The Adi Parva or The Book of the Beginning is the first of eighteen books of the Mahabharata. "Adi" (आदि, Ādi) is a Sanskrit word that means "first".
Adi Parva traditionally has 19 parts and 236 adhyayas (chapters). The critical edition of Adi Parva has 19 parts and 225 chapters.
Adi Parva describes how the epic came to be recited by Ugrasrava Sauti to the assembled rishis at the Naimisha Forest after first having been narrated at the sarpasatra of Janamejaya by Vaishampayana at Taxila. It includes an outline of contents from the eighteen books, along with the book's significance. The history of the Bhāratas and the Bhrigus are described. The main part of the work covers the birth and early life of the princes of the Kuru Kingdom and the persecution of the Pandavas by Dhritarashtra.
The Adi Parva consists of 19 upa-parvas or parts (also referred to as little books). Each part is also called a parva and is further subdivided into chapters, for a total of 236 chapters in Adi Parva. The following are the sub-parvas:
Adi Parva and other books of Mahabharata are written in Sanskrit. Several translations of the Adi Parva are available in English. To translations whose copyrights have expired and which are in public domain, include those by Kisari Mohan Ganguli and Manmatha Nath Dutt.
The translations are not consistent in parts and vary with each translator's interpretations. For example:
ययातीक्ष्वाकुवंशश्च राजर्षीणां च सर्शः|
सम्भूता बहवो वंशा भूतसर्गाः सविस्तराः||४५||
भूतस्थानानि सर्वाणि रहस्यं त्रिविधं च यत्|
वेदयोगं सविज्ञानं धर्मोऽर्थः काम एव च||४६||
धर्मकामार्थशास्त्राणि शास्त्राणि विविधानि च|
लोकयात्राविधानं च सम्भूतं दृष्टवानृषिः||४७||
इतिहासाः सवैयाख्या विविधाः श्रुतयोऽपि च|
इह सर्वमनुक्रान्तमुक्तं ग्रन्थस्य लक्षणम्||४८||विस्तीर्यैतन्महज्ज्ञानमृषिः सङ्क्षेपमब्रवीत्|
इष्टं हि विदुषां लोके समासव्यासधारणम्||४९||
मन्वादि भारतं केचिदास्तीकादि तथापरे|
तथोपरिचराद्यन्ये विप्राः सम्यगधीयते||५०||
विविधं संहिताज्ञानं दीपयन्ति मनीषिणः|
व्याख्यातुं कुशलाः केचिद्ग्रन्थं धारयितुं परे||५१||
तपसा ब्रह्मचर्येण व्यस्य वेदं सनातनम्|
इतिहासमिमं चक्रे पुण्यं सत्यवतीसुतः||५२||— Anukramanika Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.1
Translation by Manmatha Nath Dutt:
The wisdom of this work, like the stick used for applying collyrium,
has opened the eyes of the world which were covered by the darkness of ignorance.
As the sun drives away the darkness, so does this Bharata,
by its discourses on Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha, drive the ignorance of men.
As the full moon with its mild light opens the buds of the water-lily,
so does this with the light of Sruti expand the human intellect.
The whole house of the womb of nature is properly and completely lighted by the lamp of history which destroys the darkness of ignorance.
This work is a tree, the chapter of contents is its seed, the divisions Paulama and Astika are its roots, the Sambhava is its trunk,
the books (Parva) Sava and Aranya are the roosting perches, Arani is the knitting knot.
Virata and Udyoga the pith, Bhishma the main branch, Drona the leaves, Karna its beautiful flowers,
Sailya their fragrance, Stri and Aishika are its cooling shades, Shanti its great fruit.
Ashwamedha is its immortal sap, Asramavasika the place where it grows, and Mausula is the epitome of the Vedas.
This tree will be highly respected by all virtuous Brahmans. This tree of Bharata will be as inexhaustible as the clouds and be the means of livelihood of many illustrious poets.
Sauti continued: I shall speak to you about the ever lasting, fruitful and flowery productions of this tree. They are of pleasant and pure taste, and they are to be tasted even by immortals.— Anukramanika Parva, Translated by Manmatha Nath Dutt, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.1
Translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli:
The wisdom of this work, like unto an instrument of applying collyrium, hath opened the eyes of the inquisitive world blinded by the darkness of ignorance. As the sun dispelleth the darkness, so doth the Bharata by its discourses on religion, profit, pleasure and final release, dispel the ignorance of men. As the full-moon by its mild light expandeth the buds of the water-lily, so this Purana, by exposing the light of the Sruti hath expanded the human intellect. By the lamp of history, which destroyeth the darkness of ignorance, the whole mansion of nature is properly and completely illuminated.
This work is a tree, of which the chapter of contents is the seed; the divisions called Pauloma and Astika are the root; the part called Sambhava is the trunk; the books called Sabha and Aranya are the roosting perches; the books called Arani is the knitting knots; the books called Virata and Udyoga the pith; the book named Bhishma, the main branch; the book called Drona, the leaves; the book called Karna, the fair flowers; the book named Salya, their sweet smell; the books entitled Stri and Aishika, the refreshing shade; the book called Santi, the mighty fruit; the book called Aswamedha, the immortal sap; the denominated Asramavasika, the spot where it groweth; and the book called Mausala, is an epitome of the Vedas and held in great respect by the virtuous Brahmanas. The tree of the Bharata, inexhaustible to mankind as the clouds, shall be as a source of livelihood to all distinguished poets."
Sauti continued, "I will now speak of the undying flowery and fruitful productions of this tree, possessed of pure and pleasant taste and not to be destroyed even by the immortals."— Anukramanika Parva, Translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.1
The total number of original verses depend on which Sanskrit source is used, and these do not equal the totalnumber of translated verses in each chapter, in both Ganguli and Dutt translations. Mahabharata, like many ancient Sanskrit texts, was transmitted across generations verbally, a practice that was a source of corruption of its text, deletion of verses as well as the addition of extraneous verses over time. Some of these suspect verses have been identified by change in style and integrity of meter in the verses. The structure, prose, meter and style of translations vary within chapters between the translating authors.
Debroy, in his 2011 overview of Mahabharata, notes that updated critical edition of Adi Parva, with spurious and corrupted text removed, has 19 parts, 225 adhyayas (chapters) and 7,205 shlokas (verses).
Anukramanika Parva, Chapter 1:
Time creates all things
and time destroys them all.
Time burns all creatures
and time again extinguishes that fire.— Anukramanika Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.1
Tapa is not a sin,
Study is not a sin,
Ordinances of Vedas are not sins,
Acquisition of wealth by exertion is not a sin,
When they are abused, then do they become the sources of evil.— Anukramanika Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.1
Sangraha Parva, Chapter 2:
As all the senses are dependent on the wonderful workings of the mind,
so all the acts and moral qualities depend on this treatise(Mahabharata).— Sangraha Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i 2
Paushya Parva, Chapter 3:
You are the infinite, you are the course of Nature and intelligent soul hat pervades all,
I desire to obtain you through knowledge, derived from hearing and meditation.— Paushya Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.3
Adivansabatarana Parva, Chapter 62:
This (Mahabharata) is equal to the Vedas, it is holy and excellent,
it is the worthiest of all that should be listened to. It is a Purana, adored by the Rishis,
It contains many useful instructions on Artha and Kama. This sacred history makes the heart desire to attain salvation.— Adivansabatarana Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.62
Sambhava Parva, Chapter 73:
Dushyanta said to Sakuntala: Marry me according to the Gandharva form, for this form of marriage is said to be the best.
Sakuntala: O king, my father has gone from the hermitage to collect fruits. Kindly wait for a moment. He will bestow me upon you.
Dushyanta: O beautiful lady, O faultless beauty, I desire you yourself should accept me,
Know that I exist for you. Know also, my heart is completely in you,
One is certainly one's own friend, one can certainly depend on one's own self,
Therefore, according to the ordinance(scriptures), you yourself should bestow your own self on others.— Sambhava Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.73
Sambhava Parva, Chapter 74:
No man, even in anger, should ever do anything that is disagreeable to his wife;
for happiness, joy, virtue and everything depend on the wife.
Wife is the sacred soil in which the husband is born again,
even the Rishis cannot create men without women.
What is a greater happiness to a father than what the father feels when his son,
running to him, clasps him with his tiny little arms, though his body is full of dust and dirt.— Sambhava Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.74
Sambhava Parva, Chapter 79:
He who subdues his anger, he who does not regard the bad word of others,
he who is not angry even when there is a cause, certainly acquires the four objects for which we live(namely Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha).
Between the two men, one performing sacrifices continually every month for one hundred years and one who does not feel any anger,
the man who does not feel any anger is the greater man.
Boys and girls, who are incapable of distinguishing between right and wrong,
quarrel among one another; the wise never imitate them.— Sambhava Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.79
Sambhava Parva, Chapter 133:
Drupada said to Drona: Friendship never remains in the world in anyone's heart without being worn out,
Time wears it out, anger destroys it.
The poor cannot be the friend of the rich, the unlearned cannot be the friend of the learned,
the coward cannot be the friend of the brave, how then do you desire the continuance of our old friendship?— Sambhava Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.133
Viduragamana Parva, Chapter 206:
Drona said to Dhritarashtra: Friends summoned for consultation should always speak what is right, true.— Viduragamana Parva, Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book i.206