa (1508–1512)
  21. Lamkhyampa (1512–1523)
  22. Nonginphapa (1523–1524)
  23. Kapompa (1524–1542)
  24. Tangchampa (1542–1545)
  25. Chalampa (1545–1562)
  26. Mungyampa (1562–1597)
  27. Khaki Ngampa(1597–1652)
  28. Khunchaopa (1652–1666)
  29. Paikhompa (1666–1697)
  30. Charairongba (1697–1709)
  31. Gharib Nawaz (Ningthem Pamheipa) (1709–1754), (adoption of the name Manipur)
  32. Chit Sain (1754–1756)
  33. Gaurisiam (1756–1763)
  34. Ching-Thang Khomba (Bhagya Chandra) (1764–1798)
  35. Rohinchandra (Harshachandra Singh) (1798–1801)
  36. Maduchandra Singh (1801–1806)
  37. Charajit Singh (1806–1812)
  38. Marjit Singh (1812–1819)

(Came to power with Burmese support).

Burmese rule (c. 1819–1825 CE)

Princely State (c. 1825–1947 CE)

(Restored after the First Anglo-Burmese War)

Kuninda Kingdom (c. 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE)

Main article: Kuninda Kingdom

The Kingdom of Kuninda was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom documented from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE, located in the southern areas of modern Himachal Pradesh and far western areas of Uttarakhand in North India.

The only known ruler of Kuninda Kingdom is

Foreign Assimilated Kingdoms in Indian Subcontinent

See also: Middle kingdoms of India

These empires were vast, centered in Persia or the Mediterranean; their satrapies (provinces) in India were at their outskirts.

The sequence of there invasions are-

Indo-Greek Kingdom (Yavanarajya) (c. 200 BCE – 10 CE)

Main article: Indo-Greek Kingdom

Indo-Scythian (Saka) ( c. 12 BCE – 395 CE)

Main article: Indo-Scythians

Aprācas rulers (c. 12 BCE − 45 CE )

Main article: Apracharajas

Northern Satraps rulers (Mathura area) (c. 20 BCE – 20 CE)

Main article: Northern Satraps

Minor local rulers

Northwestern Scythian rulers (c. 85 BCE – 10 CE)

Kshaharatas rulers

Western Satraps (Western Saka) (c. 119 – 395 CE)

Main article: Western Satraps

Pāratas rulers (c. 125 – 300 CE)

Main article: Paratarajas

Kushan Empire (c. 1 – 375 CE)

Main article: Kushan Empire

Ruler Reign Notes
Heraios profile.jpg
1–30 King or clan chief of the Kushans. Founder of the dynasty.
Kujula Kadphises
30–80 United the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century, and became the first Kushan emperor.
Vima Takto Soter Megas
Coin of Kushan King Vima Takto.jpg
80–90 Alias The Great Saviour. His empire covered northwestern Gandhara and greater Bactria towards China, where Kushan presence has been asserted in the Tarim Basin. Under his reign, embassies were also sent to the Chinese court.
Vima Kadphises
90–127 The first great Kushan emperor. He introduced gold coinage, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage. Most of the gold seems to have been obtained through trade with the Roman Empire.
Kanishka I the Great
127–144 Came to rule an empire in Bactria extending to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain. His conquests and patronage of Buddhism played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and in the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism from Gandhara across the Karakoram range to China.
144–191 His rule was a period of retrenchment and consolidation for the Empire.
Vasudeva I
Coin of the Kushan king Vasudeva I.jpg
191–232 He was the last great Kushan emperor, and the end of his rule coincides with the invasion of the Sassanians as far as northwestern India, and the establishment of the Indo-Sassanians or Kushanshahs from around 240.
Kanishka II
232–245 It is likely he lost part of his empire to the Kushano-Sassanians.
Kanishka III
Dinar of Kanishka III or Vashishka LACMA M.77.56.18 (2 of 2).jpg
Vasudeva II
Coin of VasudevaII.jpg
Chhu 310–325
Vasudeva III c.300? Kings whose existence is uncertain.
Vasudeva IV
Vasudeva V
Shaka Kushan/Shaka I
350–375 May have been a subject of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire.

Indo-Parthian (Pahalava) (c. 21 – 100 CE)

Main article: Indo-Parthian Kingdom

Indo-Sasanian Kingdom (c. 233 – 365 CE)

Main article: Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom

Alchon Huns (Huna) (c. 400 – 670 CE)

Main article: Alchon Huns

Chutu dynasty of Banavasi (c. 100 BCE–200 CE)

Main article: Chutu dynasty

The following Chutu rulers are known from coins and inscriptions:[34]

Nagvanshi dynasty of Chotanagpur (c. 64–1952 CE)

Main article: Nagvanshis of Chotanagpur

Following is the list of Nagvanshi rulers according to Nagpuri poem "Nagvanshavali" written by Beniram Mehta and book "Nagvansh" written by Lal Pradumn Singh. The list of Kings and chronology varies in these books. 57th Nagvanshi king Dripnath Shah (c.1762–1790 CE) submitted list of Nagvanshi kings to Governor general of India in 1787.[35]



Bharshiva dynasty (Nagas of Padmavati) (c. 170–350 CE)

Main article: Nagas of Padmavati

(Possibly ruled at Vidisha in the late 2nd Century).

(May also be the name of a distinct king who succeeded Vrisha-naga).

(Probably the first king to rule from Padmavati)

Chandra dynasty (c. 202–1050 CE)

Main articles: Chandra dynasty and Harikela

List of rulers–[36][37]
List of Chandra dynasty Rulers
# King Period Reign (CE)
1 Chandrodaya 27 202–229
2 Annaveta 5 229–234
3 Chandra 77 234–311
4 Rimbhiappa 23 311–334
5 Kuverami (Queen) 7 334–341
6 Umavira (Queen) 20 341–361
7 Jugna 7 361–368
8 Lanki 2 368–370
9 Dvenchandra 55 370–425
10 Rajachandra 20 425–445
11 Kalachandra 9 445–454
12 Devachandra 22 454–476
13 Yajnachandra 7 476–483
14 Chandrabandu 6 483–489
15 Bhumichandra 7 489–496
16 Bhutichandra 24 496–520
17 Nitichandra (Queen) 55 520–575
18 Virachandra 3 575–578
19 Pritichandra (Queen) 12 578-90
20 Prithvichandra 7 590–597
21 Dhirtichandra 3 597–600
22 Mahavira 12 600-12
23 Virayajap 12 612-24
24 Sevinren 12 624-36
25 Dharmasura 13 636-49
26 Vajrashakti 16 649-65
27 Dharmavijaya 36 665–701
28 Narendravijaya 2 yr 9 months 701–703
29 Dharmachandra 16 703–720
30 Anandachandra 9+ 720-729+
Harikela Dynasty
1 Traillokyachandra 30 900–930
2 Srichandra 45 930–975
3 Kalyanachandra 25 975–1000
4 Ladahachandra 20 1000–1020
5 Govindachandra 30 1020–1050

Abhira dynasty of Nasik (203–370 CE)

Main article: Abhira dynasty

The following is the list of the sovereign and strong Abhira rulers:[38]

Gupta Empire (c. 240–550 CE)

Main article: Gupta Empire

Ruler Reign Notes
Maharaja Sri Gupta inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.jpg
240–290 Founder of the dynasty.
Maharaja Sri Ghatotkacha inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.jpg
Chandragupta I
Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I on a coin.jpg
320–325 His title Maharajadhiraja ("king of great kings") suggests that he was the first emperor of the dynasty. It is not certain how he turned his small ancestral kingdom into an empire, although a widely accepted theory among modern historians is that his marriage to the Licchavi princess Kumaradevi helped him extend his political power.
325–375 Defeated several kings of northern India, and annexed their territories to his empire. He also marched along the south-eastern coast of India, advancing as far as the Pallava kingdom. In addition, he subjugated several frontier kingdoms and tribal oligarchies. His empire extended from Ravi River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to central India in the south-west; several rulers along the south-eastern coast were his tributaries.
Kachagupta of the Gupta Empire circa AD 335.jpg
4th-century Rival brother/king, possibly an usurper, there are coins who attest him as ruler; possibly identical with Samudra-Gupta.
Ramagupta 375–380
Chandragupta II Vikramaditya
380–415 Continued the expansionist policy of his father Samudragupta: historical evidence suggests that he defeated the Western Kshatrapas, and extended the Gupta empire from the Indus River in the west to the Bengal region in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to the Narmada River in the south.
Kumaragupta I
415–455 He seems to have maintained control of his inherited territory, which extended from Gujarat in the west to Bengal region in the east.
Skandagupta Circa 455-480 CE.jpg
455–467 It is stated that he restored the fallen fortunes of the Gupta family, which has led to suggestions that during his predecessor's last years, the Empire may have suffered reverses, possibly against the Pushyamitras or the Hunas. He is generally considered the last of the great Gupta Emperors.
Purugupta 467–472
Kumaragupta II Kramaditya
Kumaragupta II Kramaditya Circa 530-540 CE.jpg
Budhagupta in Malwa Circa 476-495 CE.jpg
479–496 He had close ties with the rulers of Kannauj and together they sought to run the Alchon Huns (Hunas) out of the fertile plains of Northern India.
Narasimhagupta Baladitya
Narasinhagupta I Circa 414-455 AD.jpg
Kumaragupta III 530–540
Vishnugupta Candraditya
Vishnugupta Candraditya Circa 540-550 CE.jpg
Bhanugupta ? A lesser-known king with uncertain position in the list.

Vakataka dynasty (c. 250–500 CE)

Main article: Vakataka dynasty

The Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch

The Vatsagulma branch

Pallava dynasty (c. 275 – 897 CE)

Main article: Pallava dynasty

Early Pallavas (c. 275 – 355 CE)

Middle Pallavas (c. 355 – 537 CE)

Later Pallavas (c. 537 – 901 CE)

Aulikara Empire of Dashapura (c. 300 – 560 CE)

Main articles: Aulikara Empire and Dashapura

Rulers of First Aulikara dynasty-

Rulers of Second Aulikara dynasty-

Kadamba dynesties (345 – 1310 CE)

Kadamba dynasty of Banavasi (c. 345 – 540 CE)

Main article: Kadamba dynasty

Banavasi branch rulers-

Triparvatha branch rulers-

Kadamba dynasty of Goa (960 – 1345 CE)

Main article: Kadambas of Goa

Kadamba dynasty of Hangal (980 – 1275 CE)

Main article: Kadambas of Hangal

known rulers are-

Other minor Kadamba Kingdoms

Kadambas of Halasi
Kadambas of Bankapur
Kadambas of Bayalnad
Kadambas of Nagarkhanda
Kadambas of Uchchangi
Kadambas of Bayalnadu (Vainadu)

Varman dynasty of Kamarupa (350–650 CE)

Main articles: Varman dynasty and Kamarupa

The dynastic line, as given in the Dubi and Nidhanpur copperplate inscriptions:[39]

Reign Name succession Queen
1 350-374 Pushyavarman (unknown)
2 374-398 Samudravarman son of Pushyavarman Dattadevi
3 398-422 Balavarman son of Samudravarman Ratnavati
4 422-446 Kalyanavarman son of Balavarman Gandharavati
5 446-470 Ganapativarman son of Kalyanavarman Yajnavati
6 470-494 Mahendravarman son of Ganapativarman Suvrata
7 494-518 Narayanavarman son of Mahendravarman Devavati
8 518-542 Bhutivarman son of Narayanavarman Vijnayavati
9 542-566 Chandramukhavarman son of Bhutivarman Bhogavati
10 566-590 Sthitavarman son of Chandramukhavarman Nayanadevi
11 590-595 Susthitavarman son of Sthitavarman Syamadevi
12 595-600 Supratisthitavarman son of Susthitavarman (Bachelor)
13 600-650 Bhaskaravarman brother of Supratisthitavarman (Bachelor)
14 650-655 Unknown (unknown) (unknown)

Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad (350–1024 CE)

Main article: Western Ganga dynasty

List of rulers–

Traikutaka dynasty (c. 370–520 CE)

Main article: Traikutaka dynasty

The following Traikuta rulers are known from the coins and inscriptions of Gupta Empire:[40]

Vishnukundina dynasty (c. 420–624 CE)

Main article: Vishnukundina dynasty

Maitraka dynasty of Vallabhi (c. 475–776 CE)

Main article: Maitraka dynasty

Rai dynasty (c. 489–632 CE)

Main article: Rai dynasty

Later Gupta dynasty (c. 490–750 CE)

Main article: Later Gupta dynasty

The known Later Gupta rulers included:[44][45][46]

Chalukya dynasty (c. 500–1200 CE)

Main articles: Chalukya dynasty, Eastern Chalukyas, and Western Chalukya Empire

Ruler Reign Capital Notes
Jayasimha I 500–520 Badami Founder of the dynasty. He ruled the area around modern Bijapur in the early 6th century.
Ranaraga 520–540 Badami
Pulakeshin I 540–567 Badami He ruled parts of the present-day Maharashtra and Karnataka states in the western Deccan region of India.
Kirtivarman I 567–592 Badami He expanded the Chalukya kingdom by defeating the Nalas, the Mauryas of Konkana, the Kadambas, the Alupas, and the Gangas of Talakad.
6th century Kannada inscription in cave temple number 3 at Badami.jpg
592–610 Badami Brother of Kirtivarman. Expanded the Chalukya power in present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra after defeating the Kalachuri king Buddharaja. He also consolidated his rule in the Konkan coastal region of Maharashtra and Goa after conquering Revati-dvipa from the rebel Chalukya governor Svamiraja. His reign ended when he lost a war of succession to his nephew Pulakeshin II, a son of Kirttivarman I.
Pulakeshin II
Pulikesin II, the Chalukhaya, receives envoys from Persia (1).jpg
610–642 Badami Son of Kirtivarman I, he overthrew his uncle Mangalesha to gain control of the throne. Suppressed a rebellion by Appayika and Govinda, and decisively defeated the Kadambas of Banavasi in the south. Consolidated the Chalukya control over the western coast by subjugating the Mauryas of Konkana. He was victorious against the

powerful northern emperor Harsha-vardhana. He also achieved some successes against the Pallavas in the south, but was ultimately defeated, and probably killed, during an invasion by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I.

Kubja Vishnu-Vardhana I 615/24–641 Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Pulakeshin II. Ruled under him as viceroy in Vengi, and then declared independence in 624.
Jayasimha I (II) 641–673 Vengi (Eastern)
Adityavarman 642–645 Badami First son of Pulakeshin II. Probably ruled under the Pallavas.
Abhinavaditya 645–646 Badami Son of the predecessor.
Chandraditya 646–649 Badami Second son of Pulakeshin II.
Vijaya-Bhattarika (regent) 649–655 Badami Regent for her minor son. She was deposed by her brother-in-law.
A son of Chandraditya Badami
Vikramaditya I 655–680 Badami He restored order in the fractured kingdom and made the Pallavas retreat from the capital.
Indra Bhattaraka 673 Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Jayasimha II. Ruled for a week.
Vishnu-Vardhana II 673–682 Vengi (Eastern)
Vinayaditya 680–696 Badami He carried campaigns against the Pallavas, Kalabhras, Haihayas, Vilas, Cholas, Pandyas, Gangas and many more.
Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya I 696–733 Badami His long reign was marked by general peace and prosperity. Vijayaditya also built a number of temples. He fought against the Pallavas and extracted tributes from Parameshwar Varma V.
Jayasimha III 706–718 Vengi (Eastern)
Kokkli 718–719 Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnu-Vardhana III 719–755 Vengi (Eastern)
Vikramaditya II
8th century Kannada inscription on victory pillar at Pattadakal.jpg
733–746 Badami Conducted successful military campaigns against their enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram, in three occasions: the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II.
Kirtivarman II Rahappa 746- 757 Badami His reign was continuously troubled by the growing power of the Rashtrakutas and Pandyas. He finallt succumbed to the Rashtrakutas, who ended the power of the family in Badami.
Vijayaditya I (II) 755–772 Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnu-Vardhana IV 755–808 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya II (III) 808–847 Vengi (Eastern) His first military victories against the Rashtrakutas made the path for the independence of the dynasty from this occupant.
Kali Vishnu-Vardhana V 847–849 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya III (IV) 849–892 Vengi (Eastern) Brothers, ruled together.
Vikramaditya I (III) Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla I Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima I 892–921 Vengi (Eastern) During his rule, Vengi could claim some independence as capital from the Rashtrakutas.
Vijayaditya IV (V) 921 Vengi (Eastern)
Amma I 921–927 Vengi (Eastern) Probably brothers, ruled jointly.
Vishnu-Vardhana VI Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya V (VI) 927 Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for fifteen days.
Tadapa 927 Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for a month.
Vikramaditya II (IV) 927–928 Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima II 928–929 Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla II 929–935 Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima III 935–947 Vengi (Eastern)
Amma II 947–970 Vengi (Eastern)
Danarnava 970–973 Vengi (Eastern) Deposed by Jata Choda Bhima. Sought for help within the Chola Empire.
Tailapa II Ahvamalla
Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 913 (c.991 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Ahvamalla Tailapa II.JPG
973–997 Kalyani (Western) 6th great-grandson of Vijayaditya I. Ousted the Rashtrakutas in the West and recovered the power once held by his family.
Jata Choda Bhima 973–999 Vengi (Eastern)
Satyashraya 997–1008 Kalyani (Western)
Shaktivarman I 999–1011 Vengi (Eastern) First son of Danarnava. Returned from exile and recovered his throne. Now free from the usurper, however Eastern Vengi dynasty lost some of the independence they have gained some generations ago. Begin of the growing Chola influence in Vengi kingdom.
Vikramaditya V 1008–1015 Kalyani (Western) Nephew of Satyahraya, as son of his brother, Dashavarman.
Vimaladitya 1011–1018 Vengi (Eastern) Second son of Danarnava. In his exile period with his father and brother, he was married to Kundavai, daughter of Rajaraja I from the Chola Empire.
Jayasimha II (III)
Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 957 (c.1035 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Jayasimha II.JPG
1015–1043 Kalyani (Western) He had to fight on many fronts, against the Cholas of Tanjore in the south and the Paramara dynasty in the north, to protect his kingdom. His rule however was an important period of development of Kannada literature. He saw his cousins in Vengi fall firmly into the hands of the Cholas who would use their marital relations with the Eastern Chalukyas and their over lordship over Vengi to frustrate and threaten the Western Chalukyas from two fronts, from the east and from the South. But, at the same time, he consolidated more firmly the Western Chalukya power in the Deccan.
Rajaraja Narendra
King Rajaraja Narendra founder of rajahmundry city.jpg
1018–1061 Vengi (Eastern) Son of Vimaladitya, had support in the throne from the Cholas, whose influence grew significantly. He supported Cholas against his cousins, the Western Chalukyas. His own son managed to succeed in the Chola Empire, in 1070, as Kulottunga I, beginning the Later Cholas period, in which the Chola Empire was ruled by a branch of the Eastern Chalukyas renamed Chola.
Someshvara I Trilokyamalla
Western Chalukyas of Kalyana King Somesvara I Trailokyamalla 1043-1068.jpg
1042–1068 Kalyani (Western) His several military successes in Central India made him a formidable ruler of a vast empire. During his rule, the Chalukyan empire extended to Gujarat and Central India in the north.
Shaktivarman II 1061–1062 Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya VII 1062–1075 Vengi (Eastern) Also son of Vimaladitya, but half-brother of Rajaraja Narendra. Ascended to the throne with support from Western Chalukyas.
Someshvara II Bhuvanaikamalla
Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 990 (c.1068 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Bhuvanaikamalla Someshvara II.JPG
1068–1076 Kalyani (Western) First son of Someshvara I, deposed by his younger brother, Vikramaditya.
Rajaraja 1075–1079 Vengi (Eastern)
Vikramaditya VI Tribhuvanamalla
Old Kannada inscription (c.1108 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI.jpg
1076–1126 Kalyani (Western) Second son of Someshvara I. Under his reign, the Western Chalukya Empire reached its zenith. He is noted for his patronage of art and letters. His court was adorned with famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. Intervened in Chola politics, sitting his brother-in-law, Athirajendra Chola, on the Chola Empire throne.
Vishnu-Vardhana VII 1079–1102 Vengi (Eastern) Last known Chalukya ruler of Vengi.
Someshvara III
Old Kannada inscription (1129 AD) at Kedareshvara temple in Balligavi.JPG
1126–1138 Kalyani (Western) He was a noted historian, scholar, and poet, and authored the Sanskrit encyclopedic text Manasollasa touching upon such topics as polity, governance, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, medicine, food, architecture, painting, poetry and music: making his work a valuable modern source of socio-cultural information of the 11th- and 12th-century India.
Jagadhekamalla II
Old Kannada inscription (c.1148 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Jagadekamalla II.JPG
1138–1151 Kalyani (Western) His rule saw the slow decline of the Chalukya empire with the loss of Vengi entirely, though he was still able to control the Hoysalas in the south and the Seuna and Paramara in the north.
Tailapa III 1151–1164 Kalyani (Western) Faced many feudatory risings against Chalukya rule.
Jagadhekamalla III 1164–1183 Kalyani (Western) His rule was completely overshowded by the emergence of the Southern Kalachuris under Bijjala II who took control of Kalyani. He had to escape to the Banavasi region.
Someshvara IV
Chalukyas of Kalyana (Western Chalukyas) Possibly King Somesvara IV Chalukya. 1181-4 1189.jpg
1183–1200 Kalyani (Western) Recovered his capital, by defeating the Kalachuris, but failed to prevent his old allies, Seuna, Hoysala and the Kakatiya dynasty, who, after deposing Someshvara by 1200, divided his empire among themselves.

Shahi Kingdom (c. 500–1026 CE)

Main article: Shahi Kingdom

In Kabul Shahi Kingdom two Dynasties ruled (both were Hindu dynasties) from:

Turk Shahi dynasty (c. 500–850 CE)

Main article: Turk Shahi

Hindu Shahi dynasty (c. 850–1026 CE)

Main article: Hindu Shahi

Pushyabhuti dynasty (c. 500–647 CE)

Main article: Pushyabhuti dynasty

Eastern Ganga Empire (c. 505–1950 CE)

Eastern Ganga dynasty (c. 505–1434 CE)

Main article: Eastern Ganga dynasty

Indravarman I is earliest known Independent king of the dynasty. He is known from the Jirjingi copper plate grant.[41][42]

(Eastern Ganga king, feudal under Vakataka rule)

(Real founder of dynasty)

Gudari Kataka Ganga State

Main article: Gudari, Rayagada

According to Gangavansucharitam written in sixteenth or seventeenth century, Bhanu Deva IV also known as Kajjala Bhanu founded a new small princedom in southern Odisha at Gudari in modern Rayagada district after he was toppled from power by his general Kapilendra Deva.[47]

Chikiti Ganga State (c. 881–1950 CE)

Main article: Chikiti

Historians conclude that the rulers of Chikiti were from the line of Ganga ruler Hastivarman.[48][49]





















Parlakhemundi Ganga State (c. 1309–1950)

Main article: Parlakhemundi Ganga rulers

Parlakhemundi state rulers were the direct descendants of the Eastern Ganga dynasty rulers of Odisha.[50][51]


Titular Rulers

(1950 – 25 May 1974)

(25 May 1974 – 10 January 2020)

(10 January 2020–present)

Jaintia Kingdom (c. 515–1835 CE)

Main article: Jaintia Kingdom

Old dynasty

  1. Urmi Rani (?-550)
  2. Krishak Pator (550–570)
  3. Hatak (570–600)
  4. Guhak (600–630)

Partitioned Jaintia

  1. Jayanta (630–660)
  2. Joymalla (660-?)
  3. Mahabal (?)
  4. Bancharu (?-1100)
  5. Kamadeva (1100–1120)
  6. Bhimbal (1120)

Brahmin dynasty

  1. Kedareshwar Rai (1120–1130)
  2. Dhaneshwar Rai (1130–1150)
  3. Kandarpa Rai (1150–1170)
  4. Manik Rai (1170–1193)
  5. Jayanta Rai (1193–1210)
  6. Jayanti Devi
  7. Bara Gossain

New dynasty

  1. Prabhat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1500–1516)
  2. Majha Gosain Syiem Sutnga (1516–1532)
  3. Burha Parbat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1532–1548)
  4. Bar Gosain Syiem Sutnga I (1548–1564)
  5. Bijay Manik Syiem Sutnga (1564–1580)
  6. Pratap Ray Syiem Sutnga (1580–1596)
  7. Dhan Manik Syiem Sutnga (1596–1612)
  8. Jasa Manik Syiem Sutnga (1612–1625)
  9. Sundar Ray Syiem Sutnga (1625–1636)
  10. Chota Parbat Ray Syiem Sutnga (1636–1647)
  11. Jasamanta Ray Syiem Sutnga (1647–1660)
  12. Ban Singh Syiem Sutnga (1660–1669)
  13. Pratap Singh Syiem Sutnga (1669–1678)
  14. Lakshmi Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1678–1694)
  15. Ram Singh Syiem Sutnga I (1694–1708)
  16. Jay Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1708–1731)
  17. Bar Gosain Syiem Sutnga II (1731–1770)
  18. Chattra Singh Syiem Sutnga (1770–1780)
  19. Yatra Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1780–1785)
  20. Bijay Narayan Syiem Sutnga (1785–1786)
  21. Lakshmi Singh Syiem Sutnga (1786–1790)
  22. Ram Singh Syiem Sutnga II (1790–1832)
  23. Rajendra Singh Syiem Sutnga (1832–1835)[52][53]

Gurjara-Pratihara Empire (c. 550–1036 CE)

Main article: Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty

Pratiharas of Mandavyapura (c. 550–860 CE)

Main article: Pratiharas of Mandavyapura

R. C. Majumdar, on the other hand, assumed a period of 25 years for each generation, and placed him in c. 550 CE. The following is a list of the dynasty's rulers (IAST names in brackets) and estimates of their reigns, assuming a period of 25 years.

Pratiharas of Bhinmala (Kannauj) (c. 730–1036 CE)

Main article: Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty

List of rulers–

Other Pratihara Branches

Baddoch Branch (c. 600–700 CE)

Known Baddoch rulers are-

Rajogarh Branch

Badegujar were rulers of Rajogarh

Kingdom of Mewar (c. 550–1947 CE)

Main articles: Guhila and Sisodia

See also: Rajput, Udaipur State, and Mewar

In the 6th century, three different Guhila dynasties are known to have ruled in present-day Rajasthan:

Guhila dynasty (c. 550–1303 CE)

Main article: Guhila dynasty

Branching of Guhil Dynasty

Post-split Rawal branch (c. 1165–1303 CE)

Rana branch (c. 1160–1326 CE)

Rahapa, a son of Ranasimha alias Karna, established the Rana branch. According to the 1652 Eklingji inscription, Rahapa's successors were:

Sisodia dynasty (c. 1326–1947 CE)

Main article: Sisodia

Titular Maharanas

Gauda Kingdom (c. 590–626 CE)

Main article: Gauda Kingdom

Chacha dynasty of Sindh (c. 632–724 CE)

Main article: Brahman dynasty of Sindh

The known rulers of the Brahman dynasty are:[63]

Under the Umayyad Caliphate

Karkota dynasty of Kashmir (c. 625–855 CE)

Main articles: Karkota dynasty and Kashmir

Other puppet rulers under Utpala dynasty are

Chahamana (Chauhan) Empire (c. 650–1315 CE)

Main article: Chauhan

The ruling dynasties belonging to the Chauhan clan included:-

Chahamanas of Shakambhari (c. 650–1194 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Shakambhari

Following is a list of Chahamana rulers of Shakambhari and Ajmer, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:[64]

Chahamanas of Naddula (c. 950–1197 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Naddula

Following is a list of Chahmana rulers of Naddula, with approximate period of reign, as estimated by R. B. Singh:

Chahamanas of Jalor (c. 1160–1311 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Jalor

The Chahamana rulers of the Jalor branch, with their estimated periods of reign, are as follows:[65]

Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura (c. 1192–1301 CE)

Main article: Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura

Mlechchha dynasty of Kamarupa (650–900 CE)

Main articles: Mlechchha dynasty and Kamarupa

Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri (Chedi) (c. 675–1212 CE)

Main article: Kalachuris of Tripuri

Garhwal Kingdom of Uttrakhand (c. 688–1949 CE)

Main article: Garhwal Kingdom

Mola Ram the 18th century painter, poet, historian and diplomat of Garhwal wrote the historical work Garhrajvansh Ka Itihas (History of the Garhwal royal dynasty) which is the only source of information about several Garhwal rulers.[70][71]

Rulers of Garhwal - Panwar clan of Garhwali Rajputs
No. Name Reign Years Reigned No. Name Reign Years Reigned No. Name Reign Years Reigned
1 Kanak Pal 688–699 11 21 Vikram Pal 1116–1131 15 41 Vijay Pal 1426–1437 11
2 Shyam Pal 699–725 26 22 Vichitra Pal 1131–1140 9 42 Sahaj Pal 1437–1473 36
3 Pandu Pal 725–756 31 23 Hans Pal 1141–1152 11 43 Bahadur Shah 1473–1498 25
4 Abhijat Pal 756–780 24 24 Som Pal 1152–1159 7 44 Man Shah 1498–1518 20
5 Saugat Pal 781–800 19 25 Kadil Pal 1159–1164 5 45 Shyam Shah 1518–1527 9
6 Ratna Pal 800–849 49 26 Kamadev Pal 1172–1179 7 46 Mahipat Shah 1527–1552 25
7 Shali Pal 850–857 7 27 Sulakshan Dev 1179–1197 18 47 Prithvi Shah 1552–1614 62
8 Vidhi Pal 858–877 19 28 Lakhan Dev 1197–1220 23 48 Medini Shah 1614–1660 46
9 Madan Pal 877–894 17 29 Anand Pal II 1220–1241 21 49 Fateh Shah 1660–1708 48
10 Bhakti Pal 895–919 24 30 Purva Dev 1241–1260 19 50 Upendra Shah 1708–1709 1
11 Jayachand Pal 920–948 28 31 Abhay Dev 1260–1267 7 51 Pradip Shah 1709–1772 63
12 Prithvi Pal 949–971 22 32 Jayaram Dev 1267–1290 23 52 Lalit Shah 1772–1780 8
13 Medinisen Pal 972–995 23 33 Asal Dev 1290–1299 9 53 Jayakrit Shah 1780–1786 6
14 Agasti Pal 995–1014 19 34 Jagat Pal 1299–1311 12 54 Pradyumna Shah 1786–1804 18
15 Surati Pal 1015–1036 21 35 Jit Pal 1311–1330 19 55 Sudarshan Shah 1804–1859 55
16 Jay Pal 1037–1055 18 36 Anant Pal II 1330–1358 28 56 Bhawani Shah 1859–1871 12
17 Anant Pal I 1056–1072 16 37 Ajay Pal 1358–1389 31 57 Pratap Shah 1871–1886 15
18 Anand Pal I 1072–1083 11 38 Kalyan Shah 1389–1398 9 58 Kirti Shah 1886–1913 27
19 Vibhog Pal 1084–1101 17 39 Sundar Pal 1398–1413 15 59 Narendra Shah 1913–1946 33
20 Suvayanu Pal 1102–1115 13 40 Hansadev Pal 1413–1426 13 60 Manabendra Shah 1946–1949 3

Mallabhum (Bishnupur) kingdom (c. 694–1947 CE)

Main article: Mallabhum kingdom

Mallabhum kingdom or Bishnupur kingdom was the kingdom ruled by the Malla kings of Bishnupur, primarily in the present Bankura district in Indian state of West Bengal.[72] (also known as Mallabhoom,[73]

Name of the king[74][75] Reign Notes
Adi Malla 694–710
Jay Malla 710–720
Benu Malla 720–733
Kinu Malla 733–742
Indra Malla 742–757
Kanu Malla 757–764
Dha (Jhau) Malla 764–775
Shur Malla 775–795
Kanak Malla 795–807
Kandarpa Malla 807–828
Sanatan Malla 828–841
Kharga Malla 841–862
Durjan (Durjay) Malla 862–906
Yadav Malla 906–919
Jagannath Malla 919–931
Birat Malla 931–946
Mahadev Malla 946–977
Durgadas Malla 977–994
Jagat Malla 994–1007
Ananta Malla 1007–1015
Rup Malla 1015=1029
Sundar Malla 1029–1053
Kumud Malla 1053–1074
Krishna Malla 1074–1084
Rup II (Jhap) Malla 1084–1097
Prakash Malla 1097–1102
Pratap Malla 1102–1113
Sindur Malla 1113–1129
Sukhomoy(Shuk) Malla 1129–1142
Banamali Malla 1142–1156
Yadu/Jadu Malla 1156–1167
Jiban Malla 1167–1185
Ram Malla 1185=1209
Gobinda Malla 1209–1240
Bhim Malla 1240–1263
Katar(Khattar) Malla 1263–1295
Prithwi Malla 1295 -1319
Tapa Malla 1319–1334
Dinabandhu Malla 1334–1345
Kinu/Kanu II Malla 1345–1358
Shur Malla II 1358–1370
Shiv Singh Malla 1370–1407
Madan Malla 1407–1420
Durjan II (Durjay) Malla 1420–1437
Uday Malla 1437–1460
Chandra Malla 1460–1501
Bir Malla 1501–1554
Dhari Malla 1554–1565
Hambir Malla Dev (Bir Hambir) 1565–1620
Dhari Hambir Malla Dev 1620–1626
Raghunath Singha Dev 1626–1656
Bir Singha Dev 1656–1682
Durjan Singha Dev 1682–1702
Raghunath Singha Dev II 1702–1712
Gopal Singha Dev 1712–1748
Chaitanya Singha Dev 1748–1801
Madhav Singha Dev 1801–1809
Gopal Singha Dev II 1809–1876
Ramkrishna Singha Dev 1876–1885
Dwhaja Moni Devi 1885–1889
Nilmoni Singha Dev 1889–1903
Churamoni Devi (Regency) 1903–1930
Kalipada Singha Thakur 1930–1947

Chand Kingdom of Kumaon (700–1790 CE)

Main article: Chand kings

Badri Datt Pandey, in his book Kumaun Ka Itihaas lists the Chand kings as following:

King Reign Notes
Som Chand 700–721
Atm Chand 721–740
Purn Chand 740–758
Indra Chand 758–778 Opened Silk Factories
Sansar Chand 778–813
Sudha Chand 813–833
Hamir Chand 833–856
Vina Chand 856–869 Lost to Khas Kings
Vir Chand 1065–1080
Rup Chand 1080–1093
Laxmi Chand 1093–1113
Dharm Chand 1113–1121
Karm Chand 1121–1140
Ballal Chand 1140–1149
Nami Chand 1149–1170
Nar Chand 1170–1177
Nanaki Chand 1177–1195
Ram Chand 1195–1205
Bhishm Chand 1205–1226
Megh Chand 1226–1233
Dhyan Chand 1233–1251
Parvat Chand 1251–1261
Thor Chand 1261–1275
Kalyan Chand II 1275–1296
Trilok Chand 1296–1303 Conquered Chhakhata
Built a fort at Bhimtal
Damaru Chand 1303–1321
Dharm Chand 1321–1344 Defeated One Lakh Army of Delhi Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughluq under Khusrau Malik in his Qarachil Expedition
Abhay Chand 1344–1374
Garur Gyan Chand 1374–1419 Established authority over Bhabar and Terai; later lost them to nawab of Sambhal, Recaptured it by defeating Turkish Nawab of Sambhal under General Nilu Kathait
Harihar Chand 1419–1420
Udyan Chand 1420–1421 built Baleshwar Temple at Champawat
Captured Chaugarkha
Atma Chand II 1421–1422
Hari Chand II 1422–1423
Vikram Chand 1423–1437 Completed Baleshwar Temple
Bharati Chand 1437–1450 Defeated Doti
Ratna Chand 1450–1488 Defeated Bams of Sor,
defeated Doti again
Kirti Chand 1488–1503 annexed Barahmandal, Pali and Faldakot, Conquered Garhwal by defeating Ajaypal and made it vassal state of Kumaon
Pratap Chand 1503–1517
Tara Chand 1517–1533
Manik Chand 1533–1542
Kalyan Chand III 1542–1551
Purna Chand 1551–1555
Bhishm Chand 1555–1560 laid foundation stone of Alamnagar
lost Barahmandal to Khas Sardar Gajuwathinga
Balo Kalyan Chand 1560–1568 recaptured Barahmandal
moved capital to Alamnagar and renamed it Almora
Annexed Mankot and Danpur
Rudra Chand 1568–1597 Successfully defended Terai from nawab of Kath and Gola
founded the city of Rudrapur
Annexed Sira
Laxmi Chand 1597–1621 built Laxmeswar and Bagnath Temple at Almora and Bageshwar respectively
Invaded Garhwal 7 times without any Success
Dilip Chand 1621–1624
Vijay Chand 1624–1625
Trimal Chand 1625–1638
Baz Bahadur Chand 1638–1678 Captured Dehradun and Hindu Pilgrimage Kailash Mansarovar defeated Garhwal and Tibet, has his kingdom from ton river till karnali
Udyot Chand 1678–1698 Defeated combined armies of Garhwal and Doti
Gyan Chand 1698–1708 Defeated Garhwal and expelled fateh shah from Srinagar
Jagat Chand 1708–1720 Invaded Garhwal and captured its capital Srinagar, defeated combined armies of Sikhs|Khalsa and Garhwal
Devi Chand 1720–1726 Made Afghani Daud Khan General of Kumaon , looted Moradabad , Mughal Empire and captured villages of Mughals
Ajit Chand 1726–1729
Kalyan Chand V 1729–1747 Defeated Rohillas
Deep Chand 1747–1777 Defeated Garhwal King Pradip Shah left him embarrassed
Mohan Chand 1777–1779 Defeated by King Lalit Shah of Garhwal
Pradyumn Chand 1779–1786 Son of king Lalit Shah of Garhwal
Mohan Chand 1786–1788 Overthrew Pradyumn Shah; Became king for second time
Shiv Chand 1788
Mahendra Chand 1788–1790 Defeated by Gorkhas

Karttikeyapur (Katyur) Kingdom (700–1065 CE)

Main article: Katyuri kings

The period of certain Katyuri rulers, is generally determined as below, although there is some ambiguity in respect to exact number of years ruled by each King[76]


Varman dynasty of Kannauj (c. 725–770 CE)

Main article: Varman dynasty of Kannauj

Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta (c. 735–982 CE)

Main article: Rashtrakuta dynasty

Tomar dynasty of Delhi (c. 736–1151 CE)

Main article: Tomara dynasty

Various historical texts provide different lists of the Tomara kings:[79]

As stated earlier, the historians doubt the claim that the Tomaras established Delhi in 736 CE.[80]

List of Tomara rulers according to various sources[81][82]
# Abul Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari / Bikaner manuscript Gwalior manuscript of Khadag Rai Kumaon-Garhwal manuscript Ascension year in CE (according to Gwalior manuscript) Length of reign
Years Months Days
1 Ananga Pāla Bilan Dev 736 18 0 0
2 Vasu Deva 754 19 1 18
3 Gangya Ganggeva 773 21 3 28
4 Prithivi Pāla (or Prithivi Malla) Prathama Mahi Pāla 794 19 6 19
5 Jaya Deva Saha Deva Jadu Pāla 814 20 7 28
6 Nīra Pāla or Hira Pāla Indrajita (I) Nai Pāla 834 14 4 9
7 Udiraj (or Adereh) Nara Pāla Jaya Deva Pāla 849 26 7 11
8 Vijaya (or Vacha) Indrajita (II) Chamra Pāla 875 21 2 13
9 Biksha (or Anek) Vacha Raja Bibasa Pāla 897 22 3 16
10 Rīksha Pāla Vira Pāla Sukla Pāla 919 21 6 5
11 Sukh Pāla (or Nek Pāla) Go-Pāla Teja Pāla 940 20 4 4
12 Go-Pāla Tillan Dev Mahi Pāla 961 18 3 15
13 Sallakshana Pāla Suvari Sursen 979 25 10 10
14 Jaya Pāla Osa Pāla Jaik Pāla 1005 16 4 3
15 Kunwar Pāla Kumara Pāla 1021 29 9 18
16 Ananga Pāla (or Anek Pāla) Ananga Pāla Anek Pāla 1051 29 6 18
17 Vijaya Pāla (or Vijaya Sah) Teja Pāla Teja Pāla 1081 24 1 6
18 Mahi Pāla (or Mahatsal) Mahi Pāla Jyūn Pāla 1105 25 2 23
19 Akr Pāla (or Akhsal) Mukund Pāla Ane Pāla 1130 21 2 15
Prithivi Raja (Chahamana) Prithvi Pala 1151

Pala Empire (c. 750–1174 CE)

Main article: Pala Empire

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[83] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[84]

RC Majumdar (1971)[85] AM Chowdhury (1967)[86] BP Sinha (1977)[87][failed verification] DC Sircar (1975–76)[88] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[83]
Gopala I 750–770 756–781 755–783 750–775 750–774
Dharmapala 770–810 781–821 783–820 775–812 774–806
Devapala 810–c. 850 821–861 820–860 812–850 806–845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845–860
Shurapala I Deemed to be alternate name of Vigrahapala I 850–858 860–872
Gopala II NA (copper-plate charter discovered in 1995. Text of inscription published in 2009.)
Vigrahapala I 850–853 861–866 860–865 858–60 872–873
Narayanapala 854–908 866–920 865–920 860–917 873–927
Rajyapala 908–940 920–952 920–952 917–952 927–959
Gopala III 940–957 952–969 952–967 952–972 959–976
Vigrahapala II 960–c. 986 969–995 967–980 972–977 976–977
Mahipala I 988–c. 1036 995–1043 980–1035 977–1027 977–1027
Nayapala 1038–1053 1043–1058 1035–1050 1027–1043 1027–1043
Vigrahapala III 1054–1072 1058–1075 1050–1076 1043–1070 1043–1070
Mahipala II 1072–1075 1075–1080 1076–1078/9 1070–1071 1070–1071
Shurapala II 1075–1077 1080–1082 1071–1072 1071–1072
Ramapala 1077–1130 1082–1124 1078/9–1132 1072–1126 1072–1126
Kumarapala 1130–1140 1124–1129 1132–1136 1126–1128 1126–1128
Gopala IV 1140–1144 1129–1143 1136–1144 1128–1143 1128–1143
Madanapala 1144–1162 1143–1162 1144–1161/62 1143–1161 1143–1161
Govindapala 1158–1162 NA 1162–1176 or 1158–1162 1161–1165 1161–1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165–1199 1165–1200


Shilahara dynasty of Maharashtra (765–1265 CE)

Main article: Shilahara

Shilahara Kingdom was split into three branches:

South Konkan branch (c. 765–1020 CE)

List of rulers–
  1. Sanaphulla (765–795 CE)
  2. Dhammayira (795–820 CE)
  3. Aiyaparaja (820–845 CE)
  4. Avasara I (845–870 CE)
  5. Adityavarma (870–895 CE)
  6. Avasara II (895–920 CE)
  7. Indraraja (920–945 CE)
  8. Bhima (945–970 CE)
  9. Avasara III (970–995 CE)
  10. Rattaraja (995–1020 CE)

North Konkan (Thane) branch (c. 800–1265 CE)

List of rulers–
  1. Kapardin I (800–825 CE)
  2. Pullashakti (825–850 CE)
  3. Kapardin II (850–880 CE)
  4. Vappuvanna (880–910 CE)
  5. Jhanjha (910–930 CE)
  6. Goggiraja (930–945 CE)
  7. Vajjada I (945–965 CE)
  8. Chhadvaideva (965–975 CE)
  9. Aparajita (975–1010 CE)
  10. Vajjada II (1010–1015 CE)
  11. Arikesarin (1015–1022 CE)
  12. Chhittaraja (1022–1035 CE)
  13. Nagarjuna (1035–1045 CE)
  14. Mummuniraja (1045–1070 CE)
  15. Ananta Deva I (1070–1127 CE)
  16. Aparaditya I (1127–1148 CE)
  17. Haripaladeva (1148–1155 CE)
  18. Mallikarjuna (1155–1170 CE)
  19. Aparaditya II ( 1170–1197 CE)
  20. Ananta Deva II (1198–1200 CE)
  21. Keshideva II (1200–1245 CE)
  22. Ananta Deva III (1245–1255 CE)
  23. Someshvara (1255–1265 CE), last ruler of dynasty

Kolhapur branch (c. 940–1212 CE)

List of rulers–
  1. Jatiga I (940–960 CE)
  2. Naivarman (960–980 CE)
  3. Chandra (980–1000 CE)
  4. Jatiga II (1000–1020 CE)
  5. Gonka (1020–1050 CE)
  6. Guhala I (1050 CE)
  7. Kirtiraja (1050 CE)
  8. Chandraditya (1050 CE)
  9. Marsimha (1050–1075 CE)
  10. Guhala II (1075–1085 CE)
  11. Bhoja I (1085–1100 CE)
  12. Ballala (1100–1108 CE)
  13. Gonka II (1108 CE)
  14. Gandaraditya I (1108–1138 CE)
  15. Vijayaditya I (1138–1175 CE)
  16. Bhoja II (1175–1212 CE)

Ayudha dynasty of Kannauj (c. 770–810 CE)

Main article: Ayudha dynasty

Chandela dynasty of Jejakabhukti (c. 831–1315 CE)

Main article: Chandelas of Jejakabhukti

The Chandelas of Jejakabhukti were a dynasty in Central India. They ruled much of the Bundelkhand region (then called Jejakabhukti) between the 9th and the 13th centuries.

Based on epigraphic records, the historians have come up with the following list of Chandela rulers of Jejākabhukti (IAST names in brackets):[92][93]

Seuna (Yadava) dynasty of Devagiri (c. 850–1334 CE)

Main article: Seuna (Yadava) dynasty

Paramara dynasty of Malwa (c. 8th century to 1305 CE)

Main articles: Paramara dynasty and Malwa

According to historial 'Kailash Chand Jain', "Knowledge of the early Paramara rulers from Upendra to Vairisimha is scanty; there are no records, and they are known only from later sources."[95] The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources include:

Utpala dynasty of Kashmir (c. 855 – 1009 CE)

Main article: Utpala dynasty

Ruler Reign
Avantivarman 853/855 – 883 CE
Shankaravarman 883 – 902 CE
Gopalavarman 902 – 904 CE
Sankata 904 CE
Sugandha 904 – 906 CE
Partha 906 – 921 CE
Nirjitavarman 921 – 922 CE
Chakravarman 922 – 933 CE
Shuravarman I 933 – 934 CE
Partha (2nd reign) 934 – 935 CE
Chakravarman (2nd reign) 935 CE
Shankaravardhana (or Shambhuvardhana) 935 – 936 CE
Chakravarman (3rd reign) 936 – 937 CE
Unmattavanti ("Mad Avanti") 937 – 939 CE
Shuravarman II 939 CE
Yashaskara-deva 939 CE
Varnata 948 CE
Sangramadeva (Sanggrama I) 948 CE
Parvagupta 948 – 950 CE
Kshemagupta 950 – 958 CE
Abhimanyu II 958 – 972 CE
Nandigupta 972 – 973 CE
Tribhuvanagupta 973 – 975 CE
Bhimagupta 975 – 980 CE
Didda 980 to 1009/1012 CE

Didda (c. 980 – 1003 CE) placed Samgrāmarāja, son of her brother on the throne, who became founder of the Lohara dynasty.

Pala dynasty (Kamarupa) (900–1100 CE)

Main article: Pala dynasty (Kamarupa)

Paramara dynasty of Chandravati (Abu) (910–1220 CE)

Main article: Paramaras of Chandravati

Kingdom of Ladakh (c. 930–1842 CE)

Main article: History of Ladakh

Maryul dynasty of Ngari (c. 930–1460 CE)

Main article: Maryul

Known Maryul rulers were:

Namgyal dynasty (Gyalpo of Ladakh) (c. 1460–1842 CE)

Main article: Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh

The kings of the Namgyal dynasty along with their periods of reign are as follows:[97][98][99]

  1. Lhachen Bhagan (c. 1460–1485)
  2. Unknown (c. 1485–1510)
  3. Lata Jughdan (c. 1510–1535)
  4. Kunga Namgyal I (c. 1535–1555)
  5. Tashi Namgyal ('BKra‐śis‐rnam‐rgyal, c. 1555-1575) son[100]
  6. Tsewang Namgyal I (Ts'e-dbaṅ‐rnam‐rgyal, c. 1575–1595) nephew[101]
  7. Namgyal Gonpo (rNam-rgyal-mgon-po, c. 1595–1600) brother
  8. Jamyang Namgyal (Jams-dbyang-rnam-rgyal, c. 1595–1616) brother[102]
  9. Sengge Namgyal (Seng-ge-rnam-rgyal, first time, 1616–1623) son[103]
  10. Norbu Namgyal (1623–1624) brother
  11. Sengge Namgyal (second time, 1624–1642)
  12. Deldan Namgyal (Bde-ldan-rnam-rgyal, 1642–1694) son
  13. Delek Namgyal  (Bde-legs-rnam-rgyal, c. 1680–1691) son
  14. Nyima Namgyal  (Ñi-ma-rnam-rgyal, 1694–1729) son
  15. Deskyong Namgyal (Bde‐skyoṅ‐rnam‐rgyal, 1729–1739) son
  16. Phuntsog Namgyal (P'un‐ts'ogs‐rnam‐rgyal, 1739–1753) son
  17. Tsewang Namgyal II (Ts'e‐dbaṅ-rnam‐rgyal, 1753–1782) son
  18. Tseten Namgyal  (Ts'e‐brtan‐rnam‐rgyal, 1782–1802) son
  19. Tsepal Dondup Namgyal (Ts'e‐dpal‐don‐grub‐rnam‐rgyal, 1802–1837, 1839–1840) brother
  20. Kunga Namgyal II (Kun‐dga'‐rnam‐rgyal, 1840–1842) grandson

Solanki dynasty (Chalukyas of Gujarat) (c. 940–1244 CE)

Main article: Chaulukya dynasty

The Chalukya rulers of Gujarat, with approximate dates of reign, are as follows:[104][105]

Kachchhapaghata dynasty (c. 950–1150 CE)

Main article: Kachchhapaghata dynasty

Simhapaniya (Sihoniya) and Gopadri (Gwalior) branch

Dubkund (Dobha) branch

Nalapura (Narwar) branch

Kachwaha dynasty (c. 966–1949 CE)

Main article: Jaipur State

See also: Kachhwaha and Dhundhar

Kachwahas King Sorha Dev and Dulha Rao defeated Meena of Dhundhar kingdom & established Kachwaha dynasty, which ruled for more than 1000 years & still ruling in Jaipur district of Rajasthan.[108]


He was the last ruler of Kachawa dynasty, he annexed Jaipur State with Union of India in 1949 CE.[113][114]

Titular rulers

Titles were abolished in 1971 according to the 26th amendment to the Indian Constitution.

Kalachuri dynasty of Ratnapura (c. 1000–1225 CE)

Main article: Kalachuris of Ratnapura

The following is a list of the Ratnapura Kalachuri rulers, with estimated period of their reigns:[115]

Hoysala Empire (c. 1000–1343 CE)

Main article: Hoysala Empire

Hoysala Kings (1026–1343)
Nripa Kama II (1026–1047)
Vinayaditya (1047–1098)
Ereyanga (1098–1102)
Veera Ballala I (1102–1108)
Vishnuvardhana (1108–1152)
Narasimha I (1152–1173)
Veera Ballala II (1173–1220)
Vira Narasimha II (1220–1235)
Vira Someshwara (1235–1263)
Narasimha III (1263–1292)
Veera Ballala III (1292–1343)
Harihara Raya
(Vijayanagara Empire)

Lohara dynasty of Kashmir (c. 1003–1320 CE)

Main article: Lohara dynasty

The Lohara dynasty were Hindu rulers of Kashmir from the Khasa tribe,[116][117] in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, between 1003 and approximately 1320 CE. The dynasty was founded by the Samgramaraja, the grandson of Khasha chief Simharaja and the nephew of the Utpala dynasty Queen Didda.

First Lohara dynasty

Ruler Reign[12] Ascension year Notes
Sangramaraja (Samgramaraja / Kshamapati) 25 Years 1003 CE Nephew of Didda. Ascended the throne after her death, beginning Lohara dynasty's rule over Kashmir
Hariraja 22 days 1028 CE
Ananta-deva 35 Years 1028 CE Abdicated the throne in favour of his son, but retained power through his minister Haladhara
Kalasha (Ranaditya II) 26 Years 1063 CE Rebelled against his parents, leading to the suicide of his father Ananta, followed by sati-suicide by his mother. His son Harsha revolted against him, and was imprisoned.
Utkarsha 22 days 1089 CE Second son of Kalasha. His half-brother Vijaymalla rebelled against him, and got Harsha released from prison. Utkarsha was imprisoned and committed suicide
Harsha 12 Years died in 1101 CE
Harshadeva of Kashmir 1089-1101 CE
In his early years, he was a sagacious king, and a patron of art and literature. The later years of his reign were marked by unsuccessful military campaigns, resulting in excessive taxation and plundering of temples. Revolts by his generals Uchchala and Sussala (of Lohara family) ended his reign. His son Bhoja was killed, and Harsha himself was killed by Uchchala's men while hiding in a village.

Second Lohara dynasty

Ruler[12] Notes
Uchchala Made his brother Sussala the ruler of Lohara. Murdered by Radda.
Radda (Shankharaja) Usurped the throne, claiming to be a descendant of Yashaskara
Salhana Uchchala's step-brother; became the king after Radda's death. The real power lay in the hands of a noble named Gargachandra. Salhana was deposed and imprisoned.
Sussala Uchchala's brother; ascended throne with Gargachandra's support
Bhikshachara Harsha's grandson, who had escaped Uchchala's revolt. Brought up by Naravarman, the king of Malava. Deposed Sussala.
Sussala (2nd reign) Within 6 months of Bhikshachara's ascension, Sussala recovered his capital, leading to a civil war
Jayasimha (Sinha-deva) Sussala's son. In the early years of his reign, the actual power was held by Sussala. Kalhana's account closes in the 22nd year of his reign.

Khasa Malla Kingdom (c. 10th to 14th century CE)

Main article: Khasa Malla kingdom

The list of Khas Malla kings mentioned by Giuseppe Tucci is in the following succession up to Prithvi Malla:[118]


Sena dynasty (c. 1070–1230 CE)

Main article: Sena dynasty

Kakatiya dynasty (1083–1323)

Main article: Kakatiya dynasty

Gahadavala dynasty (1089–1197 CE)

Main article: Gahadavala dynasty

List of rulers–

Karnata dynasty of Mithila (1097–1324 CE)

Main article: Karnat dynasty

List of rulers–
S.N. Name of the rulers Timeline Notes
1 Nanyadeva.[123] 1097 - 1147 CE[124]
2 Gangadeva[123] 1147 - 1187 CE[124]
3 Narsimhadeva[123] 1187 - 1227 CE[124]
4 Ramasimhadeva[123] 1227 - 1285 CE[124]
5 Shaktisimhadeva[123] 1285 - 1295 CE[124]
6 Harisimhadeva[123] 1295 - 1324 CE[124]

Zamorin dynasty of Calicut (1124–1806 CE)

Main article: Zamorin

List of rulers–
No. of Zamorin Name Reign Important events
1 Mana Vikrama (Manikkan) N/A The legendary founder of the ruling family.
27 8 years Kozhikode city is established
65 1339–1347 Ibn Battuta at Kozhikode (1342–1347)
73 1402–1410 Ma Huan at Kozhikode (1403)
78 1442–1450 The visits of Abdur Razzak (1442) and Niccolò de' Conti (1444)
81 Mana Vikrama the Great 1466–1474 Athanasius Nikitin (1468–1474) visits Kozhikode.
82 Mana Veda 1474–1482
84 1495–1500 The arrival of Vasco da Gama (1498)
85 1500–1513 The occupations of Kochi (1503–1504)
86 1513–1522 Treaty with Portuguese (1513), and the erection of the Portuguese fort at Calicut (1514)
87 1522–1529 The expulsion of Portuguese from Calicut
88 1529–1531 The building of Portuguese fort at Chaliyam (1531)
89 1531–1540 Battles with the Portuguese
90 1540–1548 Treaty with Portuguese (1540)
91 1548–1560 Adoption of the chief of Bardela (150) and the battles with the Portuguese.
92 Viraraya 1560–1562
93 Mana Vikrama 1572–1574 The expulsion of the Portuguese from Chaliyam (1571)
94 1574–1578 Battles with the Portuguese
95 1578–1588 The Portuguese allowed a factory at Ponnani (1584)
96 1588–1597 The settlement of the Portuguese at Calicut (1591)
97 1597–1599 Battles with Marakkar (1598–1599)
98 1599–1604 Capture of Marakkar's stronghold (1600)
99 1604–1617 Siege of Cannanore (1604–1617) and treaties with the Dutch (1604 and 1608) and the English (1615)
100 Mana Vikrama 1617–1627
101 1627–1630
102 1630–1637
103 Mana Vikrama (Saktan Tampuran) 1637–1648 The uncle of the author of the Krishnanatakam
104 Tiruvonam Tirunal 1648–1655
105 Mana Veda 1655–1658 The author of the Krishnanatakam
106 Asvati Tirunal 1658–1662 The expulsion of the Portuguese from Kodungallur (1662)
107 Puratam Tirunal 16621666 The expulsion of Portuguese from Kochi (1663)
108 1666–1668 Battles with the Dutch
109 1668–1671 The destruction of the Cheraman Sword
110 Uttrattati Tirunal 1671–1684 Cession of Chetwai to the Dutch
111 Bharani Tirunal Mana Vikrama[125] 1684–1705 The terror of the Dutch. Two Mamankams (1694 and 1695)
112 Nileswaram Tirunal 1705–1711 Adoptions from Nileswaram (1706 and 1707)
113 1711–1729 The Dutch War (1715–1718)
114 Mana Vikrama 1729–1741
115 Zamorin from Kilakke Kovilakam 1741–1746
116 Putiya Kovilakam 1746–1758 The Dutch War (1753–1758)
117 Kilakke Kovilakam 1758–1766 Battles with Travancore and the invasion of Mysore, committed suicide. Annexed by Mysore.
118 Putiya Kovilakam 1766–1788
119 Kerala Varma Vikrama (Putiya Kovilakam) 1788–1798 Treaty of Seringapatam (1792)
120 Krishna Varma (Putiya Kovilakam) 1798–1806 Agreement of 1806 with EIC (died in 1816)


Kalachuri dynasty of Kalyani (c. 1130–1184 CE)

Main article: Kalachuris of Kalyani

List of rulers–

Jadeja Kingdom of Kutch (c. 1147–1948 CE)

Main articles: Kingdom of Kutch and Jadeja

List of rulers–

Cutch was ruled by the Jadeja Rajput dynasty of the Samma tribe[127] from its formation in 1147 until 1948 when it acceded to newly formed, India. The rulers had migrated from Sindh into Kutch in late 12th century. They were entitled to a 17-gun salute by the British authorities. The title of rulers was earlier Ja'am, which during British Raj changed to Maharao made hereditary from 1 Jan 1918.[128]

Rulers Accession
Lakho Jadani AD 1147
Ratto Rayadhan AD 1175
Othaji AD 1215
Rao Gaoji AD 1255
Rao Vehanji AD 1285
Rao Mulvaji AD 1321
Rao Kaiyaji AD 1386
Rao Amarji AD 1406
Rao Bhhemji AD 1429
Rao Hamirji AD 1472
Jam Raval AD 1524
Khengarji I AD 1548
Bharmalji I AD 1585
Bhojrajji AD 1631
Khengarji II AD 1645
Tamachi AD 1654
Rayadhan II AD 1665
1698–1715 Pragmalji I (b. 16 ... – d. 1715)
1715–1719 Godji I (b. 16 ... – d. 1718)
1718–1752 Deshalji I (b.1682 – d. 1752)
1741–1752 Lakhpatji (regent) (b. 1717 – d. 1761)
1752–1760 Lakhpatji (b. 1717 – d. 1761)
1760–1778 Godji II (b. 1734 – d. 1778)
1778–1786 Rayadhan III (1st time) (b. 1763 – d. 1813)
1786–1801 Prithvirajji (b. 1774 – d. 1801)
1786 − 5 October 1813 Fateh Muhammad (regent)
5 October 1813 − 30 October 1813 Rayadhan III (2nd time)
30 October 1813 – 6 November 1814 Husain Miyan (regent)
6 November 1814 − 25 March 1819 Bharmalji II (b. 1798 – d. 1846)
25 March 1819 − 26 July 1860 Deshalji II (b. 1814 – d. 1860)
26 July 1860 − 19 December 1875 Pragmalji II (b. 1839 – d. 1875)
19 December 1875 − 15 January 1942 Khengarji III (b. 1866 – d. 1942)
15 January 1942 − 26 February 1948 Vijayaraji (b. 1885 – d. 1948)
26 February 1948 − 1 June 1948 Madansinhji

Bhati kingdom of Jaisalmer (c. 1153–1947 CE)

Main article: Jaisalmer State

See also: Bhati, Jaisalmer, and Rawal


(1153–1168), founder of kingdom


Titular Kings

Chero dynasty (1174–1813 CE)

Main article: Chero dynasty

Chutia (Sadiya) Kingdom of Assam (1187–1524 CE)

Main article: Chutia Kingdom

Bana dynasty ruled over Magadaimandalam (c. 1190–1260)

Main articles: Bana Kingdom and Magadai

Kadava dynasty (c. 1216–1279)

Main article: Kadava dynasty

Kingdom of Marwar (1226–1950)

Main article: Jodhpur State

See also: Rathore, Marwar, and Jodhpur

Rathore dynasty of Jodhpur

Rulers from Pali & Mandore (1226–1438)

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Siha He conquered Pali and became the first rao of the Rathore dynasty in Marwar. He died in the battle of Lakha Jhawar (1273) against Sultan Ghaus ud-din Balban. 1226 1273
2 Rao Asthan Conquered Kher from the Gohils and Idar from the Bhils. He died in battle against Jalaludin Khilji. 1273 1292
3 Rao Doohad He conquered more than 140 villages. He was killed in battle against the Parihars. 1292 1309
4 Rao Raipal He avenged his father by killing the ruler of the Parihars. During a famine in Marwar he distributed his own personal grains to the people. 1309 1313
5 Rao Kanhapal He suffered raids from the Turko-Afgan tribes and was killed in action defending his lands. 1313 1323
6 Rao Jalansi He defeated the Sodhas. He took the turban of the Sodha chief to mark his supremacy in the region. 1323 1328
7 Rao Chado 1328 1344
8 Rao Tida He was killed in battle against the sultan of Delhi. 1344 1357
9 Rao Kanha Dev 1357 1374
10 Rao Viram Dev He died in battle against the Johiyas. 1374 1383
11 Rao Chandra He conquered Mandore from the Turks in 1406. He further conquered the areas of Nagaur, Sambhar, Khatu, Nadol and Ajmer. He was killed in battle against Salim Shah of Multhan. 1383 1424
12 Rao Kanha Fought battles with his brothers. Died young in Mandore. 1424 1427
13 Rao Ranmal He consolidated his rule with the help of the Sisodiyas of Mewar. He was later assassinated on the orders of Rana Kumbha. 1427 1438

Rulers from Jodhpur (1459–1950)

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Jodha Fought Rana Kumbha and reclaimed his lands. He later founded the city of Jodhpur and made it his capital. He subjugated the states of Jalore and Bundi and annexed Ajmer, Sambhar and Mohilavati. 12 May 1438 6 April 1489
2 Rao Satal Died from wounds after saving 140 women from Afghan raiders. 6 April 1489 March 1492
3 Rao Suja March 1492 2 October 1515
4 Rao Biram Singh Son of Bagha 2 October 1515 8 November 1515
5 Rao Ganga Assisted Rana Sanga in his campaigns against the Sultans of India. 8 November 1515 9 May 1532
6 Rao Maldeo Successfully repelled the invasions of Sher Shah Suri. Called as one of the most potent rulers of Hindustan by Ferishta. 9 May 1532 7 November 1562
7 Rao Chandra Sen He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire. 7 November 1562 1581
8 Raja Udai Singh Mota Raja He was the father in law of Jahangir and got married his daughter Mani Bai married to him, later on who became parents of Shah Jahan[133] 4 August 1583 11 July 1595
9 Sawai Raja Suraj-Mal 11 July 1595 7 September 1619
10 Maharaja Gaj Singh I The first to take the title Maharaja by himself 7 September 1619 6 May 1638
11 Maharaja Jaswant Singh He fought Aurangzeb in the Battle of Dharmatpur. 6 May 1638 28 December 1678
12 Maharaja Ajit Singh Became Maharaja of Marwar after 25 years of war with Aurangzeb. Durgadas Rathore played a key role in the war. 19 February 1679 24 June 1724
13 Raja Indra Singh Installed in opposition to Maharaja Ajit Singh by Emperor Aurangzeb but unpopular with people of Marwar 9 June 1679 4 August 1679
14 Maharaja Abhai Singh Defeated Sarbuland Khan and occupied all of Gujarat for a short time. 24 June 1724 18 June 1749
15 Maharaja Ram Singh First reign 18 June 1749 July 1751
16 Maharaja Bakht Singh He was the general of the Marwari forces against Sarbuland Khan and defeated him. In the Battle of Gangwana he defeated a combined army of Mughals and Kachwahas. July 1751 21 September 1752
17 Maharaja Vijay Singh First reign 21 September 1752 31 January 1753
18 Maharaja Ram Singh Second reign 31 January 1753 September 1772
19 Maharaja Vijay Singh Second reign – Was defeated by Mahadji Scindia and forced to surrender the fort and city of Ajmer. September 1772 17 July 1793
20 Maharaja Bhim Singh 17 July 1793 19 October 1803
21 Maharaja Man Singh Entered into treaty relations with the British on 6 January 1818. 19 October 1803 4 September 1843
22 Maharaja Sir Takht Singh Not in the direct line, but a great-great-great grandson of Ajit Singh. Formerly Regent of Ahmednagar. 4 September 1843 13 February 1873
23 Maharaja Sir Jaswant Singh II Kaisar-i-Hind 13 February 1873 11 October 1895
24 Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 11 October 1895 20 March 1911
25 Maharaja Sir Sumair Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 20 March 1911 3 October 1918
26 Maharaja Sir Umaid Singh Lieutenant-General in the British Indian Army 3 October 1918 9 June 1947
27 Maharaja Sir Hanwant Singh Ruler of Marwar (Jodhpur) until accession to the Union of India in 1949; died on 26 January 1952 9 June 1947 7 April 1949
28 (titular) Maharaja Gaj Singh II of Jodhpur Became head of the House on 26 January 1952 26 January 1952 Present


Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE)

Main article: List of rulers of the Delhi Sultanate

Mamluk dynasty (1206–1290 CE)

Main article: Mamluk dynasty (Delhi)

Khalji dynasty (1290–1320 CE)

Main article: Khilji dynasty

Tughlaq dynasty (1321–1414 CE)

Main article: Tughlaq dynasty

After the invasion of Timur in 1398, the governor of Multan, Khizr Khan abolished the Tughluq dynasty in 1414.

Jaunpur Sultanate (1394–1479 CE)

Main article: Jaunpur Sultanate

Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451 CE)

Main article: Sayyid dynasty

Lodi dynasty (1451–1526 CE)

Main article: Lodi dynasty

Ahom dynasty of Assam (1228–1826 CE)

Main article: Ahom dynasty

Vaghela dynasty (1244–1304 CE)

Main article: Vaghela dynasty

The sovereign Vaghela rulers include:

Jaffna (Aryacakravarti) dynasty (1277–1619 CE)

Main article: Jaffna Kingdom

List of rulers–

Kingdom of Tripura (1280–1949 CE)

Main article: Twipra Kingdom

Manikya dynasty

Main article: Manikya dynasty

List of rulers–
Kingdom of Tripura
Part of History of Tripura
Maha Manikyac. 1400–1431
Dharma Manikya I1431–1462
Ratna Manikya I1462–1487
Pratap Manikya1487
Vijaya Manikya I1488
Mukut Manikya1489
Dhanya Manikya1490–1515
Dhwaja Manikya1515–1520
Deva Manikya1520–1530
Indra Manikya I1530–1532
Vijaya Manikya II1532–1563
Ananta Manikya1563–1567
Udai Manikya I1567–1573
Joy Manikya I1573–1577
Amar Manikya1577–1585
Rajdhar Manikya I1586–1600
Ishwar Manikya1600
Yashodhar Manikya1600–1623
Kalyan Manikya1626–1660
Govinda Manikya1660–1661
Chhatra Manikya1661–1667
Govinda Manikya1661–1673
Rama Manikya1673–1685
Ratna Manikya II1685–1693
Narendra Manikya1693–1695
Ratna Manikya II1695–1712
Mahendra Manikya1712–1714
Dharma Manikya II1714–1725
Jagat Manikya1725–1729
Dharma Manikya II1729
Mukunda Manikya1729–1739
Joy Manikya IIc. 1739–1744
Indra Manikya IIc. 1744–1746
Udai Manikya IIc. 1744
Joy Manikya II1746
Vijaya Manikya III1746–1748
Lakshman Manikya1740s/1750s
Krishna Manikya1760–1783
Rajdhar Manikya II1785–1806
Rama Ganga Manikya1806–1809
Durga Manikya1809–1813
Rama Ganga Manikya1813–1826
Kashi Chandra Manikya1826–1829
Krishna Kishore Manikya1829–1849
Ishan Chandra Manikya1849–1862
Bir Chandra Manikya1862–1896
Birendra Kishore Manikya1909–1923
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya1947–1949
1949–1978 (titular)
Kirit Pradyot Manikya1978–present (titular)
Tripura monarchy data
Manikya dynasty (Royal family)
Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)
Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)
Neermahal (Royal residence)
Rajmala (Royal chronicle)
Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)
Chaturdasa Devata (Family deities)

On 9 September 1949, "Tripura Merger Agreement", was signed and come in effect from 15 October 1949 & Tripura became part of Indian Union.[136]

Nayaka Kingdoms (c. 1325–1815 CE)

Main article: Nayaka dynasties

Musunuri Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1325–1368 CE)

Main article: Musunuri Nayakas

There were two Musunuri Nayak:

Recherla Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1368–1435 CE)

Main article: Recherla Nayakas

Known rulers are:

Gandikota Kingdom (Pemmasani Nayaks) (c. 1441–1685 CE)

Main article: Pemmasani Nayaks

This is the list of Pemmasani Kings:

Keladi Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1499–1763 CE)

Main article: Nayakas of Keladi

Gingee (Senji) Nayak Kingdom (c. 1509–1649 CE)

Main article: Nayaks of Gingee

Some of the Nayakas in the Gingee line were:

Srinivasachari takes chronicles mentioned in copper plate grants into account and mentions the following Nayakas in the Gingee line, noting governorship of Gingee began in Saka era 1386 / CE 1464:

Madurai Nayak dynasty (c. 1529–1736 CE)

Main article: Madurai Nayak dynasty

Thanjavur Nayak kingdom (c. 1532–1673 CE)

Main article: Thanjavur Nayak kingdom

Vellore Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1540–1601 CE)

Main article: Nayaks of Vellore

The list of nayaks are unclear. Some of the Nayaks are:

Chitradurga Nayaka Kingdom (c. 1588–1779 CE)

Main article: Nayakas of Chitradurga

Kandy Nayak Kingdom (c. 1739–1815 CE)

Main article: Nayaks of Kandy

Other Nayaka kingdoms

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448 CE)

Main article: Reddy Kingdom

List of rulers–

Oiniwar (Sugauna) dynasty of Mithila (1325–1526 CE)

Main article: Oiniwar dynasty

List of rulers–

According to historian Makhan Jha, the rulers of the Oiniwar dynasty are as follows:[141]

Vijayanagara Empire (1336 – 1646 CE)

Main article: Vijayanagara Empire

In Vijayanagara Empire four dynasties ruled for 310 years on whole South India.[144]

Sangama dynasty (1336 – 1485 CE)

Main article: Sangama dynasty

Saluva dynasty (1485 – 1505 CE)

Main article: Saluva dynasty

Tuluva dynasty (1491 – 1570 CE)

Main article: Tuluva dynasty

Aravidu dynasty (1542 – 1646 CE)

Main article: Aravidu dynasty

Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527 CE)

Main article: Bahmani Sultanate

Malwa Sultanate (1392–1562 CE)

Main article: Malwa Sultanate

Ghoris (1390–1436 CE)

Khaljis (1436–1535 CE)

Patna Kingdom (1360–1948 CE)

Main article: Patna State

The rulers of Patna state of the Chauhan clan:[145]

Baro-Bhuyan kingdoms (1365–1632 CE)

Main article: Baro-Bhuyan

List of Kingdoms and their rulers as–

Baro-Bhuyan of Assam (1365–1440 CE)

Baro-Bhuyan of Bengal (1576–1632 CE)

Tomara dynasty of Gwalior (1375–1523 CE)

Main article: Tomaras of Gwalior

The Tomara rulers of Gwalior include the following.[147][148]

Name in dynasty's inscriptions (IAST) Reign Names in Muslim chronicles and vernacular literature
Vīrasiṃha-deva 1375–1400 CE or (c. 1394–1400 CE) Virsingh Dev, Bir Singh Tomar, Bar Singh (in Yahya's writings), Har Singh (in Badauni's writings), Nar Singh (in Firishta's and Nizamuddin's writings).[149]
Uddharaṇa-deva 1400–1402 CE Uddharan Dev, Usaran or Adharan (in Khadagrai's writings)[150]
Virāma-deva 1402–1423 CE Viram Dev, Biram Deo (in Yahya's writings), Baram Deo (in Firishta's writings)
Gaṇapati-deva 1423–1425 CE Ganpati Dev
Dungarendra-deva alias Dungara-siṃha 1425–1459 CE Dungar Singh, Dungar Sen
Kirtisiṃha-deva 1459–1480 CE Kirti Singh Tomar
Kalyāṇamalla 1480–1486 CE Kalyanmal, Kalyan Singh
Māna-siṃha 1486–1516 CE Mana Sahi, Man Singh
Vikramāditya 1516–1523 CE Vikram Sahi, Vikramjit

Kingdom of Mysore (1399–1950 CE)

Main article: Kingdom of Mysore

Wadiyar dynasty (first rule, 1399–1761 CE)

Main article: Wadiyar dynasty

List of rulers–
The reign of the Kings of Mysore (Wodeyar line) was interrupted from 1761 to 1799 CE.

Hyder Ali's dynasty of Mysore (1761–1799 CE)

Wodeyar dynasty (second rule, 1799–1950 CE)

Gajapati Empire of Orissa (1434–1541 CE)

Main article: Gajapati Empire

List of rulers–

Rathore dynasty of Bikaner (1465–1947 CE)

Main article: Bikaner State

See also: Rathore, Bikaner, and Jangladesh

List of rulers–
Name Reign Began (in CE) Reign Ended (in CE)
1 Rao Bika 1465 1504
2 Rao Narayan Singh 1504 1505
3 Rao Luna Karana Lon-Karan 1505 1526
4 Rao Jait Singh Jetasi 1526 1542
5 Rao Kalyan Mal – Acknowledged the suzerainty of Emperor Akbar at Nagaur in November 1570 1542 1574
6 Rao Rai Singh I Rai Rai Singh – Important General in the Mughal army Similar to Raja Man Singh I of Amber 1574 1612
7 Rai Dalpat Singh Dalip 1612 1613
8 Rai Surat Singh Bhuratiya 1613 1631
9 Rao Karan Singh Jangalpat Badhshah – Deposed by Emperor Aurangzeb for dereliction of duty at Attock, 11 January 1667. Exiled to his betel gardens at Karanpura in the Deccan 1631 1667
10 Maharaja Rao Anup Singh – To be the first to be granted the title "Maharaja" by Emperor Aurangzeb. Served in the Deccan campaign at Salher in 1672, Bijapur in 1675, and the siege of Golconda in 1687. He was administrator of Aurangabad from 1677 to 1678, 'Hakim' of Adoni in 1678, Imtiazgarh and Adoni from 1689 to 1693, and of Nusratabad and Sukkar from 1693 to 1698 CE 1669 1698
11 Maharaja Rao Sarup Singh – He died from smallpox at Adoni in the Deccan on 15 December 1700 1698 1700
12 Maharaja Rao Sujan Singh – Ordered to attend Emperor Aurangzeb in the Deccan, where he remained for ten years. Faced invasions from Maharaja Abhai Singh of Jodhpur and Maharaja Bakht Singh of Nagaur, but successfully repulsed both 1700 1735
13 Maharaja Rao Zorawar Singh 1735 1746
14 Maharaja Rao Gaj Singh – the first of his line granted permission to mint his own coinage by Emperor Alamgir II 1746 1787
15 Maharaja Rao Rai Singh II Raj Singh 1787 1787
16 Maharaja Rao Pratap Singh – Reigned under the Regency of his uncle Surat Singh who poisoned him to assume the throne 1787 1787
17 Maharaja Rao Surat Singh – He incurred huge debts due to his military adventures which had reduced his state to near anarchy. Entered the protection of the East India Company with a subsidiary alliance on 9 March 1818 1787 1828
18 Narendra Maharaja Rao Ratan Singh – Received the hereditary title of Narendra Maharaja from Emperor Akbar Shah II and assisted the British by furnishing them with supplies during the First Afghan War of 1841 1828 1851
19 Narendra Maharaja Rao Sardar Singh – Assisted the British during the Indian Uprising of 1857 and served in person during many of the battles. Removed the name of the Mughal Emperor from his coinage, replacing the words with Aurang Arya Hind wa Queen Victoria. 1851 1872
20 Narendra Maharaja Rao Dungar Singh – Assisted the British during the Second Afghan War. 1872 1887
21 General Narendra Maharaja Sir Rao Ganga Singh – Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Bikaner, 1952–1977. On 28 December 1971, India amended its Constitution to remove the position of the rulers of princely states and their right to receive privy-purse payments, thus making him the last ruler of Bikaner. Imperial Conferences and at the League of Nations. 1887 1943
22 Lieutenant-General Narendra Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul Singh – Signed the Instrument of Accession to the Dominion of India on 7 August 1947. Merged his state into the present state of Rajasthan, India on 30 March 1949. 1943 1947
23 Rao Karni Singh 1947 1971

Shahi dynasties (1490–1686 CE)

Dynasties are as follow–

Barid Shahi dynasty (1490–1619 CE)

Main article: Bidar Sultanate

Imad Shahi dynasty (1490–1572 CE)

Main article: Berar Sultanate

Adil Shahi dynasty (1490–1686 CE)

Main article: Adil Shahi dynasty

Nizam Shahi dynasty (1490–1636 CE)

Main article: Ahmadnagar Sultanate

Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518–1686 CE)

Main article: Qutb Shahi dynasty

Gatti Mudalis of Taramangalam (15th–17th century CE)

Main articles: Gatti Mudalis and Taramangalam

List of known rulers–

Kingdom of Cochin (c. 1503–1948 CE)

Main article: Kingdom of Cochin

Veerakerala Varma, nephew of Cheraman Perumal Nayanar, is supposed to have been the first king of Cochin around the 7th century. But the records we have start in 1503.[citation needed]

  1. Unniraman Koyikal I (?–1503)
  2. Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537)
  3. Veera Kerala Varma (1537–1565)
  4. Keshava Rama Varma (1565–1601)
  5. Veera Kerala Varma (1601–1615)
  6. Ravi Varma I (1615–1624)
  7. Veera Kerala Varma (1624–1637)
  8. Godavarma (1637–1645)
  9. Veerarayira Varma (1645–1646)
  10. Veera Kerala Varma (1646–1650)
  11. Rama Varma I (1650–1656)
  12. Rani Gangadharalakshmi (1656–1658)
  13. Rama Varma II (1658–1662)
  14. Goda Varma (1662–1663)
  15. Veera Kerala Varma (1663–1687)
  16. Rama Varma III (1687–1693)
  17. Ravi Varma II (1693–1697)
  18. Rama Varma IV (1697–1701)
  19. Rama Varma V (1701–1721)
  20. Ravi Varma III (1721–1731)
  21. Rama Varma VI (1731–1746)
  22. Veera Kerala Varma I (1746–1749)
  23. Rama Varma VII (1749–1760)
  24. Veera Kerala Varma II (1760–1775)
  25. Rama Varma VIII (1775–1790)
  26. Shaktan Thampuran (Rama Varma IX) (1790–1805)
  27. Rama Varma X (1805–1809), Vellarapalli-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Vellarapali")
  28. Veera Kerala Varma III (1809–1828), Karkidaka Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "karkidaka" month (Kollam Era))
  29. Rama Varma XI (1828–1837), Thulam-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Thulam" month (ME))
  30. Rama Varma XII (1837–1844), Edava-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Edavam" month (ME))
  31. Rama Varma XIII (1844–1851), Thrishur-il Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Thrishivaperoor" or Thrishur)
  32. Veera Kerala Varma IV (1851–1853), Kashi-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Kashi" or Varanasi)
  33. Ravi Varma IV (1853–1864), Makara Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Makaram" month (ME))
  34. Rama Varma XIV (1864–1888), Mithuna Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Mithunam" month (ME))
  35. Kerala Varma V (1888–1895), Chingam Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chingam" month (ME))
  36. Rama Varma XV (1895–1914), a.k.a. Rajarshi, abdicated (d. in 1932)
  37. Rama Varma XVI (1915–1932), Madrasil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in Madras or Chennai)
  38. Rama Varma XVII (1932–1941), Dhaarmika Chakravarthi (King of Dharma), Chowara-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chowara")
  39. Kerala Varma VI (1941–1943), Midukkan (syn: Smart, expert, great) Thampuran
  40. Ravi Varma V (1943–1946), Kunjappan Thampuran (Brother of Midukkan Thampuran)
  41. Kerala Varma VII (1946–1948), Ikya-Keralam (Unified Kerala) Thampuran
  42. Rama Varma XVIII (1948–1964), Pareekshit Thampuran

Koch dynasty (c. 1515–1949 CE)

Main article: Koch dynasty

Rulers of undivided Koch kingdom (c. 1515–1586)

Rulers of Koch Bihar (c. 1586–1949)

Main article: Cooch Behar State

Rulers of Koch Hajo (c. 1581–1616 CE)

Main article: Koch Hajo

Rulers of Darrang

Rulers of Beltola

Main article: History of Beltola

Rulers of Bijni

The Bijni rulers reigned between the Sankosh and the Manas rivers, the region immediately to the east of Koch Bihar.

Rulers of Khaspur

The rulers of the Koch kingdom at Khaspur were:[152]

Khandwala (Raj Darbhanga) dynasty of Mithila (1526–1947 CE)

Main article: Raj Darbhanga

List of rulers–

Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE)

Main article: Mughal Empire

Sur Empire (1540–1555 CE)

Main article: Sur Empire

Bhoi dynasty (1541–1947 CE)

Main article: Bhoi dynasty

Gajapati of Odisha

Khurda Kingdom

Main article: Khurda Kingdom

Dhenkanal State

Main article: Dhenkanal State

List of rulers of the Dhenkanal princely state of the Bhoi dynasty branch:[156]


Puri Estate

Main article: Puri Estate

Titular rulers

Chogyal Kingdom of Sikkim (1642–1975 CE)

Main articles: Kingdom of Sikkim and Chogyal

Maratha Empire (1674–1947 CE)

Main article: Maratha Empire

See also: List of Maratha dynasties and states

Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj era

The Empire was divided between two branches of the family (c. 1707–1710); and the division was formalized in 1731.

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Kolhapur (1700–1947 CE)

Main article: Kolhapur State

The state acceded unto the Dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947.

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Satara (1707–1950 CE)

See also: History of Satara district and Satara state

The Peshwas (1713–1858 CE)

Main article: Peshwa

Technically they were not monarchs, but hereditary prime ministers, though in fact they ruled instead of the Chhatrapati (Maratha emperor) after death of Chattrapati Shahu, and were hegemon of the Maratha confederation.

Gaekwad dynasty of Baroda (1721–1947 CE)

Main articles: Gaekwad dynasty and Baroda State

Scindia of Gwalior (1731–1947 CE)

Main articles: Scindia and Gwalior State

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India.

Holkar rulers of Indore (1731–1948 CE)

Main articles: Holkar and Indore State

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India. The monarchy was ended in 1948, but the title is still held by Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur, Maharani of Indore since 1961.

Bhosale Maharajas of Nagpur (1738–1854 CE)

Main article: Nagpur kingdom

The kingdom was annexed by the British on 13 March 1854 under the Doctrine of Lapse.[158]

Thanjavur Maratha kingdom (c. 1674–1855 CE)

Main article: Thanjavur Maratha kingdom

The Thanjavur Marathas were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 17th and 19th centuries. Their native language was Thanjavur Marathi. Venkoji, Shahaji's son and Shivaji's half brother, was the founder of the dynasty.[159]

List of rulers

Sinsinwar Jat Kingdom of Bharatpur (1683–1947 CE)

Main article: Bharatpur State

List of rulers
Sinsinwar Jats of Bharatpur & Deeg
Raja Ram Sinsinwar (1683–1688)
Churaman (1695–1721)
Muhkam Singh (1721–1722)
Badan Singh (1722–1755)
Suraj Mal (1755–1763)
Jawahar Singh (1764–1768)
Ratan Singh (1768–1769)
Kehri Singh (1769–1778)
Ranjit Singh (1778–1805)
Randhir Singh (1805–1823)
Baldeo Singh (1823–1825)
Balwant Singh (1825–1853)
Jaswant Singh (1853–1893)
Ram Singh (1893–1900)
Kishan Singh (1918–1929)
Brijendra Singh (1929–1947)

The Muslim vassals of the Mughal/British Paramountcy (c. 1707–1856 CE)

Nawabs of Bengal (1707–1770 CE)

Main article: Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad

Nawabs of Oudh (1719–1858 CE)

Main article: Oudh State

Nizams of Hyderabad (1720–1948 CE)

Main articles: Hyderabad State and Nizam of Hyderabad

Kingdom of Travancore (1729–1949 CE)

Main article: Travancore

List of rulers–

Newalkar dynasty of Jhansi (1769 – 1858 CE)

Main articles: Newalkar and Jhansi State

List of rulers–

Sikh Empire (1801–1849 CE)

Main article: Sikh Empire

List of rulers-

The British Empire annexed the Punjab in 1845–49 CE; after the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars

Dogra dynasty of Jammu and Kashmir (1846–1952 CE)

Main article: Dogra dynasty

Ruler Reign Notes
Gulab Singh
Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir.jpg
1846–1856 CE Founder of Dogra dynasty and the first Maharaja of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state under the British Raj, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846) formalised the sale by the British to Gulab Singh for 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Jammu and Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore.
Ranbir Singh
Maharajah Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir.jpg
1856–1885 CE Ascended the throne in 1856 after Gulab Singh's abdication due to poor health. He allied with the British during the Sepoy Mutiny. Unlike European women and children, Indian mutineers were not allowed to take refuge in his state. He also sent his troops to help the British to besiege Delhi. He was subsequently rewarded for his behaviour during the mutiny. He went on to annex Gilgit which had previously witnessed a rebellion against the state. He also established a modern judicial system. Civil and criminal laws were compiled into the Ranbir Penal Code during his reign.
Pratap Singh
Maharaja Partab Singh (1848 - 1925).jpg
1885–1925 CE Reigned for 40 years from 1885 to 1925, the longest of all the Dogra rulers. Out of the four Dogra rulers, Maharaja Pratap Singh's era was a period of enlightenment for his subjects, particularly for Kashmiris. He established local self governing bodies, democratic processes, educational systems, health care and hygiene and infrastructure development during his reign. A beginning was made in local self-government by establishing municipalities at Jammu, Srinagar, Sopore and Baramulla. By 1925, then Kashmir, particularly Srinagar had undergone significant social and cultural transformation.
Hari Singh
Maharaja hari singh ji.jpg
1925–1952 CE Ascended the throne following the death of his uncle, Maharaja Pratap Singh in 1925. He made primary education compulsory in the state, introduced laws prohibiting child marriage, and opened places of worship to the low castes. He signed the Instrument of Accession of Jammu and Kashmir to the Union of India on 26 October 1947, through which the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir became a part of the Dominion of India. He remained the titular Maharaja of the state until 1952, when the monarchy was abolished by Government of India under Jawaharlal Nehru.
Karan Singh
(Prince Regent)
1949–1952 CE Appointed as Prince Regent of Jammu and Kashmir in 1949, at age of eighteen and served till the monarchy's abolition in 1952. He was appointed 'Sadr-e-Riyasat' ('Head of State') in 1952 and Governor of the State in 1964 CE.

Emperors/Empresses of India (1857–1947 CE)

Main articles: Emperor of India and British Raj

Dominion of India (1947–1950 CE)

Main article: Dominion of India

Dominion of Pakistan (1947–1956 CE)

Main article: Dominion of Pakistan

See also


  1. ^ The title "Emperor of India" did not disappear with Indian independence from Great Britain in 1947, but in 1947, as when India became the Dominion of India (1947–1950) after independence in 1947, George VI retained the title "Emperor of India" until 22 June 1948, and thereafter he remained monarch of India until it became the Republic of India in 1950.[161]


  1. ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972) Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp.130–1.
  2. ^ PK Bhattacharya (1977). Historical Geography of Madhya Pradesh from Early Records. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 170–175. ISBN 978-81-208-3394-4.
  3. ^ Kaalpurush Sahasrarjun. (n.d.). (n.p.): Atmaram & Sons.
  4. ^ Thapar, Romila (1996). Ancient Indian Social History Some Interpretations, New Delhi: Orient Longman, ISBN 81-250-0808-X, p.282
  5. ^ Gaṅgā Rām Garg (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World, Volume 1. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170223740. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Kalingas". Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  7. ^ Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (March 2008). The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Second Book Sabha Parva. Echo Library. p. 10. ISBN 9781406870442. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  8. ^ Raychaudhuri, Hemchandra (2006). Political History Of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 9788130702919. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  9. ^ Mohamed, Naseema (2005). "First Settlers". Note on the Early History of the Maldives: 9. doi:10.3406/arch.2005.3970. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  10. ^ Dutt, Jogesh Chandra (1879). Kings of Káshmíra. Trübner & Co. pp. xix–xxiii.
  11. ^ Stein, Marc Aurel (1979) [First published 1900]. Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmir. Vol. 1. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 133–138.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Stein 1979, pp. 133–138.
  13. ^ a b c d Stein 1979, pp. 65.
  14. ^ a b c Cribb, Joe (April 2017). "Early Medieval Kashmir Coinage – A New Hoard and An Anomaly". Numismatic Digest Volume 40 (2016).
  15. ^ D. C. Sircar (1969). Ancient Malwa And The Vikramaditya Tradition. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 111. ISBN 978-8121503488. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016.
  16. ^ Stein 1979, pp. 66.
  17. ^ Stein, Marc Aurel (1989). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 439–441. ISBN 978-81-208-0370-1.
  18. ^ Neelis, Jason (2010). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL. p. 232. ISBN 978-90-04-18159-5.
  19. ^ Eggermont, Pierre Herman Leonard (1975). Alexander's Campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan and the Siege of the Brahmin Town of Harmatelia. Peeters Publishers. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-90-6186-037-2.
  20. ^ B. Kölver, ed. (1997). Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien [Law, State and Administration in Classical India] (in German). München: R. Oldenbourg. pp. 27–52.
  21. ^ Samuel, Geoffrey (2010). The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Cambridge University Press.
  22. ^ Malik, Dr Malti (2016). History of India. New Saraswati House India Pvt Ltd. pp. 51–54. ISBN 978-81-7335-498-4.
  23. ^ Kisari Mohan Ganguli, The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa Translated into English Prose, 1883-1896, Bk. 1, Ch. 3.
  24. ^ Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, p. 85
  25. ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India. Pearson Education India. pp. 381–384. ISBN 9788131711200.
  26. ^ Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 9781438109961.
  27. ^ a b Reddy (2005). General Studies History 4 Upsc. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. A-55. ISBN 9780070604476. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  28. ^ Mani, Chandra Mauli (2005). A Journey Through India's Past. Northern Book Centre. p. 51. ISBN 9788172111946. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  29. ^ Ancient India, History of Ancient India for 1000 years in four volumes. [From 900 B.C. to 100 A.D.]. Volume IV. Baroda: Shashikant & Co. 1941. pp. 103.
  30. ^ Raychaudhuri, Hemchandra (2006). Political History Of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing. p. 348. ISBN 9788130702919. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  31. ^ R. T. Vyas; Umakant Premanand Shah (1995). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects. Abhinav Publications. p. 31. ISBN 9788170173168. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  32. ^ "Biography of His Highness Maharaja Bodhachandra Last King of Manipur Part 1". Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  33. ^ "Biography of His Highness Maharaja Bodhachandra Last King of Manipur Part 2". Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  34. ^ K. Gopalachari (1976). Early History of the Andhra Country. University of Madras. p. 39.
  35. ^ a b Virottam, Balmukund (1969). The Nagbanshis and the Cheros. Munshiram Manoharlal.
  36. ^ Wicks, Robert S. (31 May 2018). Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The Development of Indigenous Monetary Systems to AD 1400. Cornell University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-5017-1947-9.
  37. ^ Johnston, E. H. (1944). "Some Sanskrit Inscriptions of Arakan". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 11 (2): 357–385. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00072529. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 609320. S2CID 191758063.
  38. ^ Soni, Lok Nath (2000). The Cattle and the Stick: An Ethnographic Profile of the Raut of Chhattisgarh. Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture. ISBN 978-81-85579-57-3.
  39. ^ "Though there exists no direct evidence, there are indirect evidence of a king who ruled for a short period after Bhaskaravarman, but was ousted by Salasthamba."Sharma, Mukunda Madhava (1978). Inscriptions of Ancient Assam. Gauhati University, Assam. pp. xxxi–xxxii..
  40. ^ Vanina, Eugenia, ed. (1988). Indian History (Audiobook). Allied Publishers. p. 409. ISBN 9788184245684.
  41. ^ a b "Detail History of Orissa". Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 12 November 2006.
  42. ^ a b Mirashi, Vasudev Vishnu (1975). Literary and Historical Studies in Indology. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 138. ISBN 978-81-208-0417-3.
  43. ^ Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594–6
  44. ^ Sen 1999, pp. 247–248.
  45. ^ Ronald M. Davidson (2012). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. Columbia University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-231-50102-6.
  46. ^ Hans Bakker (2014). The World of the Skandapurāṇa. BRILL. p. 83. ISBN 978-90-04-27714-4.
  47. ^ "The Historical Value of Gangavamsanucharita Champu" (PDF). Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  48. ^ Panda, Dr. Sanjay Kumar (2014). Chiktira Sahitya O Sahityika [Chikiti's literature & litterateurs] (in Odia). Bhubaneswar: Sahitya Swetapadma. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-93-80759-65-4.
  49. ^ Genealogical Table of the Zamindaras of Chikiti, Chikiti Estate. Sachhidananda Rajendra Deba, 28th Nov 1928. Typed by A. Rama Murthi, Clerk, Chikiti Estate.
  50. ^ "PARLA KHIMEDI (Zamindari)". Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  51. ^ ODISHA DISTRICT GAZETTEERS GAJAPATI (PDF), GAD, Govt of Odisha, 2002, p. 51
  52. ^ Laloo, Betty (20 July 2016). "III: Early Jaintia State Formation" (PDF). Reconstructing the early Jaintia state through oral traditions (PhD). North-Eastern Hill University.
  53. ^ "Jaintia Hills-Land of Myths and Legends". Mesmerizing Meghalaya. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020.
  54. ^ Anil Chandra Banerjee (1958). Medieval studies. A. Mukherjee & Co. p. 15. OCLC 4469888.
  55. ^ N. P. Chakravarti (1987) [1958]. "Appendix: Rajaprasasti Inscription of Udaipur (Continued from Vol. XXIX, Part V)". In N. Lakshminarayan Rao; D. C. Sircar (eds.). Epigraphia Indica. Vol. XXX. Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 119–121.
  56. ^ a b Anil Chandra Banerjee 1958, pp. 14–15.
  57. ^ N. P. Chakravarti 1987, pp. 119–121.
  58. ^ Somani, Ramavallabha (1976). History of Mewar, from Earliest Times to 1751 A.D. India: Mateshwari Publications. p. 82.
  59. ^ N. P. Chakravarti 1987, p. 121.
  60. ^ Akshaya Keerty Vyas (1937). "First and Third Slabs of Kumbhalgarh Inscription V.S. 1517". In N. P. Chakravarti (ed.). Epigraphia Indica. Vol. XXIV. Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 312–313.
  61. ^ D. C. Ganguly (1957). "Northern India During The Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries". In R. C. Majumdar (ed.). The Struggle for Empire. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 91. OCLC 26241249.
  62. ^ "Maharana Sanga; the Hindupat, the last great leader of the Rajput race: Sarda, Har Bilas, Diwan Bahadur, 1867–1955 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming". Internet Archive. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  63. ^ Wink, André (1996) [First published 1990]. Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Vol. I (3rd ed.). BRILL. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-90-04-09249-5.
  64. ^ R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. pp. 51–70.
  65. ^ Ashok Kumar Srivastava (1979). The Chahamanas of Jalor. Sahitya Sansar Prakashan. p. xvi. OCLC 12737199.
  66. ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1959). Early Chauhān Dynasties. S. Chand / Motilal Banarsidass. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9.
  67. ^ Ashok Kumar Srivastava 1979, p. 53.
  68. ^ Pralambha, read from the Tezpur plates, can be corrected to Salambha, in light of the Parbatiya plates, Sharma, Mukunda Manhava (1978). Inscriptions of Ancient Assam. Guwahati: Gauhati University. p. 105.
  69. ^ V. V. Mirashi (1974). Bhavabhuti. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1180-5.
  70. ^ "Kingdom that Mughals could never win". The Tribune. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  71. ^ International Cyclopaedia: A Library of Universal Knowledge, Volume 6. Dodd, Mead & Company. 1885. p. 451.
  72. ^ "Bishnupur". Britannica. Mallabhum kingdom
  73. ^ Steemers, Koen (2000). Architecture, City, Environment: Proceedings of PLEA 2000 : July 2000 ... James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd. p. 377. ISBN 1902916166.
  74. ^ Dasgupta, Gautam Kumar; Biswas, Samira; Mallik, Rabiranjan (2009). Heritage Tourism: An Anthropological Journey to Bishnupur. A Mittal Publication. pp. 31–43. ISBN 978-81-8324-294-3.
  75. ^ Mallik, Abhaya Pada (1921). History of Bishnupur-Raj: An Ancient Kingdom of West Bengal (the University of Michigan ed.). Calcutta. pp. 128–130. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  76. ^ Handa 2002, p. 28 to 32.
  77. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [First published 1988]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization (2nd ed.). New Age International. pp. 264–668. ISBN 81-224-1198-3.
  78. ^ Georg Bühler, 'Pâiyalachchhî Nâmamâlâ', in Beiträge zur Kunde der Indogermanischen Sprachen, vol. 4, edited by Adalbert Bezzenberger (Göttingen, 1878) and B. J. Dośī, Pāia-lacchīnāmamāla (Prākṛta-Lakṣmināmamālā) (Bombay, 1960): v. 276
  79. ^ Alexander Cunningham, ed. (1871). Archaeological Survey of India: Reports 1862–1884. Vol. I. Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 141–145. OCLC 421335527.
  80. ^ D. C. Ganguly (1981). R. S. Sharma (ed.). A Comprehensive History of India (A. D. 300–985). Vol. 3, Part 1. Indian History Congress / Orient Longmans. p. 704.
  81. ^ Alexander Cunningham 1871, p. 149.
  82. ^ Jagbir Singh (2002). The Jat Rulers of Upper Doab: Three Centuries of Aligarh Jat Nobility. Aavishkar. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-7910-016-5.
  83. ^ a b Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1994). Ancient India, History and Archaeology. Abhinav. pp. 33–41. ISBN 978-81-7017-304-5.
  84. ^ a b Susan L. Huntington (1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. pp. 32–39. ISBN 90-04-06856-2.
  85. ^ R. C. Majumdar (1971). History of Ancient Bengal. G. Bharadwaj. p. 161–162.
  86. ^ Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272–273.
  87. ^ Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450–1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. pp. 253–. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4.
  88. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975–76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Ancient Indian History. IX: 209–10.
  89. ^ "Nasik History - Ancient Period". State Government of Maharashtra. Archived from the original on 29 April 2005. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  90. ^ Sen 1999, p. 264.
  91. ^ "Kannauj after Harsha". Jagran Josh.
  92. ^ Dikshit, R. K. (1976). The Candellas of Jejākabhukti. Abhinav. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-7017-046-4.
  93. ^ Sullerey, Sushil Kumar (2004). Chandella Art. Aakar Books. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-87879-32-9.
  94. ^ Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  95. ^ Jain, Kailash Chand (1972). Malwa Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 329. ISBN 978-81-208-0824-9.
  96. ^ P.N. Sundaresan, ed. (2000). Sruti, Issues 184–195. p. 253.
  97. ^ Petech, Luciano (1977). The Kingdom of Ladakh, c. 950–1842 A.D. Instituto Italiano Per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. pp. 171–172.
  98. ^ Sali, M. L. (20 April 1998). India-China Border Dispute: A Case Study of the Eastern Sector. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788170249641. Retrieved 20 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  99. ^ Kaul, H. N. (20 April 1998). Rediscovery of Ladakh. Indus Publishing. ISBN 9788173870866. Retrieved 20 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  100. ^ Petech 1977, pp. 28–29.
  101. ^ Petech 1977, pp. 31–32.
  102. ^ Petech 1977, pp. 33–37.
  103. ^ Petech 1977, pp. 38–56.
  104. ^ Romila Thapar (2008). Somanatha. Penguin. p. 236. ISBN 9780143064688.
  105. ^ A. K. Majumdar (1956). Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 199. OCLC 4413150.
  106. ^ Michael D. Willis (1996). "Architecture in Central India under the Kacchapaghata Rulers". South Asian Studies. 12 (1): 14. doi:10.1080/02666030.1996.9628506.
  107. ^ "Exploration Of Kadwaha, District Ashoknagar, Madhya Pradesh (2009-2010)". Bhopal: Archaeological Survey of India (Temple Survey Project). Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  108. ^ Prasad, Rajiva Nain (1966). Raja Man Singh of Amber. pp. 1.
  109. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1994) [1984]. A History of Jaipur: C. 1503–1938. Orient Longman. p. 31. ISBN 81-250-0333-9.
  110. ^ Sarkar (1994, p. 33)
  111. ^ Sarkar (1994, p. 259)
  112. ^ Sarkar (1994, p. 260)
  113. ^ Arms & Armour at the Jaipur court by Robert Elgood p.10
  114. ^ Prasad (1966, pp. 1–3)
  115. ^ P. C. Roy (1980). "The Coinage of the Kalachuris of Ratnapura". The Coinage of Northern India. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-122-5.
  116. ^ Stein 1989b, p. 433.
  117. ^ Thakur 1990, p. 287.
  118. ^ Tucci 1956, p. 66.
  119. ^ Sen 1999, p. 272.
  120. ^ Niyogi 1959, pp. 115–117.
  121. ^ Niyogi 1959, p. 38.
  122. ^ Niyogi 1959, p. 41.
  123. ^ a b c d e f Hodgson, B. H. (1835). "Account of a Visit to the Ruins of Simroun, once the capital of the Mithila province". Journal of the Asiatic Society. 4: 121−124.
  124. ^ a b c d e f Chaudhary, Radhakrishna. Mithilak Itihas [मिथिलाक इतिहास] (in Hindi). Ram Vilas Sahu. pp. 70–112. ISBN 9789380538280.
  125. ^ Ben Cahoon. "Indian Princely States K-Z". Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  126. ^ Ayyar, K. V. (1999). The Zamorins of Calicut: From the Earliest Times Down to A.D. 1806. Publication Division, University of Calicut. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7748-000-9.
  127. ^ "Cutch". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 11: 75–80. 1908.
  128. ^ Princely states of India: a guide to chronology and rulers – Page 54
  129. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 24, p. 386.
  130. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. 14. Clarendon Press. 1908. p. 2.
  131. ^ "History rebuild, brick by brick – Rs 56-lakh restoration plan for crumbling Palamau Fort".
  132. ^ Singh, Pradyuman (19 January 2021). Bihar General Knowledge Digest. ISBN 9789352667697.
  133. ^ Jodhpur's Umaid Bhawan: The Maharaja of Palaces, by Aman Nath. Published by India Book House, 2008.
  134. ^ Niyogi, Roma (1959). The History of the Gāhaḍavāla Dynasty. Oriental. p. 30. OCLC 5386449.
  135. ^ "genealogy of the royal house of jaffna". Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  136. ^ Suresh K. Sharma, Documents on North-East India: Tripura, pp. 93-95
  137. ^ Somasekhara Sarma, Mallampalli (1946). History of the Reddi Kingdoms (Circa. 1325 A.D., to circa. 144B A.D.). Waltair: Andhra University. p. 81.: "How this discrepancy arose and why such a wrong account was given in the Kaluvaceru grant is a mystery which is yet to be unravelled."
  138. ^ Rama Rao, M. (1947). "The Fall of Warangal and After". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 10: 295. JSTOR 44137150. It is thus impossible that Prolaya Vema could at any time have been a subordinate of the Musunuri chiefs.
  139. ^ Howes, Jennifer (1 January 1998). The Courts of Pre-colonial South India: Material Culture and Kingship. Psychology Press. p. 28. ISBN 07-0071-585-1.
  140. ^ Rao, Velcheru Narayana; Shulman, David; Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (1998). Symbols of substance : court and state in Nayaka period Tamil Nadu. Oxford University Press. p. 18.
  141. ^ Jha, Makhan (1997). Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 155–157. ISBN 9788175330344.
  142. ^ a b c Love Songs of Vidyāpati. Translated by Bhattacharya, Deben. London: G. Allen & Unwin. 1963.
  143. ^ Coomaraswamy, Ananda Kentish (1915). Vidyāpati: Bangīya Padābali; Songs of the Love of Rādhā and Krishna. London: The Old Bourne Press.
  144. ^ Dhere, Ramchandra (2011). Rise of a Folk God: Vitthal of Pandharpur South Asia Research. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 243. ISBN 9780199777648.
  146. ^ "Patna Princely State (9 gun salute)". Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  147. ^ Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty (1984). Gwalior Fort: art, culture, and history. Arnold-Heinemann. pp. 98–116. ISBN 978-0-391-03223-1.
  148. ^ B. D. Misra (1993). Forts and fortresses of Gwalior and its hinterland. Manohar. pp. 27–46. ISBN 978-81-7304-047-4.
  149. ^ Kishori Saran Lal (1963). Twilight of the Sultanate. Asia Publishing House. p. 6. OCLC 500687579.
  150. ^ Sant Lal Katare (1975). "Two Gangolatal, Gwalior, Inscriptions of the Tomara Kings of Gwalior". Journal of the Oriental Institute. Oriental Institute, Maharajah Sayajirao University. XXIII: 346.
  151. ^ "Princess Daisy of Pless: The Happy Years. An exhibition at Castle Pless".
  152. ^ Bhattacharjee, J B (1994). "Pre-colonial Political Structure of Barak Valley". In Sangma, Milton S (ed.). Essays on North-east India: Presented in Memory of Professor V. Venkata Rao. Indus Publishing Company. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-7387-015-6. The Khaspur state originated with Chilarai's invasion in 1562 AD and remained in existence till 1745 when it merged with the Dimasa state of Maibong.
  153. ^ "The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Volume 94" (PDF). GhandiServe.
  154. ^ India), Asiatic Society (Kolkata (1901). Journal.
  155. ^ Cultural Heritage of [Orissa]: pts. 1-2. Katak. State Level Vyasakabi Fakir Mohan Smruti Samsad. 2002. ISBN 978-81-902761-5-3.
  156. ^ Cultural Heritage of [Orissa]: Dhenkanal. State Level Vyasakabi Fakir Mohan Smruti Samsad. 2002. ISBN 978-81-902761-5-3.
  157. ^ Bhaskar Mishra (July 2011), The Traditional Role of Gajapati Maharaja in Shri Jagannath Temple (PDF), Orissa Review
  158. ^ Prabhakar Gadre (1994). Bhosle of Nagpur and East India Company. Jaipur, India: Publication Scheme. p. 257. ISBN 978-81-85263-65-6. Cogent arguments were advanced against the lapse of Nagpur State. But ... the view of the Governor-General, Lord Dalhousie, pravailed and the Nagpur kingdom was annexed on 13th March, 1854.
  159. ^ Anwar, Kombai S. (26 April 2018). "Thanjavur emerged as a thriving cultural capital under the Marathas". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  160. ^ Guida M. Jackson; Guida Myrl Jackson-Laufer (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 227. ISBN 9781576070918.
  161. ^ "No. 38330". The London Gazette. 22 June 1948. p. 3647. Royal Proclamation of 22 June 1948, made in accordance with the Indian Independence Act 1947, 10 & 11 GEO. 6. CH. 30.('Section 7: ...(2)The assent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is hereby given to the omission from the Royal Style and Titles of the words " Indiae Imperator " and the words " Emperor of India " and to the issue by His Majesty for that purpose of His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm.'). According to this Royal Proclamation, the King retained the Style and Titles 'George VI by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith', and he thus remained King of the various Dominions, including India and Pakistan, though these two (and others) eventually chose to abandon their monarchies and became republics.


Sources and external links