Sheikh Hasina
শেখ হাসিনা
Hasina in 2018
Prime Minister of Bangladesh
Assumed office
6 January 2009
President
Preceded byFakhruddin Ahmed (acting)
In office
23 June 1996 – 15 July 2001
President
Preceded byMuhammad Habibur Rahman (acting)
Succeeded byLatifur Rahman (acting)
Additional ministries
Assumed office
6 January 2009
Ministries, Divisions and Commissions
Preceded byKhaleda Zia
Leader of the House
Assumed office
6 January 2009
Preceded byKhaleda Zia
In office
23 June 1996 – 15 July 2001
Preceded byKhaleda Zia
Succeeded byKhaleda Zia
President of the Awami League
Assumed office
16 February 1981
General Secretary
Preceded byAbdul Malek Ukil
Member of Parliament
Assumed office
12 June 1996
Preceded byMujibur Rahman Howlader
ConstituencyGopalganj-3
In office
27 February 1991 – 15 February 1996
Preceded byKazi Firoz Rashid
Succeeded byMujibur Rahman Howlader
ConstituencyGopalganj-3
Leader of the Opposition
In office
10 October 2001 – 29 October 2006
Preceded byKhaleda Zia
Succeeded byKhaleda Zia
In office
20 March 1991 – 30 March 1996
Preceded byAbdur Rab
Succeeded byKhaleda Zia
In office
7 May 1986 – 3 March 1988
Preceded byAsaduzzaman Khan
Succeeded byAbdur Rab
Personal details
Born (1947-09-28) 28 September 1947 (age 76)
Tungipara, East Bengal, Pakistan (present-day Tungipara, Gopalganj, Bangladesh)
Political partyBangladesh Awami League
Other political
affiliations
Grand Alliance (2008–present)
Spouse
(m. 1968; died 2009)
Children
Parents
RelativesSee Sheikh-Wazed family
ResidenceGanabhaban
Alma mater
Signature

Sheikh Hasina Wazed (/ˈʃk həˈsnə/ SHAYK hə-SEE-nə; Bengali: শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ, romanizedShēkh Hāsinā Ōāzed, IPA: [ˈʃekʰ ˈɦasina ˈo̯azed]; née Hasina; born 28 September 1947)[1] is a prominent Bangladeshi politician who has been serving as the Prime Minister of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh since January 2009. She is the longest-serving prime minister in the history of Bangladesh, having previously served as the country's prime minister from 1996 to 2001.[2] As of 4 June 2024, she is the world's longest-serving female head of government in history.[3][4][5] Sheikh Hasina is also the president of the Awami League, one of the two major political parties in Bangladesh. [6]

Hasina is the daughter of the founding father and first president of Bangladesh, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Her family played a critical role in the struggle for independence from Pakistan, which was achieved in 1971. However, her family suffered a great tragedy when most of them were assassinated in a military coup in August 1975.[7]Sheikh Hasina's political career began in the late 1970s when she returned to Bangladesh from exile and took charge of the Awami League.[8] She became the party's president in 1981 after the assassination of her father. Sheikh Hasina was first elected to the parliament in 1986 and has been re-elected in every election since then. She was also the Leader of the Opposition in the parliament from 1986 to 1990.

During her tenure as prime minister, Sheikh Hasina has implemented various socio-economic and political reforms aimed at improving the lives of the people of Bangladesh. She has focused on promoting gender equality, expanding education and healthcare, and modernizing the country's infrastructure.[9][10] Under her leadership, Bangladesh has achieved significant progress in various development indicators, such as poverty reduction, maternal and child health, and access to clean water and sanitation.[11][12][13]Sheikh Hasina and her government have been praised for their humanitarian response to the 2017 Rohingya crisis, providing shelter, food, and medical assistance to the refugees.[14] Sheikh Hasina has also pursued a policy of zero tolerance towards terrorism and extremism, leading a successful crackdown on militant groups in the country. This has resulted in a significant reduction in terrorist attacks and a more stable security environment in Bangladesh.[15][16]Also during her tenure, Bangladesh has experienced massive democratic backsliding, political tenure and violation of human rights.[17] Human Rights Watch documented widespread enforced disappearances and extrajudicial killings under her government. Many politicians and journalists have been systematically and judicially punished for challenging her views.[18][19] Reporters Without Borders in 2021 characterized Sheikh Hasina as a predator for curbing press freedom in Bangladesh since 2014.[20]

In 2014, she was re-elected for a third term in an election that was boycotted by the BNP and criticised by international observers. She won her fourth term in 2018, following an election marred with violence and criticised by the opposition as being rigged.

Sheikh Hasina is widely regarded as one of the most influential leaders in South Asia. She was ranked as the 59th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine in 2015[21] and , 42nd consecutively in 2018 and 2022 .[22][23][24]including the United Nations' Champions of the Earth award in 2015.[25] She was listed among 100 leading global thinkers in 2019.[26]

Early life

See also: Sheikh–Wazed family and 15 August 1975 Bangladesh coup d'état

Hasina was born on 28 September 1947 to the Bengali Muslim Sheikh family of Tungipara in East Bengal.[27][28] Her father was Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the first President of Bangladesh, regarded as the "Father of the Nation".[29] She has Iraqi Arab ancestry through both her paternal and maternal sides of family, her clan were direct descendants of Muslim preacher Sheikh Awwal Darwish of Baghdad, who had arrived in Bengal in the Late Mughal Era.[30][31] Her mother was Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib.[32] She has said in many interviews that she had grown up in fear due to threats to her politically prominent father, who was assassinated in 1975.[33] She married physicist M. A. Wazed Miah, who was chosen for her by her father, in 1968.[34]

During the peak of violence during the 1970 Pakistani general election, as well as her father's arrest, she had lived in refuge with her grandmother.[33] She was active in the student politics of the University of Dhaka.[35]

Hasina was not in Bangladesh when her father, and most of her family, were assassinated on 15 August 1975 during a military coup d'état by renegade officers of the Bangladesh Army.

She was in West Germany with her husband, M. A. Wazed Miah, who was working as a nuclear physicist. She moved to New Delhi in late 1975, having been granted asylum by India. Her son, Sajeeb Wazed Joy, studied at Indian boarding schools. During her time in India, Hasina was not involved in politics, but became close friends with Suvra Mukherjee, wife of the future Indian President Pranab Mukherjee.[34][36]

Hasina was barred from returning to Bangladesh until after she was elected to lead the Awami League on 16 February 1981, and arrived home on 17 May 1981.[33]

Early political career

Movement against military rule (1981–1991)

While living in exile in India, Hasina was elected President of the Awami League (AL) in 1981.[37] The AL has been described as a "left-of-center" party.[38][39][40]

Under martial law, Hasina was in and out of detention throughout the 1980s. In 1984, she was put under house arrest in February and again in November. In March 1985, she was put under house arrest for another three months.[41][42]

Hasina and the AL participated in the 1986 Bangladeshi general election held under President Hussain Muhammad Ershad. She served as the leader of the parliamentary opposition in 1986–1987.[32] She led an eight-party alliance as opposition against Ershad.[43] Hasina's decision to take part in the election had been criticised by her opponents, since the election was held under martial law, and the other main opposition group boycotted the poll. However, her supporters maintained that she used the platform effectively to challenge Ershad's rule. Ershad dissolved the parliament in December 1987 when Hasina and her Awami League resigned in an attempt to call for a fresh general election to be held under a neutral government. During November and December in 1987, a mass uprising happened in Dhaka and several people were killed, including Noor Hossain, an Awami League activist and support of Hasina.[44]

Her party, along with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) under Khaleda Zia, continued to work to restore democratically elected government, which they achieved after a constitutional referendum returning the country to a parliamentary form of government. The subsequent parliamentary general election in 1991 was won by the BNP.[citation needed]

Leader of the Opposition (1991–1996)

After several years of autocratic rule, widespread protests and strikes had paralysed the economy. Government officers refused to follow orders and resigned. Members of the Bangladesh Rifles laid down their weapons instead of firing on protestors and curfew was openly violated. Hasina worked with Khaleda Zia in organising opposition to Ershad.[45] A huge mass protest in December 1990 ousted Ershad from power when he resigned in favour of his vice president, Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed, the Chief Justice of the Bangladesh Supreme Court. The caretaker government, headed by Ahmed, administered a general election for the parliament. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party led by Khaleda Zia won a general majority, and Hasina's Awami League emerged as the largest opposition party.[46] Of the three constituencies Hasina contested, she lost in two and won in one. Accepting defeat, she offered her resignation as the party president but stayed on at the request of party leaders.[citation needed]

Politics in Bangladesh took a decisive turn in 1994, after a by-election in Magura-2,[47] held after the death of the member of parliament for that constituency, a member of Hasina's party. The Awami League had expected to win back the seat, but the BNP candidate won through rigging and manipulation, according to the neutral observer who came to witness the election.[48] Hasina led the Bangladesh Awami League in boycotting the parliament from 1994.[49] Relations between Hasina and Zia nosedived after this.[citation needed]

First premiership (1996–2001)

See also: First Hasina ministry

Hasina with US President Bill Clinton at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka, 2000.

The Awami League (AL), with other opposition parties, demanded that the next general elections be held under a neutral caretaker government, and that provision for caretaker governments to manage elections be incorporated in the constitution.[citation needed] The ruling Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) refused to act on these demands.[50]

Opposition parties launched an unprecedented campaign, calling strikes for weeks on end. The Government accused them of destroying the economy while the opposition countered that the BNP could resolve the issue by acceding to their demands. In late 1995, the members of parliament of the AL and other parties resigned en masse. Parliament completed its five-year term and the February 1996 general election was held. The election was boycotted by all major parties except the ruling BNP, who won all the seats in the parliament as a result. Hasina described the election as a farce.[51][52]

The new parliament, composed almost entirely of BNP members, amended the constitution to create provisions for a caretaker government (CTG). The June 1996 general election was held under a neutral caretaker government headed by retired Chief Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman. The AL won 146 seats, a plurality, but fell short of a simple majority. Khaleda Zia, leader of the BNP who won 104 seats, denounced the results and alleged vote rigging. This was in contrast with the neutral observers who said that the election was free and fair.[53]

Hasina served her first term as Prime Minister of Bangladesh from June 1996 to July 2001. She signed the 30-year water-sharing treaty with India governing the Ganges. Her administration repealed the Indemnity Act, which granted immunity from prosecution to the killers of Sheikh Mujib. Her government opened-up the telecommunications industry to the private sector, which until then was limited to government-owned companies. In December 1997, Hasina's administration signed the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord, ending the insurgency in the Chittagong Division for which Hasina won the UNESCO Peace Prize. Her government established the Ashrayan-1 Project while bilateral relations with neighbouring states improved. Hasina's government completed the Bangabandhu Bridge mega project in 1998. In 1999, the government started the New Industrial Policy (NIP) which aimed to strengthen the private sector and encourage growth.[54]

The Hasina government implemented some reforms to different sectors of the economy, which resulted in the country attaining an average of 5.5% GDP growth. The consumer price index remained at 5%, lower than other developing states who experienced 10% inflation. The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002) of the government placed an emphasis on poverty alleviation programmes which provided credit and training to unemployed youths and women. Food-grain production increased from 19 million tons to 26.5 million tons while the poverty rate reduced. A Housing Fund was established to provide fiscal assistance to those homeless as a result of river erosion. The government launched the Ekti Bari Ekti Khamar scheme which accentuated the incomes of the poorer segments of society through household farming.[54]

The Hasina government adopted the New Industrial Policy in 1999 which aimed to bolster the private sector and attract foreign direct investment, thus expediating the globalisation process. The NIP aimed for 25% of the economy to be industry based with 20% of the country's workforce employed in industry. It encouraged the institution of small, cottage and labour intensive industries with an onus on skill development for women for employment, development of indigenous technology and industries based on local raw materials. The NIP allowed for foreign investors to own 100% equity in Bangladeshi enterprises without prior approval from the government and all but four sectors of the economy were opened up to the private sector.[54]

Attempts were made to create a social security system to protect the most vulnerable in society. The Hasina administration introduced an allowance scheme which resulted in 400,000 elderly people receiving monthly allowances. This scheme was later extended to widows, distressed and deserted women. A national foundation devoted to rehabilitation and training of people, with disabilities was founded with an initial grant of ৳100 million funded by the government. The Ashrayan-1 Project provided shelter and employment to the homeless.[54]

Hasina was the first prime minister to engage in a "Prime Minister's Question-Answer Time" in the Jatiya Sangsad. The Jatiya Sangsad repealed the Indemnity Act, allowing for the killers of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman to be prosecuted. The government introduced a four-tier system of local government including the Gram Parishad, Zila Parishad and Upazila Parishad by passing legisation.[54]

The Hasina government liberalised the telecommunications industry, initially granting four licenses to private companies to provide cellular mobile telephone services. This resulted in the previous state monopoly being disbanded meaning prices began to reduce and access became more widespread. The government established the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission to regulate the newly liberalised telecommunications industry.[54]

The government established the National Policy for Women's Advancement which sought to ensure equality between men and women. The policy aimed to guarantee security and employment, create an educated and skilled workforce, eliminate discrimination and repression against women, establish human rights and end poverty and ensure participation in socio-economic development. The government introduced three reserved seats for women in all Union Parishad election in December 1997. Hasina's cabinet approved the National Plan of Action for Children in 1999 to ensure rights and improved upbringing.[54]

Hasina attended the World Micro Credit summit in Washington DC; the World Food Summit in Rome; the Inter-Parliamentary Union Conference in India; the OIC summit in Pakistan; the 9th SAARC summit in the Maldives; the first D-8 summit in Turkey; the 5th World Conference for the Aged in Germany; the Commonwealth summit in the UK and the OIC summit in Iran. Hasina also visited the United States, Saudi Arabia, Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia.[54]

Bangladesh joined two multilateral bodies, the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) and D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation (D-8). She became the first Bangladeshi prime minister since independence to complete an entire five-year term.[32]

In the 2001 general election, despite winning 40% of the popular vote (slightly less than BNP's 41%), the AL won just 62 seats in parliament as a result of the first-past-the-post electoral system, while the 'Four Party Alliance' led by BNP won 234 seats, giving them a two-thirds majority in parliament. Hasina herself ran in three constituencies,[55] and was defeated in a constituency in Rangpur, which included her husband's home town, but won in two other seats. Hasina and the AL rejected the results, claiming that the election was rigged with the assistance of the president and the caretaker government. The international community was largely satisfied with the elections, and the 'Four Party Alliance' went on to form a government.[56]

Leader of the Opposition (2001–2008)

The Awami League MPs were irregular in attending parliament during the following period.[57] In late 2003, the Awami League started its first major anti-government movement, culminating in the declaration by party general secretary Abdul Jolil that the government would fall before 30 April 2004. This failed to happen and was seen as a blow to the party and Hasina, who had implicitly supported Jolil.[citation needed]

Assassination attempt (2004)

See also: 2004 Dhaka grenade attack

During her second term as leader of the opposition, political unrest and violence increased. MP Ahsanullah Master died after he was shot in May 2004. This was followed by a grenade attack on 21 August on an Awami League gathering in Dhaka, resulting in the death of 24 party supporters, including Ivy Rahman, party women's secretary. In October 2018, a special court gave verdicts in two cases filed over the incident; the court ruled that it was a well-orchestrated plan, executed through abuse of state power, and all the accused, including BNP Senior vice-chairman Tarique Rahman (in absentia) and former top intelligence officials, were found guilty. The court prescribed various punishments.[58] SAMS Kibria, Hasina's close advisor and former finance minister was assassinated that year (2004) in a grenade attack in Sylhet.[59][60]

In June 2005, A. B. M. Mohiuddin Chowdhury, the incumbent AL Mayor, won an important election in Chittagong, the second-largest city in Bangladesh. This election was seen as a showdown between the opposition and the ruling party.[61]

Logi Boitha Movement

See also: Logi Boitha Movement

In October 2006, Sheikh Hasina and Awami League launched the Logi Boitha Movement where thousands of Awami League workers started occupying different streets of Dhaka with boat-hooks and Oars for several days. This resulted in a number of casualties, vandalisms, lootings as well as soaring prices of daily commodities.[62][63][64][65][66]

In May 2007, the Police filed chargesheet against 19 leaders and activists of the Awami League and its affiliates for vandalising, settting fire to and looting the office of the Islamic Social Welfare Council but all of them were acquitted in court in June 2011.[67]

Detention during military intervention (2006–2008)

The months preceding the planned 22 January 2007 elections were filled with political unrest and controversy.[citation needed] Following the end of Khaleda Zia's government in October 2006, there were protests and strikes, during which 40 people were killed in the following month, over uncertainty about who would head the Caretaker Government. The caretaker government had difficulty bringing all parties to the table. The AL and its allies protested and alleged that the caretaker government favoured the BNP.[68]

The interim period was marred with violence and strikes.[69][70] Presidential Advisor Mukhlesur Rahman Chowdhury negotiated with Hasina and Khaleda Zia and brought all the parties to the planned 22 January 2007 parliamentary elections. Later the nomination of Ershad was cancelled by the returning officer of the Election Commission as Ershad had been convicted on a corruption case.[71][72] As a result, the Grand Alliance withdrew its candidates en masse on the last day possible.[73] They demanded that a voters' roll be published.[citation needed]

Later in the month, President Iajuddin Ahmed was compelled to declare a state of emergency. Consequently, Lt General Moeen Uddin Ahmed took control of the government.[74] Political activity was prohibited. Fakhruddin Ahmed became the chief advisor with the support of the Bangladesh Army.[75][76][77]

Hasina went to the United States embassy on 14 March 2007 along with Kazi Zafarullah and Tareq Ahmed Siddique.[78] She would fly the next day to the United States accompanied by Tareq Ahmed Siddique and Abdus Sobhan Golap.[78] She visited her son and daughter who live in the United States.[79] She then moved to the United Kingdom.[80]

In April 2007, Hasina was charged with graft and extortion by the military-backed caretaker government during the 2006–2008 political crisis. She was accused of having forced businessman Tajul Islam Farooq to pay bribes in 1998 before his company could build a power plant. Farooq said that he paid Hasina for approving his project.[81]

On 18 April 2007, the Government barred Hasina from returning, stating that she had made provocative statements and that her return could cause disorder. This was described as a temporary measure. The Caretaker Government had also been trying to get Khaleda Zia to leave the country.[82] Hasina vowed to return home, and on 22 April 2007, a warrant was issued for her arrest for murder.[83][84] Describing the case against her as "totally false and fake", Hasina said that she wanted to defend herself against the charges in court. On 23 April 2007, the arrest warrant was suspended,[85] and on 25 April 2007, the ban on Hasina's entry was dropped.[86] After spending 51 days in the United States and the United Kingdom, on 7 May 2007 Hasina returned to Dhaka, where she was greeted by a crowd of several thousand. She told reporters that the government should not have delayed her return.[87]

On 16 July 2007, Hasina was arrested by police at her home and taken before a local court in Dhaka.[88] She was accused of extortion and denied bail, and was held in a building converted into jail on the premises of the National Parliament. The AL said the arrest was politically motivated.[89] On 17 July 2007, the Anti-Corruption Commission sent notices to both Hasina and Khaleda Zia, instructing them to provide details of their assets within one week.[90] Hasina's son Sajeeb Wazed was out of the country and said he would try to organise a worldwide protest. These arrests of the political leaders were widely seen as a move by the military-backed interim government to force Hasina and Zia out of the country and into political exile.[91][92] United Kingdom MPs condemned the arrest.[93]

On 11 April 2007, the police filed murder charges against Hasina, alleging that she masterminded the killing in October 2006 of four supporters of a rival political party. The four alleged victims were beaten to death during clashes between the AL and rival party activists.[94] Hasina was visiting the United States at the time.[95]

On 30 July 2007, the High Court suspended Hasina's extortion trial and ordered her release on bail.[96] On 2 September 2007, an additional case was filed against Hasina by the Anti-Corruption Commission regarding the awarding of a contract for the construction of a power plant in 1997, for which she allegedly took a bribe of 30 million takas and kept the contract from going to the lowest bidder. Six others were also accused of involvement.[97][98] A graft case was filed against Zia on the same day.[97]

On 13 January 2008, Hasina was indicted on extortion charges by a special court along with two of her relatives, her sister Sheikh Rehana and her cousin Sheikh Selim.[99] On 6 February, the High Court stopped the trial, ruling that she could not be prosecuted under emergency laws for crimes alleged to have been committed prior to the imposition of the state of emergency.[100]

On 11 June 2008, Hasina was released on parole for medical reasons. The next day she flew to the United States to be treated for hearing impairment, eye problems and high blood pressure.[101][102] Syed Modasser Ali, her personal physician, threatened to sue the caretaker government over negligence regarding Hasina's treatment during her detention.[103]

The caretaker government held mayoral elections in which AL won 12 out of 13 elections. The government extended her two-month medical parole by one more month.[104]

Second premiership (2009–present)

Second term (2009–2014)

See also: Second Hasina ministry

Hasina with British Prime Minister David Cameron at 10 Downing Street (January 2011)

On 6 November 2008, Hasina returned to Bangladesh to contest the 2008 general election scheduled for 29 December.[105] She decided to participate in the parliamentary election under the banner of the "Grand Alliance" with the Jatiya Party, led by Hussain Muhammad Ershad, as its main partner. On 11 December 2008, Hasina formally announced her party's election manifesto during a news conference, and vowed to build a "Digital Bangladesh" by 2021.[106]

The AL manifesto was entitled A Charter for Change and included the party's commitment to Vision 2021. The manifesto included pledges too implement measures to reduce price hikes; combat corruption by strengthening the independent ACC and submission of annual wealth statements by influential people; introduction of a long-term policy towards power and energy increasing power generation to 7,000 megawatts by 2013; bringing vibrancy to the agriculture sector and extending the safety net to the poor; creating good governance and curtailing terrorism and religious extremism; prosecution of 1971 war criminals; ensuring an independent and impartial judiciary; reforming the electoral system; strengthening the Human Rights Commission and de-politicising the administration.[54]

Her Awami League and the Grand Alliance (a total of 14 parties) won the 2008 general election with a two-thirds majority, having won 230 out of 299 seats.[107] Khaleda Zia, leader of the BNP-led coalition (4-Party Alliance), rejected the results of the election by accusing the Chief Election Commissioner of "stage-managing the parliamentary election".[108] Hasina was sworn into office as prime minister for a second term on 6 January 2009. Independent observers declared that the elections were held in a festive and peaceful atmosphere.[109]

After being elected prime minister, Hasina reneged on her agreement with the Jatiya Party to make Ershad, its leader, the president.[110]

Hasina's term as the Prime Minister witnessed worsening security situation that includes the Bangladesh Rifles revolt in 2009 which killed 56 officers of Bangladesh Army for which

Hasina removed Awami League central committee members who supported reforms forced by the previous caretaker government.[111] She had to confront a major national crisis in the form of the 2009 Bangladesh Rifles revolt over a pay dispute, which resulted in 56 deaths, including Bangladesh Army officers.[112][113] Hasina was blamed by the army officers due to her refusal to intervene against the revolt.[114][115][116][117] However, In 2009, a recording emerged of Hasina's private meeting with army officers, who expressed their anger with how she had not reacted more decisively in the revolt's early stages, by ordering an armed raid of the BDR Rifles compound; they believed that her efforts to appease the revolt's leaders delayed needed action which led to more deaths.[118][115] In a 2011 The Daily Star editorial, she was commended for "her sagacious handling of the situation which resulted in the prevention of a further bloodbath".[115] In 2011, the parliament removed the law that required non-party caretaker government hold elections.[119] In 2012, she maintained a hard-line stance and refused to allow entry to Rohingya refugees fleeing Myanmar during the 2012 Rakhine State riots.[120]

Hasina with Russian President Vladimir Putin at the Kremlin in January 2013

On 27 June 2013, a case against Hasina and 24 other Bangladeshi Ministers and security personnel was lodged at the International Criminal Court (ICC) for the alleged violation of human rights.[121] She has been "credited internationally" for the achievement of some of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.[122] In 2012 a coup attempt against her by mid-ranking army officers was stopped, with the Bangladesh Army being tipped off by an Indian intelligence agency.[123] The Bangladesh Army described the army officers involved as being Islamist extremists.[124]

In 2012, she had a falling out with Muhammad Yunus, Nobel laureate and founder of Grameen Bank, following a Norwegian documentary that was critical of Yunus's transferring of money from Grameen Bank to an affiliate organisation. Yunus transferred the money back after the documentary aired but it increased scrutiny of the bank by the government and media in Bangladesh. Yunus lost control of his bank following a court verdict. He criticised Hasina and other Bangladeshi politicians. She responded by saying she did not understand why Yunus blamed her when it was a court verdict that removed him from Grameen Bank.[125]

During this term, her government led and succeeded in forming the International Crimes Tribunal, to investigate and prosecute suspects involved in the Bangladesh Genocide, committed by the Pakistan Army and their local collaborators, Razakars, Al-Badr, and Al-Shams during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.[126]

Third term (2014–2019)

See also: Third Hasina ministry

Hasina with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, 2018

Hasina secured a second-consecutive term in office with her ruling Awami League and its Grand Alliance allies, winning the 2014 general election by a landslide. The election was boycotted by leading opposition parties due to unfair conditions and a lack of non-partisan administration to conduct elections.[127] As a result, the AL-led Grand Alliance won 267 seats out of which 153 were uncontested, surpassing its 2008 poll success – when it secured 263 parliamentary seats. [128] Sheikh Hasina's Awami League has run Bangladesh since 2009 and won 288 seats in this election.[129] One of the leading opposition parties accused it of using stuffed ballot boxes.[128] The election was boycotted by major opposition parties including the BNP.[citation needed]

The election was controversial, with reports of violence and an alleged crackdown on the opposition in the run-up to the election. In the election 153 seats (of 300) went uncontested, of which the Awami League won 127 by default.[130][131] Hasina's Awami League won a safe parliamentary majority with a total of 234 seats.[132][133] As a result of the boycott and violence, voter turnout was lower than the previous few elections at only 51%. The day after the result, Hasina said that the boycott should "not mean there will be a question of legitimacy.[134][135] People participated in the poll and other parties participated." Despite the controversy Hasina went on to form a government with Ershad's Jatiya Party (who won 34 seats) as the official opposition.[136][137]

Hasina with G7 Leaders and guests, Shima Kanko Hotel in Japan, 2016

The election has been called "an electoral farce"[according to whom?].[37] The BNP wanted the elections to be held under a neutral caretaker government and had hoped to use protests to force the government to do so.[138][139]

The period also saw increasing attacks by Islamic extremists in the country, including the July 2016 Dhaka attack which has been described as "deadliest Islamist attack in Bangladeshi history" by BBC.[140] According to experts, the Hasina-led government's repression of political opposition as well as shrinking democratic and civic space has created "the space for extremist groups to flourish" and "has generated a violent backlash from Islamist groups."[141]

In March 2017, Bangladesh's first two submarines were commissioned.[142] In September 2017, Hasina's government granted refuge and aid to around a million Rohingya refugees and urged Myanmar to end violence against the Rohingya community.[143] The majority of the Bangladeshi people supported the government's decision to provide refugee status to the Rohingya. Hasina received credit and praise for her actions.[144]

Hasina supported calls to remove the Statue of Justice in front of the Supreme Court. This was seen as the government bowing down to the pressure of those who use religion for political ends.[145]

Hasina is a patron of the Asian University for Women, led by Chancellor Cherie Blair, and including the First Lady of Japan, Akie Abe, as well as Irina Bokova, the Director-General of UNESCO.[146]

Fourth term (2019–present)

See also: Fourth Hasina ministry

Hasina won her third consecutive term, her fourth overall, when her Awami League won 288 of the 300 parliamentary seats. The leader of the main opposition alliance, Kamal Hossain, declared the vote "farcical" and rejected the results. Before the election, Human Rights Watch and other rights organisations had accused the government of creating an intimidating environment for the Opposition.[147] The New York Times editorial board described the election as farcical, the editorial stated that it was likely Hasina would have won without vote-rigging and questioned why she did so.[148]

The BNP, the main opposition party that has been out of power for 12 years and boycotted the 2014 general election, fared extremely poorly. Winning only eight seats, the party and its Jatiya Oikya Front alliance have been marginalised to the weakest opposition ever since Bangladesh's post-Ershad democratic restoration in 1991.[149]

In May 2021, Hasina provided the inaugural address for the opening of a new headquarters for the Bangladesh Post Office, named the Dak Bhaban. In her address, Hasina urged for further development of the postal service in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Developmental measures outlined in the address include continuing the service's digital transformation, and the construction of cooling units in postal warehouses to pave the way for the sending of perishable food by mail.[150]

In January 2022, the government passed a law in the Jatiya Sangsad establishing the Universal Pension Scheme. All Bangladeshi citizens, including expatriates, between 18 and 60 years old are eligible to receive a monthly stipend under the scheme.[151]

By the end of fiscal year 2021–22, Bangladesh's external debt reached $95.86 billion, a 238% increase from 2011.[152] The period is also marked by massive irregularities in the banking sector of the country where the amount of default loans went from less than 23000 crore (US$2.1 billion) in 2009[153] to more than 250000 crore (US$23 billion) in 2019 according to IMF[154]

In July 2022, the Finance Ministry requested fiscal assistance from the International Monetary Fund. The government cited depleting foreign-exchange reserves as a result of the sanctions in response to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. A staff level agreement was reached in November 2022 and in January 2023, the IMF agreed to supply a support programme totalling US$4.7 billion, consisting of US$3.3 billion under the Extended Credit Facility and US$1.4 billion under the new Resilience and Sustainability Facility. The IMF stated support package "will help preserve macroeconomic stability, protect the vulnerable and foster inclusive and green growth."[155]

In December 2022, anti-government protests broke out, linked to the rising costs, demanding the resignation of the Prime Minister.[156]

On 28 December, Hasina opened the first phase of Dhaka Metro Rail, the country's first mass-rapid transit system from Uttara to Agargaon.[157]

Controversies

The Padma Bridge graft scandal was a political incident in Bangladesh that involved the ruling Awami League government that allegedly sought, in exchange for the awarding of the construction contract, a large amount of money from the Canadian construction company SNC-Lavalin. The allegations were subsequently found to be false and without merit, and a Canadian court subsequently dismissed the case.[158]

As a result of the allegations, The World Bank pulled out of a project to provide funding for the Padma Bridge, citing corruption concerns, cancelling 10241.346 crore (US$950 million) of credit for the 6 km-long (four miles) road-rail bridge over the Padma River.[159] One of the individuals implicated was Minister of Communications Syed Abul Hossain who subsequently resigned and was later acquitted of any wrongdoing.[160] On 11 July 2012, BNP General-Secretary Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir said the Awami League government should make public a letter sent by the World Bank, wherein the Bank brought graft charges against Hasina and three other figures.[161] On 17 January 2016, Hasina stated that a managing director of a bank in the United States provoked the World Bank to cancel the loan.[162] The bridge was eventually constructed with the government's own funds and was inaugurated in June 2022 at a cost of ৳30,193.39 crore (US$3.6 billion),[163] much higher than the original projected cost of 10161.75 crore (US$950 million).[164]

On 24 January 2017, in a speech in parliament, Prime Minister Hasina blamed Muhammad Yunus for the World Bank's pulling out of the project.[165] According to her, Yunus lobbied with the former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to persuade the World Bank to terminate the loan.[166] On 10 February 2017, a justice of the Superior Court of Ontario dismissed the bribery-conspiracy case for lack of any evidence.[167]

In 2018, Hasina's government passed the controversial Digital Security Act, 2018, under which any criticism deemed inappropriate by the government over the internet or any other media could be punished by prison terms of various degrees. This was heavily criticised both domestically and internationally for suppressing people's freedom of speech, as well as undermining press freedom in Bangladesh.[168][169][170][171][172]

In December 2022, the Hasina government ordered the closure of 191 websites accused of publishing “anti-state news” citing intelligence reports. Dhaka district authorities ordered the closure of Dainik Dinkal, which is owned by Tarique Rahman of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). Dainik Dinkel appealed the order to the Bangladesh Press Council who dismissed their appeal in February 2022, resulting in its closure.[173] The move has been criticised by government opponents who claim the move is an attempt to stifle opposition to the government.[174] The government claimed Dainik Dinkal violated articles 10, 11, 16, 21(1)(kha) of the Printing Presses and Publications (Declaration and Registration) Act, 1973 as it had irregular publication and its publisher was a convicted felon.[175]

Personal life

In 1968, Hasina married M. A. Wazed Miah (1942–2009), a Bangladeshi physicist, writer, and chairman of the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission.[27][176] She has a son, Sajeeb Wazed, and a daughter, Saima Wazed.[27] Saima's father-in-law is a former minister of Expatriates' Welfare and Overseas Employment and LGRD, Khandaker Mosharraf Hossain.[177] Hasina's only living sibling, Sheikh Rehana, served as the adviser of Tungipara upazila unit Awami League in Gopalganj in 2017.[178] Hasina's niece (and Sheikh Rehana's daughter) is Tulip Siddiq, the UK politician serving as Member of Parliament for the Hampstead and Kilburn constituency.

Throughout her political career, Sheikh Hasina has survived a total of 19 assassination attempts on her life.[179] Hasina suffers from a hearing impairment as a result of injuries sustained during the 2004 grenade attack.[180]

Bibliography

  1. সাদা কালো (Black and White)[181]
  2. Democracy in Distress Demeaned Humanity[182]
  3. শেখ রাসেল (Sheikh Rasel)[183]
  4. আমরা জনগণের কথা বলতে এসেছি (We Came Here To Speak For The People)[184]
  5. আন্তর্জাতিক সম্পর্ক উন্নয়নে শেখ হাসিনা (Sheikh Hasina On Developing International relations)[185]
  6. Living in Tears[186]
  7. রচনাসমগ্র ১[187]
  8. রচনাসমগ্র ২[188]
  9. সামরিকতন্ত্র বনাম গণতন্ত্র (Militarism versus Democracy)[189]
  10. Development For the Masses[190]
  11. Democracy Poverty Elimination and Peace[191]
  12. বিপন্ন গণতন্ত্র লাঞ্চিত মানবতা (Endangered Democracy, Oppressed Humanity)[192]
  13. জনগণ এবং গণতন্ত্র (People and democracy)[193]
  14. সহেনা মানবতার অবমাননা (Can't Tolerate the Insults of Humanity)[194]
  15. ওরা টোকাই কেন (Why they are dumpster diving)[195]
  16. বাংলাদেশে স্বৈরতন্ত্রের জন্ম (The Birth of Autocracy in Bangladesh)[196]
  17. বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় সংসদে বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান (Sheikh Mujib in Bangadesh Parliament)[197]
  18. শেখ মুজিব আমার পিতা (Sheikh Mujib: My father)[198]
  19. সবুজ মাঠ পেরিয়ে (Beyond the green field)[199]
  20. দারিদ্র দূরীকরণে কিছু চিন্তাভাবনা (Few Thoughts on Eradicating Poverty)[200]
  21. বিশ্ব প্রামান্য ঐতিহ্যে বঙ্গবন্ধুর ভাষণ[201]
  22. নির্বাচিত ১০০ ভাষণ (Selected 100 speeches)[202]
  23. নির্বাচিত প্রবন্ধ (Selected Essay)[203]
  24. The Quest For Vision 2021 – 1st part[204]
  25. The Quest For Vision 2021 – 2nd part[205]
  26. Muktidata Sheikh Mujib (Bengali: মুক্তিদাতা শেখ মুজিব) (Preface)[206]

Honours

In popular culture

References

  1. ^ "Sheikh Hasina Wazed | Biography & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  2. ^ "Hasina's victory makes her the longest-serving PM of Bangladesh". The Times of India. 31 December 2018. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  3. ^ "Sheikh Hasina longest serving female leader in world: Survey". Uniindia.com. 9 September 2019. Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  4. ^ "Survey: Sheikh Hasina tops as longest serving female leader in world". 11 September 2019. Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  5. ^ "Sheikh Hasina world's longest serving female leader". Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  6. ^ Molla, Mohammad Al-Masum (27 March 2023). "Why does the EC want to talk with the BNP anyway?". The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  7. ^ Correspondent, Staff. "The dark night of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib's assassination". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  8. ^ "Bangladesh marks PM Hasina's homecoming". www.dhakatribune.com. 17 May 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  9. ^ "Bangladesh's prosperity hinges on gender equality". blogs.worldbank.org. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  10. ^ "Bangladesh made tremendous progress under Sheikh Hasina: Report". ANI News. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  11. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (20 January 2019). "How Sheikh Hasina changed Bangladesh from a basket case to a middle income country". The Economic Times. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  12. ^ "Despite grappling with Rohingya crisis, Bangladesh is 'development miracle' | UN News". news.un.org. 27 September 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  13. ^ "Bangladesh and the World Bank Celebrate 50 Years of Strong Partnership". World Bank. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  14. ^ Blitz (25 July 2021). "Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina deserves Nobel Peace Prize". Pressenza. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  15. ^ BSS. "Bangladesh jumps down 2 notches in Global Terrorism Index". Prothomalo. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  16. ^ Report, Star Digital (18 April 2023). "Global Terrorism Index 2023: Bangladesh ranks 43rd with low impact". The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  17. ^ "BANGLADESH: Government must stop human rights violations | RFK Human Rights". ROBERT F. KENNEDY HUMAN RIGHTS. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  18. ^ Riaz, Ali (September 2020). "The pathway of massive socioeconomic and infracstructuaral development but democratic backsliding in Bangladesh". Democratization. 28: 1–19. doi:10.1080/13510347.2020.1818069. S2CID 224958514.
  19. ^ Diamond, Larry (September 2020). "Democratic regression in comparative perspective: scope, methods, and causes". Democratization. 28: 22–42. doi:10.1080/13510347.2020.1807517.
  20. ^ "Predator Sheikh Hasina". Reporters Without Borders. 30 June 2021. Archived from the original on 5 July 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  21. ^ East, Forbes Middle. "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women 2015". Forbes ME. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  22. ^ "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. 4 December 2018. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  23. ^ "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. 1 November 2017. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  24. ^ "Sheikh Hasina: The World's 100 Most Influential People". Time. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  25. ^ Report, Star Online (28 September 2015). "Hasina receives Champions of the Earth award". The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  26. ^ "2019 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. 15 January 2019. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  27. ^ a b c "PM's birthday today". The Daily Star. 29 September 2019. Archived from the original on 29 September 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  28. ^ "প্রতিরক্ষা মন্ত্রণালয়". mod.portal.gov.bd. Retrieved 3 February 2023.
  29. ^ "Sheikh Hasina". BTRC. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  30. ^ Haque Khoka, Mominul (1998). অস্তরাগের স্মৃতি সমুজ্জ্বল : বঙ্গবন্ধু, তাঁর পরিবার ও আমি (in Bengali). Dhaka: Shahitya Prakash. p. 24. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  31. ^ "Barrister Sheikh Fazle Noor Taposh". barristersheikhtaposh.info. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  32. ^ a b c "Sheikh Hasina Wazed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  33. ^ a b c "Sheikh Hasina: They 'should be punished'". Al Jazeera. 23 September 2013. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  34. ^ a b "The time Delhi gave shelter to Sheikh Hasina". dna. 7 April 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  35. ^ Mohiuddin, Yasmeen (Spring 2008). "Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia". International Journal. 63 (2): 464. doi:10.1177/002070200806300215. S2CID 157465667.
  36. ^ "Hasina revisits Delhi, her home from 1975–81". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  37. ^ a b "Sheikh Hasina Wajed". Forbes. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  38. ^ "SHEIKH HASINA : THE Modern Day Joan Of Arc". Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  39. ^ Adams, William Lee (16 September 2011). "Top Female Leaders Around the World". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  40. ^ "ACE". aceproject.org. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  41. ^ "Sheikh Hasina –". Archives of Women's Political Communication. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  42. ^ "Sheikh Hasina | বিটিআরসি". BTRC. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  43. ^ Ap (29 August 1987). "Bangladesh Storms Kill 200 in Week; 3,000 Are Missing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  44. ^ "Hossain, Shahid Nur - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  45. ^ Crossette, Barbara (9 December 1990). "Revolution Brings Bangladesh Hope". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  46. ^ "Analysis: A tale of two women". BBC News. 2 October 2001. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  47. ^ "Memories of Magura 1994". New Age | The Most Popular Outspoken English Daily in Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  48. ^ "Magura: Polls then and now". The Daily Star. 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  49. ^ Burns, John F. (14 January 1996). "Bangladesh Facing an Election Crisis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  50. ^ Haidar, Suhasini (17 October 2020). "Before his pen went dry, Pranab Mukherjee wrote on 1971, love for Sheikh Mujibur Rahman family". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  51. ^ "Bangladeshi General Election, February 1996". Bangladesh Affairs. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  52. ^ "Past elections at a glance". The Daily Star. 29 December 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  53. ^ Burns, John F. (14 June 1996). "After 21 Years, Bangladeshi Party Is Returned to Power". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Hasina, Sheikh". Banglapedia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  55. ^ "Sheikh Hasina's party wins Bangladesh election; opposition claims votes rigged". www.businesstoday.in. 31 December 2018. Archived from the original on 10 December 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  56. ^ Matin, Abdul (1997). Sheikh Hasina: The Making of a Prime Minister. Radical Asia Publications. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-907546-27-6. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  57. ^ "Assassination Attempt on Hasina: Ten Huji men get death by shooting". The Daily Star. 21 August 2017. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  58. ^ "August 21 attack: 'State-backed crime' punished". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  59. ^ "Eleven years on, trial of 21 Aug grenade attack still to end". Prothom Alo. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  60. ^ "10 years of 21 August grenade attack". Prothom Alo. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  61. ^ Smith, Paul J. (26 March 2015). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-45887-6. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  62. ^ "Khaleda Bangs on Logi Boitha Issue, Hasina Ignores Threats on Her Life". VOA Bangla (in Bengali). 21 December 2008. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  63. ^ আ.লীগের লগি-বৈঠার জবাবে বিএনপির দা-কুড়াল!. Prothom Alo. 15 October 2013. Archived from the original on 28 February 2023. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  64. ^ লগি-বৈঠা দিয়ে হত্যা করে লাশের ওপর নৃত্য করার পরও শেখ হাসিনা শান্তির দূত?. The Daily Sangram (in Bengali). 16 October 2018. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  65. ^ আওয়ামী লীগ লগি-বৈঠার হুমকি দিচ্ছে: এমকে আনোয়ার. banglanews24.com (in Bengali). 25 September 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  66. ^ "Rice at Tk 40 a kg result of AL movement: Nizami". The Daily Star. 26 December 2008. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  67. ^ লগি-বৈঠা: মামলার ১৯ আসামি খালাস. bdnews24.com (in Bengali). 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  68. ^ "10 Huji men to die for the attempted murder of Hasina". Jago News 24. Archived from the original on 12 December 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  69. ^ Rahman, Waliur (8 January 2007). "South Asia | Is Bangladesh heading towards disaster?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  70. ^ Habib, Haroon (4 January 2007). "Polls won't be fair: Hasina". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  71. ^ "The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. 5 Num 922". archive.thedailystar.net. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  72. ^ "The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. 5 Num 920". archive.thedailystar.net. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  73. ^ Butenis, Patricia A. (4 January 2007). "Awami League Boycott; International Community Responds". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 07DHAKA17_a. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  74. ^ "General Moeen Purge 1/11 Key Players in Power Struggle To Regain Supremacy". Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  75. ^ "Daily Star Editor Mahfuz Anam admits to publishing DGFI-fed baseless stories". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  76. ^ "Ministers Menon, Nasim demand commission to find '1/11 architects'". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  77. ^ "Editor Mahfuz Anam should have resigned if he had self-esteem, says Prime Minister Hasina". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  78. ^ a b "Hasina flies to US tomorrow". archive.thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  79. ^ Ahmed, Anid (7 May 2007). "Former Bangladesh PM Hasina returns from exile". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  80. ^ Baker, Luke (22 April 2007). "Bangladesh's ex-PM Hasina barred from flying home". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  81. ^ "Bangladesh police to investigate graft allegation against former PM Hasina". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 9 April 2007. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008.
  82. ^ "People's Daily Online -- Bangladeshi gov't bans former PM's return home from USA". en.people.cn. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  83. ^ "Bangladesh issues ex-PM warrant". 22 April 2007. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  84. ^ "Murder warrant issued against Bangladesh ex-leader Hasina as she prepares to return home". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 22 April 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009.
  85. ^ "Hasina: I will fight charges". Al Jazeera. 23 April 2007. Archived from the original on 25 April 2007.
  86. ^ "Opposition welcomes B'desh U-turn". 26 April 2007. Archived from the original on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  87. ^ Habib, Haroon (7 May 2007). "Sheikh Hasina returns home". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  88. ^ "Former Bangladeshi PM arrested: reports". ABC News. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  89. ^ "Security stepped up after the arrest of the ex-Bangladesh prime minister on extortion charges". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 17 July 2007. Archived from the original on 20 August 2007.
  90. ^ "Hasina, Khaleda given 7 days for wealth report". The Daily Star. 18 July 2007. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  91. ^ "South Asia – Ex-Bangladesh PM in murder case". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  92. ^ "Bangladesh's ex-leader Sheikh Hasina barred from boarding plane home". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 22 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 May 2007.
  93. ^ "UK MPs denounce Bangladesh arrest". 23 July 2007. Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  94. ^ "Hasina charged in murder case". Al Jazeera. 11 April 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April 2007.
  95. ^ "B'desh's Hasina to stay abroad pending murder charge". Reuters. 12 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  96. ^ "High Court grants Hasina bail, suspends trial". Outlook. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  97. ^ a b "Ex-PM sued on corruption charges in Bangladesh". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 2 September 2007. Archived from the original on 1 June 2008.
  98. ^ "Detained ex-PM of Bangladesh faces new graft charges" Archived 10 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Times of India, 3 September 2007.
  99. ^ "Bangladesh court indicts Hasina, two others in extortion case". The Times of India. 13 January 2008. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  100. ^ "Bangladesh court quashes Hasina's trial". The Hindu. 6 February 2008. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  101. ^ Herman, Steve (11 June 2008). "Bangladesh Caretaker Government Frees Former PM Hasina". Voice of America (VOA) News. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008.
  102. ^ "Sheikh Hasina goes to US for medical treatment". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  103. ^ "Hasina wants to return end of Sept: doctor". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
  104. ^ "Sheikh Hasina's happy day; Bangladesh". The Economist. 7 August 2008. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  105. ^ Pasricha, Anjana (6 November 2008). "Sheikh Hasina Returns to Lead Her Party in Bangladesh". VOA News. Archived from the original on 10 November 2008.
  106. ^ "Hasina plays on people's expectation for a change". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  107. ^ "Hasina wins Bangladesh landslide". 30 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  108. ^ "चण्डीगढ़,पंजाब और हरियाणा में घना कोहरा छा&#2" (in Hindi). Samay Live. 10 January 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  109. ^ Sengupta, Somini; Manik, Julfikar Ali (29 December 2008). "Secular Party Wins in Bangladesh". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  110. ^ এরশাদের ভারতপ্রেম রাজনীতিতে নতুন ছক!. Banglanews24 (in Bengali). 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  111. ^ "Sheikh Hasina flexes her muscles". Dhaka Courier. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018 – via HighBeam Research.
  112. ^ Ramesh, Randeep; Monsur, Maloti (28 February 2009). "Bangladeshi army officers' bodies found as death toll from mutiny rises to more than 75". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  113. ^ Sengupta, Somini (13 March 2009). "Bangladeshi Premier Faces a Grim Crucible". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  114. ^ Khan, Urmee; Nelson, Dean. "Bangladeshi army officers blame prime minister for mutiny". www.telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  115. ^ a b c Report, Star (8 September 2011). "Hasina showed character". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 21 February 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  116. ^ Sobhan, Zafar (2 March 2009). "After the Mutiny, Questions About Bangladesh's Army". Time. Archived from the original on 21 February 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  117. ^ Ramesh, Randeep; Monsur, Maloti (28 February 2009). "Bangladeshi army officers' bodies found as death toll from rebellion rises". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 February 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  118. ^ Khan, Urmee; Nelson, Dean. "Bangladeshi army officers blame prime minister for mutiny". www.telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  119. ^ "Bangladesh ends 'caretaker' polls". BBC News. 30 June 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  120. ^ PM says Bangladesh cannot help Rohingya on YouTube
  121. ^ "Complaint lodged at ICC accusing Hasina, 24 others". Dhaka Tribune. 29 June 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  122. ^ Tisdall, Simon; Ridout, Anna (21 September 2015). "Bangladesh's PM rejects claims of repression: 'I do politics for the people'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  123. ^ Samad, Saleem (28 January 2012). "Dhaka Conspiracy". India Today. Archived from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  124. ^ Gottipati, Sruthi; Kumar, Hari (19 January 2012). "Bangladesh Army Claims to Thwart Coup Attempt". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  125. ^ Gladstone, Rick (23 September 2011). "Grandmotherly Bangladesh Leader Unfazed by Problems at Home". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  126. ^ "Reform in International Crimes Tribunal soon". Dhaka Tribune. 18 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  127. ^ "Bangladesh: Ruling Awami League wins election marred by boycott and violence". The Independent. London. 6 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  128. ^ a b "Bangladesh PM wins landslide election". BBC News. 31 December 2018. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  129. ^ "Bangladesh's ruling alliance wins almost every seat amid claims of intimidation". ABC News. 1 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  130. ^ "Bangladesh: Constitution and politics". The Commonwealth. Archived from the original on 4 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  131. ^ "Elections in Bangladesh: Political Conflict and the Problem of Credibility". E-International Relations. 2 February 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  132. ^ "Sheikh Hasina fourth time Prime Minister – Front Page". The Daily Observer. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  133. ^ "Election Special: PAST ELECTIONS FACT BOX". The Daily Star. 29 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  134. ^ "Role of election boycotts in a democracy —". aceproject.org. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  135. ^ "Clashes in boycotted Bangladesh poll". 5 January 2014. Archived from the original on 22 April 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  136. ^ "Awami League to offer 36 seats to Jatiya Party". Dhaka Tribune. 25 November 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  137. ^ "Falling short by five seats". The Daily Star. 2 January 2019. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  138. ^ Barry, Ellen (11 January 2014). "Matriarchs' Duel for Power Threatens to Tilt Bangladesh Off Balance". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  139. ^ "Bangladesh elections: Hanging by a thread". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  140. ^ "Holey Artisan cafe: Bangladesh Islamists sentenced to death for 2016 attack". BBC News. 27 November 2019. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2022. The 12-hour siege was Bangladesh's deadliest Islamist attack. Most of the victims were Italian or Japanese.
  141. ^ Herbert, Siân. "Conflict analysis of Bangladesh" (PDF). K4D. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 December 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  142. ^ "Bangladesh's first 2 submarines commissioned". The Daily Star. 12 March 2017. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  143. ^ "Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina visits Rohingya refugees, assures help". The Indian Express. 13 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  144. ^ Joehnk, Tom Felix (6 October 2017). "How the Rohingya Crisis Is Changing Bangladesh". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  145. ^ Safi, Michael (26 May 2017). "Lady Justice statue in Bangladesh is removed after Islamist objections". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 December 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  146. ^ "Educating girls and women is the best way to fight poverty and build peace". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  147. ^ Manik, Julfikar Ali; Abi-Habib, Maria (31 December 2018). "Bangladesh's Leader Wins a Third Term but Opposition Contests Results". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  148. ^ The Editorial Board (14 January 2019). "Bangladesh's Farcical Vote". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  149. ^ "Awami League wins five more years". Dhaka Tribune. 30 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  150. ^ "PM Hasina urges postal department to start online business". Dhaka Tribune. 27 May 2021. Archived from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  151. ^ Zaman, Md Asaduz (31 January 2023). "Universal pension scheme: What it is and how it will work". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 10 March 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  152. ^ "Bangladesh's foreign debt more than triples in 10 years". The Business Standard. 7 December 2022. Archived from the original on 8 December 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  153. ^ "Defaulted loans rise by 417pc since 2009: study". New Age. Archived from the original on 16 December 2022. Retrieved 16 December 2022.
  154. ^ Taleb, Sheikh Abu. "Default loans in Bangladesh's banks keep swelling". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 16 December 2022. Retrieved 16 December 2022.
  155. ^ "IMF board approves $4.7 billion support program for Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. 31 January 2023. Archived from the original on 12 March 2023. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  156. ^ Xiong, Vedika Sud,Yong (11 December 2022). "Tens of thousands protest in Bangladesh to demand resignation of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 December 2022. Retrieved 11 December 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  157. ^ "PM opens country's first metro rail". The Daily Star. 28 December 2022. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  158. ^ "Canada court finds no proof of Padma bridge bribery conspiracy". The Daily Star. 11 February 2017. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  159. ^ "World Bank cancels Bangladesh bridge loan over corruption". BBC News. 30 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
  160. ^ "Bridge-mending". The Economist. 27 February 2012. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  161. ^ Ahmed, Hafez. "PM among 3 charged with graft by WB : Fakhrul". The Financial Express. Dhaka. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  162. ^ "A bank's MD provoked WB to scrap Padma Bridge funding". The Daily Star. 17 January 2016. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  163. ^ Farhin Antara, Nawaz; Mamun, Shohel (25 June 2022). "PM: Padma bridge belongs to people of Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 10 March 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  164. ^ Islam, Jahidul (12 December 2020). "How Padma Bridge cost surged to Tk30,000cr". The Business Standard. Archived from the original on 24 March 2023. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  165. ^ "PM blames Yunus for cancellation of WB's Padma financing". Prothom Alo. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  166. ^ "Nobel laureate Yunus got Hillary Clinton to stop WB funding for Padma Bridge, says Hasina". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  167. ^ "Canada court finds no proof of Padma bridge bribery conspiracy". The Daily Star. 11 February 2017. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  168. ^ "Tool ripe for abuse: HRW". The Daily Star. 26 September 2018. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  169. ^ "New Digital Security Act in Bangladesh deepens threats to free expression". 21 September 2018. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  170. ^ "Bangladesh: New Digital Security Act is attack on freedom of expression". Amnesty International. 12 November 2018. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  171. ^ "Digital Security Act 2018: young generation speaks". New Age. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  172. ^ "Bangladesh editors protest 'chilling' Digital Security Act". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  173. ^ "Bangladesh shuts down main opposition newspaper". Agence France-Presse. 20 February 2023. Archived from the original on 20 February 2023. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  174. ^ France-Presse, Agence (20 February 2023). "Bangladesh shuts down main opposition newspaper". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 February 2023. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  175. ^ Report, Tribune (23 February 2023). "Now Dainik Dinkal faces shutdown". Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 12 March 2023. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  176. ^ "Sheikh Hasina Wazed". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  177. ^ "Discussion on the New Cabinet". E-Bangladesh. 6 January 2009. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  178. ^ "Sheikh Rehana becomes adviser of Tungipara AL". Dhaka Tribune. 30 July 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  179. ^ Karim, Rezaul (27 September 2021). "A life haunted by assassins all along". The Business Standard. Archived from the original on 22 August 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  180. ^ "August 21 grenade attack: The day democracy almost died". Dhaka Tribune. 21 August 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2023. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
  181. ^ সাদা কালো – শেখ হাসিনা (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  182. ^ Democracy in Distress Demeaned Humanity – Sheikh Hasina. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  183. ^ Sheikh, Hasina; Sheikh, Rehana. শেখ রাসেল (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  184. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. আমরা জনগণের কথা বলতে এসেছি – পান্না কায়সার (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  185. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. আন্তর্জাতিক সম্পর্ক উন্নয়নে শেখ হাসিনা (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  186. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. Living in Tears – Sheikh Hasina (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  187. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. রচনাসমগ্র ১ (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  188. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. রচনাসমগ্র ২ (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  189. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. সামরিকতন্ত্র বনাম গণতন্ত্র (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  190. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. Development for the masses. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  191. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. Democracy proverty elimination and peace. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  192. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. বিপন্ন গণতন্ত্র লাঞ্চিত মানবতা (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  193. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. People and Democracy – Sheikh Hasina জণগণ এবং গণতন্ত্র (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  194. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. সহেনা মানবতার অবমাননা (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  195. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. ওরা টোকাই কেন (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  196. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. বাংলাদেশে স্বৈরতন্ত্রের জন্ম (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  197. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় সংসদে বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  198. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. শেখ মুজিব আমার পিতা (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  199. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. সবুজ মাঠ পেরিয়ে (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  200. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. দারিদ্র দূরীকরণে কিছু চিন্তাভাবনা (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  201. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. বিশ্ব প্রামান্য ঐতিহ্যে বঙ্গবন্ধুর ভাষণ (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  202. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. নির্বাচিত ১০০ ভাষণ (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  203. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. নির্বাচিত প্রবন্ধ (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  204. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. The quest for vision 2021 1st-part. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  205. ^ Sheikh, Hasina. The-quest-for-vision-2021—2nd-part. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  206. ^ "'মুক্তিদাতা শেখ মুজিব' গ্রন্থের মোড়ক উন্মোচন করলেন প্রধানমন্ত্রী | কালের কণ্ঠ". Kalerkantho (in Bengali). 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  207. ^ "Sheikh Hasina – The 'Mother of Humanity'". The Diplomat. June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  208. ^ a b "Prime Minister Shiekh Hasina receives 'Planet 50–50 Champion' and 'Agent of Change Award'". bdnews24.com. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  209. ^ Ganguly, Meenakshi. "Sheikh Hasina Is on the 2018 TIME 100 List". Time. Archived from the original on 1 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  210. ^ "Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina on Forbes' list of 100 most powerful women in the world". bdnews24. 27 May 2015. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  211. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k প্রধানমন্ত্রীর কার্যালয়-গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ সরকার (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  212. ^ "早稲田大学". Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  213. ^ "1998 Prizewinners – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  214. ^ "Prizewinners of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  215. ^ প্রধানমন্ত্রীর কার্যালয়-গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ সরকার (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  216. ^ "Desikottamas". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  217. ^ "News in brief – January 2000". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  218. ^ "Queen Sofia of Spain awarded the Ceres Medal". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  219. ^ "Bangladesh recognized for halving hunger before MDG timeline" (PDF). fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  220. ^ "About ANU" (PDF). ANU. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  221. ^ "The University: Honoris Causa". University of Dhaka. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  222. ^ "Randolph College – The Pearl S. Buck Award". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  223. ^ "Hasina honoured with Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  224. ^ "Sheikh Hasina receives Indira Gandhi award". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  225. ^ "Hasina gets emotional about Tripura". Business Line. 26 May 2018. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018.
  226. ^ "Hasina receives doctorate, gets emotional about Tripura". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  227. ^ "Hasina receives doctorate, gets emotional about Tripura". The Telegraph. Calcutta. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  228. ^ "Tripura varsity confers doctorate on Hasina". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  229. ^ Rahman, Mizan (8 September 2014). "Unesco honours Hasina for promotion of girls' education". Gulf Times. Archived from the original on 17 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  230. ^ "Bangladeshi Prime Minister wins UN environment prize for leadership on climate change". UN News Centre. 14 September 2015. Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  231. ^ "1st Convocation of SAU Held". Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  232. ^ "Secularism the way forward for Bangladesh, says Sheikh Hasina". The Hindu. 26 May 2018. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  233. ^ "Hasina conferred honorary D.Litt by Kazi Nazrul University". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  234. ^ Programme, UN Environment. "Search Results". Champions of the Earth. Archived from the original on 22 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  235. ^ Karim, Elita (29 September 2018). "'Hasina: A Daughter's Tale' to Premiere Soon". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  236. ^ "'Hasina: A Daughter's Tale' awaits release". Dhaka Tribune. 28 September 2018. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2018.

Further reading

Party political offices Preceded byAbdul Malek Ukil President of the Awami League 1981–present Incumbent Political offices Preceded byAsaduzzaman Khan Leader of the Opposition 1986–1988 Succeeded byA. S. M. Abdur Rab Preceded byA. S. M. Abdur Rab Leader of the Opposition 1991–1996 VacantTitle next held byKhaleda Zia Preceded byMuhammad Habibur Rahmanas Acting prime minister Prime Minister of Bangladesh 1996–2001 Succeeded byLatifur Rahmanas Acting prime minister Preceded byKhaleda Zia Leader of the Opposition 2001–2006 Succeeded byKhaleda Zia Preceded byFakhruddin Ahmedas Acting prime minister Prime Minister of Bangladesh 2009–present Incumbent Jatiya Sangsad Preceded byKazi Firoz Rashid Member of Parliament for Gopalganj-3 1991–1996 Succeeded byMujibur Rahman Howlader Preceded byMujibur Rahman Howlader Member of Parliament for Gopalganj-3 1996–present Incumbent Preceded byKhaleda Zia Leader of the House 1996–2001 Succeeded byKhaleda Zia Leader of the House 2009–present Incumbent