Drupada
Drupada
Upayaja showing his elder brother to Drupada
Information
FamilyPrishata (father)[1] Suchitra (brother)
SpousePrishati (originally named Kokila)
ChildrenSatyajit
Shikhandi
Uttamaujas and Yudhamanyu
Dhrishtadyumna
Draupadi

Drupada (Sanskrit: द्रुपद, lit. firm-footed or pillar[2]), also known as Yajnasena (Sanskrit: यज्ञसेन, lit. he whose army is sacrificial),[3] is a character in the Mahābhārata. The son of King Prishata, he was the king of the land of Southern Panchala.[4] His capital was known as Kampilya.[5] Drupada was killed by Drona in the Kurukshetra War. Dasarna

Conflict with Drona

Drupada, son of King Prishata, and Drona study together under the tutelage of Rishi Bhardwaja, Drona's father. They become great friends and Drupada assures Drona that once he becomes king, he will share half of his kingdom with Drona. While Drupada becomes a king after the death of his father, Drona lives a life of poverty. Drona approaches Drupada for help; Drupada, now conscious of the difference of status between them, refuses to acknowledge Drona's friendship and shuns Drona, calling him a beggar. Drona is later employed by Bhishma to train the Kuru princes. After the military education of the Kauravas and the Pandavas ends, as his gurudakshina, Drona asks the princes to defeat and capture Drupada. All the Kauravas attack Drupada, but Drupada ties up all the Kauravas.[6] Then the Pandavas led by Arjuna defeat Drupada, binding him in ropes and bringing him to Drona. Drona sets Drupada free, but retains half of the kingdom that had been promised to him.[7] Humiliated, Drupada seeks vengeance but he realizes that he cannot match Drona's might. So, Drupada performed the Putrakameshti yajna to beget a son who could slay Drona. From the fire of the yajna, twins Dhrishtadyumna and Draupadi are born. Years later, Draupadi married Arjuna and later in the Mahabharata war, Dhrishtadyumna beheaded Drona.[8][9]

Svayamvara of Draupadi

The Swayamvara of Panchala's princess, Draupadi
The Swayamvara of Panchala's princess, Draupadi

King Drupada arranges a svayamvara for his daughter Draupadi. To win Draupadi's hand, the king's invitees, all of them royalty themselves, have to string an enormous bow and shoot five arrows simultaneously through a revolving ring onto the eye of a revolving fish. All the kings including Shalya, Jarasandha, Karna, Duryodhana fail to even string the bow. [10] The five sons of the late King Pandu of Hastinapur is present at the Svayamvara, dressed as brahmins. Arjuna succeeds in the event and Draupadi accepts him as her husband, with Drupada somewhat reluctantly giving his permission. When Draupadi is taken back to Kunti, they decide to play a prank on her by announcing that they had brought some alms. Kunti asks her sons to share whatever had been brought. The imperative of acting on their mother's words and the propriety of marriage to five husbands is discussed at Drupada's palace, with Drupada and Dhristadyumna fiercely opposed to Draupadi marrying anyone other than Arjuna. However, sage Vyasa and Lord Krishna support Kunti's proposal and sanction the marriage, assuaging Drupada's fears.[11]

Family

Different versions of the Mahabharata portray Drupada's family differently. Most versions name Satyajit, Dhristadyumna, Shikhandi (or Shikhandini), and Draupadi as his children. In some versions, Uttamaujas and Yudhamanyu are often mentioned as two sons of Drupada who are the protectors of Arjuna's chariot. The Chatahurduri compilation mentions that Drupada has twelve sons, naming in addition to the aforementioned children: Kumar, Vrika, Panchalya, Suratha, Shatrunjaya.[12] Janmejaya is the nephew of Drupada, and father-in-law of Prativindhya. Notably, Satyajit's eventually ascends to Panchal's throne having eschewed the Kurukshetra War (some versions have Satyajit fighting and dying in the war with Prativindhya's or Sutasoma's son ascending the throne), Shikhandi was instrumental in the death of Bhishma, and Uttamaujas and Yudhamanyu protected Arjuna's chariot throughout the war. Dhrishtadyumna, Shikandi, Yudhamanyu, and Uttamaujas are killed by Ashwatthama on the last day of the war.[12]

Role in Kurukshetra War

Drupada fights on the side of the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War. Bhishma names him a maharathi. On the first day, he fights Jayadaratha. After a long drawn duel, Drupada is finally defeated and flees. During the night of the 14th day, he is defeated by Karna’s son Vrishasena and is rendered unconscious. After he is taken away, Vrihasena massacres most of his army as well.[13] He along with Virata fought and were killed by Drona on the 15th day of the war. He was badly injured and killed by Drona after a long sword fight in which Drupada almost managed to kill Drona. After his death , Drona salutes his body saying with tears in his eyes that he had to kill his best friend.[14]

References

  1. ^ Puranic Encyclopedia: a comprehensive dictionary with special reference to the epic and Puranic literature, Vettam Mani, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1975, 251
  2. ^ "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.de. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  3. ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf (17 August 2011). Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-539423-8.
  4. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 1: Adi Parva: Sambhava Parva: Section CXXXI". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  5. ^ "Mahabharat - Draupadi'S Swayamvar". urday.in. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014.
  6. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 1: Adi Parva: Sambhava Parva: Section CXL". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  7. ^ Mani, Vettam (1 January 2015). Puranic Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Work with Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0597-2.
  8. ^ Sargeant, Winthrop; Smith, Huston (2009). The Bhagavad Gītā. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4384-2841-3.
  9. ^ Bonnefoy, Yves (1993). Asian Mythologies. University of Chicago Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-226-06456-7.
  10. ^ "The Mahabharata in Sanskrit: Book 1: Chapter 179". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  11. ^ Kapoor, Subodh (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia. Cosmo Publications. p. 6894. ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7.
  12. ^ a b Story of Drupad Archived 28 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "MAHABHARATA - Yudhistra's Permission". urday.in. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  14. ^ Ganguli, K.M. (2014). The Mahabharata, Book 7: Drona Parva. Netlancers Inc.