Nagabhata II
4th Gurjara Pratihara king
Reignc. 795 – c. 833
DynastyGurjara-Pratihara dynasty

Nagabhata II (reign 795–833) was an Indian Emperor from Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty. He ascended the throne of Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty after his father Vatsraja.[1] His mother was queen Sundari-Devi. He was designated with imperial titles - Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja, and Paramesvara after conquest of Kannauj.[2][3]


Nagabhata II was succeeded by Ramabhadra. Some earlier historians identified Nagabhata with Āma, who according to the Jain accounts, died in 832-833 CE (see Āma#Identification with Nagabhata II). Based on this identification, Nagabhata's reign is theorized to have ended around 833 CE. Historian Shyam Manohar Mishra, who disagrees with this identification, places Nagabhata's death around 825 CE.[4]

Military career

Tripartite Struggle

See also: The Kannauj Triangle wars and Tripartite Struggle

Nagabhata II finds a mention in the Gwalior inscription. He defeated the rulers of Sindhu, Andhra, Vidarbha, Kalinga, Matsyas, Vatsas, Malavas, Kiratas, Anartas and the Arabs. He had defeated Saindhava ruler Ranaka I and conquered the western Saurashtra (now in Gujarat).[5][6] He also defeated Chakrayudh at Kannauj.[7]: 20  He was later defeated by the Rashtrakuta Emperor Govinda III (793–814) and lost Malwa and Gujarat. However, he recovered Malwa from the Rashtrakutas, conquered Kanauj and the Indo-Gangetic Plain as far as Bihar from the Palas, and again checked the Muslims in the west. Kanauj became the center of the Pratihara state, which covered much of northern India during the peak of their power (836–910).[2]

An inscription of his descendant, Mihira Bhoja describes Nagabhata II as "who, desirous of the great growth of virtuous acts, enjoined in the Veda, performed a series of religious ceremonies according to the custom of Kshatriya families." Nagabhata is said to have been a devotee of Bhagavati.[8] 

Nagabhatta faced a large Pala army in his early career, which had an elephant force of 50,000, led by King Dharmapala himself at Mungar, Nagabhata emerged victorious. The Chatsu Inscription of his Guhila feudatory Baladitya (813 AD) states that Shankaragana Guhila, who fought on the behalf of Vatsaraja fulfilled his vow by

"defeating Bhata, the Gauda ruler, in battle, and presented the earth at his master’s(Vatsaraja) feet”.


Defeat by Devapāla

Main article: Devapāla's Campaigns against Pratiharas

After the death of Dharmapāla, Nagabhata II tried to assert his power and he may have obtained some success. However, Devapāla soon re-established Pala supremacy after his victory against the Pratiharas.[10][11]


  1. ^ Panchānana Rāya (1939). A historical review of Hindu India: 300 B. C. to 1200 A. D. I. M. H. Press. p. 125.
  2. ^ a b Rama Shankar Tripathi 1964, p. 233.
  3. ^ Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rajasthan: Rupa & Company. p. 275. ISBN 8129108909.
  4. ^ Shyam Manohar Mishra 1977, pp. 121–124.
  5. ^ History of Rajasthan Rima Hooja pg - 276 Roopa Publishers
  6. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 343. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
  7. ^ Sen, S.N., 2013, A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Delhi: Primus Books, ISBN 9789380607344
  8. ^ R.K. Gupta, S.R. Bakshi (2008). Rajasthan Through the Ages,Studies in Indian history. Vol. 1. Rajasthan: Swarup & Sons. p. 42. ISBN 9788176258418.
  9. ^ Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rajasthan: Rupa & Company. p. 277. ISBN 8129108909.
  10. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (2009). History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume 04, The Age Of Imperial Kanauj. Public Resource. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 50–51.
  11. ^ Others, Muzaffar H. Syed & (20 February 2022). History of Indian Nation : Ancient India. K.K. Publications. p. 287.


Preceded byVatsaraja (780–800) Gurjara Pratihara Emperor 750–780 Succeeded byRamabhadra (833–836)